EARLY YEARS 
OF THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST 1830 - 1849



The voyagers from the Old Northwest are trading into B.C.


12/09/2011

  B.C. HISTORY 1850 - 1899

B.C. HISTORY Return to MAIN B.C. index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index


The Pacific Northwest (Oregon Territory) began by development in Oregon, and Washington. The real development of British Columbia didn't begin until 1843

The Oregon Territory was officially created June 15, 1846 by threat of war by the Americans.
The battle cry from the USA was "Fifty-Four-Forty or fight"


 

1830  

Thomas Agonaiska (1789-1848) Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined HBC (130-1847) New Caldonia and Columbia District.  He married Susan (1811-1848) from Grand Dalles. 

Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) (1797/1802-1880) and married 1830 & church married 1839 Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870) joined HBC 1823 and settled French Prairie before 1837 when he went to California to get cattle.
    Amable Arquette Metis b-1831
     Isaac Arquette Metis 
     Jean 
Arquette Metis 
     Leon 
Arquette Metis 
     Marguerite
Arquette Metis 
     Lisette
Arquette Metis  
     Michel
Arquette Metis 

(I)-George William Barton (1816-1842) joined HBC (1830-1842) and produced children in Columbia, West Indies, Quebec, Russia and British Isles.

Charles Bell Metis (1830-1856) born Columbia District .joined HBC (1848-1856) Columbia District.

Martin Bonanfant, Metis (1830-1858) son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.  Living Oregon 1842.

James Bridger (1804-1881) likely a Metis son William Bridger and Chloe  of Richmand, Virginia, joined Rocky Mountain Company 1830 to Columbia District and various relationships after.  In 1835 he married Cora, daughter of Flathead chief Insala. Their children were 
    Mary Ann Bridger Metis (1836-1847?), 
    Felix Bridger Metis b-1841
    Josephine Bridger Metis b-1846. 
Cora died in 1846. In 1848 he married an unnamed Ute native who died in 1849 shortly after giving birth to their only child,
    Virginia Rosalie Bridger Metis b-1849
In 1850 he married an unnamed Shoshone, daughter of Chief Washaskie. Their two children were 
    Mary Ann Bridger Metis b-1853
    William Bridger Metis b-1857

(I)-William Brotche of Scotland (1799-1859) traveled between London and Columbia District (1830-1844)

(I)-George William Barton (1816-1842) joined HBC (1830-1941) Columbia-London run, George Barton had two wives and at least two children. In the 1830s, he partnered with a native or mixed descent woman in the Columbia and had a Metis child probably by 1836. Probably in the summer of 1839, when George was temporarily back in the British Isles, he married Maria Ridley and by 1842 had one child.  Maria was aware of his Columbia wife.

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson, of India, (1814-1884) is posted to B.C. and he married Elizabeth (Betsy) Birnie Metis in 1837 at Fort Alexandria, Washington, daughter (I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) and Charlot Beaulieu metisse (1805-1878)..  They had 13 kids.

Louis Chastellain (Chatelain) b-1808 from Lachine, Quebec, an interpreter so possibly a Metis, joined HBC (1830-1833) Columbia District, HBC (1833-1878) Saskatchewan District. Married Ayawasis
    Catherine Ayawasis Chastellain Metis b-1856 Fort Pitt married 1871 St. Albert Felix Pelletier b-1855 Fort Pitt.

Peter Warren Dease Metis (1788-1863) son Dr John Dease b-1744 and Jane French Mohawk Metis of Mackinac joined XY (1801-1804) & NWC (1804-1821) then HBC (1821-1837) arrived Columbia District 1830.  He married Métis Elizabeth Chouinard, with whom he had eight children four sons and four daughters

David Donpier (Dompierre) (Dompier) (1800-1849) joined HBC (1830-1840) New Caledonia and Fort Vancouver.  David Dompier had one wife, seven recorded children and raised eight. 
On December 9, 1838 at Fort Vancouver, he married a Marguerite Souillie’re, Metis daughter of Basile Souillier and a Cree woman. The Dompier family, fathered by David, consisted of 
    Joseph Donpier Netis b-1831
    Marie Genevieve Donpier Metis b-1834
    David Donpier Metis (1837-1858), 
    John/Jean Baptiste Donpier Metis b-1838 
    Julien Donpier Metis (1839-1840), 
    Philomene Donpier Metis (1843-1854), 
    Louis Donpier Metis b-1844
    François Xavier Donpier Metis b-1845
Son Joseph Roussin Metis b-1831 was most likely fathered by Charles Roussin who worked in New Caledonia as a clerk. After Dompier’s death, his widow married Joseph Rocquebrune, she being his second wife, in 1850.

Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis (1813/15-1850) son Pierre Dorion d-1814 and Marie L'Aguivoise aka Ohioise, joined HBC (1830-1843) Columbia District.  On February 3, 1845 he married Josephine Walla Walla, a native Cayuse woman with whom he had seven children; 
    Pierre Dorion Metis (1836-1854), 
    Genevieve  Dorion Metis (1842-1854), 
    David  Dorion Metis b-1844
    Philomene  Dorion Metis (1845-1845), 
    Joseph  Dorion Metis (1846-1847), 
    Marie Denise  Dorion Metis bap. 1848
    Marianne  Dorion Metis b-1849
    Paul Dorion? Metis may also have been a son.

James Douglas (1803-1877) a Metis (mixed blood) (Scottish and a colored woman) because of his violent nature that caused trouble with the Carrier People, is transferred to Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) under command of Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857)  a Irish Canadian son (II)-John McLoughlin and Angelique Fraser. 

(II)-Andrew Drips (1789-1860) joined Missouri Fur Company (1820-1824), American fur Company (1830-1836) Columbia District.  The first marriage was Margaret (Mary)/Macompemay d-1846), an Otoe native, whom he married in 1823 in Bellevue [Nebraska]. Their children were 
    (III)-Charles Drips Metis b-1824
     (III)-Jane Drips Metis b-1827 
     (III)-Katherine Drips Metis b-1832
     (III)-William Drips Metis b-1834
After the death of Margaret, he married Louise Geroux  mixed French and Sioux. Their children were 
     (III)-Andrew Jackson Drips Metis b-1850 
     (III)-Thomas Drips Metis 
     (III)-Anna Drips Metis  
     (I:I)-Julia Drips Metis 
     (I:I)-George Drips Metis b-1857

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791, working Columbia District (1806-1842) assigned to the Snake Country Expedition (1830-1836), out of the Columbia District.

John Thompson Dunn employed HBC (1830-1839) Columbia District  John Dunn had one wife, an unnamed Russian Metis  woman, whom he married (possibly at Fort Simpson or in Alaska) and had two daughters, 
    unnamed  Dunn Metis d-1837)  
    Elizabeth Dunn Metis b-1833

Benone Fleury b-1809 from Maskinouge, Quebec in 1830, joined HBC (1830-1844) Columbia District, married October 12, 1840 Fort Stikinie a Haida Stikling girl and had one daughter, who he abandoned:
    Auzuelth Fleury Metis

(I)-George Folster (1803-1850) joined HBC (1830-1848) Columbia District.  The records of George Folster’s family life are somewhat unclear but he appears to have had three successive wives and three recorded children. 
On January 15, 1837, his daughter 
   (II)- Jean Folster Metis was baptised by the Reverend Herbert Beaver (1800-1858), the mother being recorded as a native Julia. 
He then appears to have lived with He’lene (1820-44), Chinook who died on August 14, 1844 and was buried the following day. He then chose Marguerite Wascopam of the Dalles as a wife and together they had 
    (II)-Alexander Folster Metis b-1847 
    (II)-William Folster Metis b-1849

Aside from his Montreal wife, Jean Baptiste Gagnier had at least one native wife, who appeared to go by several names,

Nancy/Julienne/Angelique (c.1819-?), the daughter of an Umpqua chief. She was baptised under Angelique in the

Yaquina area of Oregon in 1869. The size of his family is problematic for there appeared to be at least three sons

Antoine (1836-?), John (c.1858-1911) and Francis (?-?) (CCR 6, A-4).

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (Gager, Gagne ) (1801/02-1890) Possible son (V)-Jean Baptiste Gagne b-1773 and (married 1800, Rimouski) Anastasie Poirier but not confirmed; joined HBC at Lachine, Quebec (1830-1851) Columbia District, as interpreter, retired on the Oregon Coast.  
He abandoned his Montreal wife, 
He had at least one native wife, who appeared to go by several names, Nancy/Julienne/Angelique b-1819, the daughter of an Umpqua chief. She was baptised under Angelique in the Yaquina area of Oregon in 1869. The size of his family is problematic for there appeared to be at least three sons 
    Antoine Gagner Metis b-1836
    John Gagner Metis (1858-1911) 
    Francis Gagner Metis 

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), Lachine, Quebec, employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Columbia District.  Aside from his Montreal wife, Jean Baptiste Gagnier had at least one native wife, who appeared to go by several names, Nancy/Julienne/Angelique b-1819, the daughter of an Umpqua chief. She was baptised under Angelique in the Yaquina area of Oregon in 1869. The size of his family is problematic for there appeared to be at least three sons
    Antoine Gagnier Metis b-1836 
    John Gagnier Metis (1858-1911)
    Francis Gagnier Metis 

Jean Baptiste Gardepied (his step-fathers name) Metis (1815-1850) son Joseph Lucer and Wewepahawisk Cree, joined HBC and freetrader (1830-1840) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1841.  On July 19, 1841, he legitimized his marriage to Catherine Delard Metis (1821-1858), daughter of Joseph Delard and Lisette Souchouabe. Their children were 
    Paul Gardepied Metis b-1837 
    David Gardepied Metis (1843-1852), 
    Louis Gardepied Metis (1845-1874), 
    Pierre Gardepied Metis (1846-1847)
    Joseph Gardepied Metis b-1849. 
After the death of husband Jean Baptiste, Catherine married William Lassarte on November 10, 1851 and raised another four children. She died on December 18, 1858 at St. Louis [Oregon].

(I)-James Goudie b-1809/10 Orkney d-1887 worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1829-1851), Columbia District, is living 1881 in Victoria, B.C.  James Goudie had two successive wives and seven children. Before 1835, he chose as his wife, Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (1819-1853). Their children were 
    (II)-Margaret Goudie Metis (1835-1919), 
    (II)-John Goudie Metis (1836-1914), 
    (II)-James Goudie Metis (1837-1864), 
    (II)-Sarah  Goudie Metis married 1849 George McKenzie (1820-1893)
    (II)-Mirabelle (Goudie Metis b-1846
    (II)-Jane (Goudie Metis b-1847
    (II)-Mary Goudie Metis b-1848. 
Catherine died November 29, 1853 in Victoria not long after their arrival. On August 31, 1861, he married Stromness widow Jane Fiddlar or Fydler (c.1815-1888) at Fort Victoria. Jane died in Victoria on July 16, 1888.

James Johnstone of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1830-1837) as 2nd mate then returned to British Isles.

Charles Kawenion Montreal Quebec an Iroquois (Mohawks) joined HBC 1830 Columbia District.

William Kittson (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this summer 1830 at Fort Colvile, Columbia District.

(I)-Alexander Lattey (Latty) (1802-1849) of Scotland joined HBC (1830-1849) mostly Pacific coastal shipping, a settler Chinook 1846.  Lattey formalized his marriage to Marie Catherine Sikas (Ce-cust, Seaghal, etc), Tillamook, on November 3, 1845, and she outlived him by some twenty years after his death in 1849. Their children were 
    (II)-Alexandre Lattey Metis (1832-before 1868), HBC (1845-1848) settler Willamette
    (II)-William Lattey Metis (1834-1900), 
    (II)-Helene Lattey Metis b-1835
    (II)-Susanne? Lattey Metis b-1838
    (II)-Marie Lattey Metis b-1841
    (II)-John Lattey Metis (1843-1881) 
    (II)-Helene Lattey Metis b-1850

Felix Le Brun (1807/08-1830) son Louis Le Brun terrien and [married 1794 Maskinonge] Marie (Etiennette) Belair; Joined HBC (1830) Columbia district, drowned, married Davide Sigard
    Julie Le Brun Metis married 1820 Maskinonge Louis Paquin
    Louis Le Brun Metis married 1828 St. Cuthbert Genevieve Duteau
        Unknamed son died 1830
    Amable Le Brun Metis married 1829 1st Elisabeth Landry, 2nd marriage 1841 Louis Juneau
    David Le Brun Metis b-1809? or 1830? Davide was pregnant in 1830

(I)-George Linton (1800-1835) of England joined NWC (1818-1821) then HBC (1821-1824) working Athabasca, Swan River, Districts.  In (1826-1829) assigned to Fort Edmonton then (1829-1830) back to Fort Assiniboine.  During (1830-1831) he was assigned to Lesser Slave Lake, Saskatchewan District.  In (1831-1834) he was assigned to New Caledonia.  In 1835 Linton, Westayad Campbell and wife's are murdered by Kow na yelle on the Fraser River.  Two girls were recorded;
    Unnamed Linton Metis daughter
    Second unnamed Linton Metis daughter.

Angelique Longctain, Metis (1830-1887)  daughter Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793-1879) and Nancy Okanagan married Francois Toupin and two others, a son by third husband was noted

Emelie Metis, (1796-1848) daughter Francois Finlay and Josephte Cree, 1st married Pierre Bercier, 2nd married 1830 Simon Plamondan a Cowlitz Prairie north of Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).

William Henry McNeill (1801-1875) of Boston worked on ships (1819-1929) then HBC (1824-1825) and Columbia District (1830-1863).  Retired 1863 to Gonzales Point, Vancouver Island William Henry McNeill had two wives and twelve children. Around 1831, he married his first wife, Matilda/Neshaki d-1850), a Kaiganee Haida. Nine of their children were 
    William McNeil Metis (1832-1889) HBC (1848-1854) married Mary Macaulay Metis daughter Donald Macaulay
    Harry McNeil Metis (1834-1872) HBC (1853-1861) married Jane a French Metis b-1855
    Alfred McNeil Metis (1838-1921) 
    Helen McNeil Metis was an adopted daughter who married (I)-George Blenkinsop (1823-1904)
    Lucy McNeil Metis
    Matilda McNeil Metis
    Fanny McNeil Metis
    Rebecca  McNeil Metis b-1850
    Harriet McNeil Metis b-1850 
Matilda died in 1850 from complications after having given birth to twins. 
On January 15, 1866, McNeill married Martha (c.1826-1883), a Kinnahwahlux Nass, at St. Paul’s Church, Metlakatla, B.C. Martha died October 4, 1883 at the age of fifty-seven.

William Norquay of Orkney, drowned August 5, 1830, Columbia River,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1830) as middleman

(I)-Richard Oagh (Howes) (1798-1884) joined HBC ((1830-1842) Columbia District, he claimed he was in the area 1827-28. His illiteracy, however, resulted in the surname of Howe morphing into “Oagh,” “Ough,” or “Augh.”  One pioneer in later times notes that Oagh "used to get drunk and beat his woman"  Richard Oagh had one wife and, according to one source, six daughters. In 1842, he married Betsy b-1825 [Elizabeth Tumwater or White Wing], the daughter of of Slahuts or "Sly Horse" at the Tualatin Plains Church. Their recorded children were 
     (II)-Mary Oagh (Howes) Metis
     (II)-Sarah Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1839
     (II)-Grace Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1841
     (II)-Richard Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1843
     (II)-Benjamin (c.Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1848
     (II)-Elizabeth Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1851
     (II)-Emilie Oagh (Howes) Metis b-1854
Of the six daughters that they had, Mary, Sarah and Grace survived.  One wonders if he beat the others to death?

Louis Onskanha (Monique) (1809-1862) Mohawk/Oroquois/Metis joined HBC (1830-1845) New Caledonia and Columbia District, likely settled Willamette.  Louis Onskanha (Monique) had one wife and five children. He formalized his marriage to Charlotte, Chinook widow of Antoine Plante, on July 8, 1839. Charlotte brought 
    Antoine II Plante Metis b-1831 into the new marriage. Louis and Charlotte, Chinook together had the following children: 
    Marie Onskanha Metis (1835-1907) 
    Catherine Onskanha Metis (1838-1851), 
    Xavier Onskanha Metis (1841-1889), 
    Ignace Onskanha Metis b-1845
    Louis II Onskanha Metis b-1847

Thomas Petit Metis b-1797 Yamaska joined NWC (1817-1827) Ile-a-La Crosse  (Saskatchewan), Lac La Pluie, Athabasca, (1828-1830) Columbia District (1830-1832) Saskatchewan River then (1832-1835) Lac La Pluie, retired Red River.    Married 1825 Ile-a-la- Crosse Jeune Vieve Cadotte, adopted daughter Laurent Cadotte 
    1838 & 1840 1 Metis son under 16, 1 Metis daughter over 15
    1843 1 Metis son under 17 1 Metis daughter under 15

Simon Bonaparte Plamondon Sr. b-Sorel, Quebec, drown about 1850 likely Washington was at Fort Langley about this time, son Jean Baptiste Plamondon and Catherine Gill,  married 1st Thas-e-muth aka Veronica Scanewah, they had 4 kids one of who was Simon Baptiste Plamondon, Metis, married Mary Farron, Metis daughter Dominique Farron and Josephte of the Makah nation; 2nd wife Emilie Marie Finlay Bercier, Metis, widow Pierre Bercier (1778-1830), daughter Francois Finlay and Josephte Cree, they had 5 kids, one of who was Henriette Plamondon, Metis: 3rd marriage Kitty Tiukish, they had 1 child. 

James Rendall b-1792 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1830-1846) as cooper returned to British Isles. 

Louis Ssanonton Iroquois joined HBC (1830-1831) Columbia District

Oliver St. Pierre (1806-1830) son Joseph St. Pierre and Marie Blondoin of Trois Rivieres, Quebec, married 1827 Trois Rivieres, Quebec Nelly (Eleonore) Duplessie daughter Charles Duplessie and Josephote Lewis, joined HBC 1830 and dround Columbia River.

Jean Baptiste Tappage aka Regnier Metis (1799-1849) likely born Red River had dealings with  HBC (1830-1849) a freeman worked Fort Vancouver, Frasier River, New Caledonia.   He married Onteloy at Fort George, and had three children:
    Joseph Regnier Metis b-1838 New Caledonia, married Tsoss; Nellie/Ellen b-1850
    Alexander Regnier Metis b-1841 New Caledonia married Maria; Matilda; Julienne Batson; Rosie
    William Regnier Metis (1848-1875) New Caledonia 
        An Octive Regnier Metis signed a petition in Alberta 1883

Isaac Thibeault b-1805 Sorel joined HBC (1830-1836) Fort Vancouver.

William Walls of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1830-1834) as servant returned to British Isles.

Henry Wards of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1830-1834) as shipbuilder

George Washington (Creol) Metis from Virginia is believed to be of mixed blood, European Indian, African (Creole) and possibly Hawaian? joined HBC (1830-1840) Columbia District, settler 1840 Willamette.  George Washington’s "Indian wife" was unnamed in the Church record, but according to tribal record she was called Mary, "Lahwatkin’s sister", and died around 1877, aged forty-nine. Their children 
    Marthe Washington Metis bapt-1850's 
    Joseph Washington Metis baptized in the 1850’s, but died before having children, as did two later sons. One surviving daughter, 
    Marguaret Washington Metis married George Squamauk (Skamack) and became the mother and grandmother of numerous well-known descendants in northern Washington. In a deposition in 1906 Margaret said she "thought" her father had been white; it is likely she meant he was of some other blood than Native Indian (C.R. A-17).

Richard Williams, who appears to have trapped in the mountains in the 1830s, was employed by Henry H. Spalding at his mission as a blacksmith in December 1838. Around this time, Spalding married Williams to a native woman, whom he subsequently abused. Consequently, she ran away; but she was captured and given seventy lashes. Williams left for the Willamette (Oregon) in 1840 where he appears to have become part of the settler society.

During the 1830's more French Canadians arrived on French Prairie aka Walama or Willamette Valley, Columbia District (Oregon Territory), giving up trapping for farming, married Indian girl called 'infidel women' by the priests who had established missions at nearby St. Louis and St. Paul, Oregon

A plague (flu or Malaria) hit Walama or Willamette Valley (Oregon) (1830-1833) some believe this was the reason the French Metis families had no problem settling what they first called the 'French Prairie'.

Some suggest the Genocidal Wars of the Pacific Northwest began in the east with the Indian Removal Act creating the Permanent Indian Frontier west of the Mississippi which wasn't permanent but continued to move westward..

List of Gentlemen and men Attached to Fraser's River, with the Capacity and Family of each as follows, vizt.

NAME

CAPACITY FAMILY: 
WIFE/B/G 
REMARKS

Arch. McDonald

Chief Trader  1/3/0 In charge

Francois N. Annance

Clerk 1/3/0 attends to the trade & Indians

James M. Yale

Clerk 1/0/0 attends to the People & Stores

  1.  Pierre Charles

Beaver Hunter 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

  2.  Cha. Charpentier

Mid. man 0/1/0 Cook

  3.  Como 

Mid. man & sawyer 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

  4.  Louis Delonais

Steersman 1/0/0 re-engaged 
reduced to £17  when present contract expires

  5.  Dominique Farron

mid. man 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

  6.  John Kennedy 

mid. man 1/0/0  re-engaged may in time assist as Interpreter

  7.  Annawiskum McDonald 

Foreman 1/0/0 re-engaged & reduced from £22 to £20 when he acts as cooper

  8.  Louis Ossin

mid. man 1/0/0 has a year to serve, recalled his notification

  9.  Etienne Oniaze

mid. man 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

10.  Pecopeeoh

mid. man & sawyer 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

11.  F. Faniant dit Pritte

mechanic 1/0/1 unsettled with

12.  Simon Piemondo

Foreman 1/0/2 re-engaged, is a good hand in woods & after Beaver

13.  Louis Satakarata

mid. man 1/2/1 re-engaged 2 yrs

14.  Etienne Papin (1799-1874)

Blcksmith 1/0/0 re-enaged 2 yrs reduced from £25 to £22 

15.  Pierre Therrin

 mid. man 1/0/0 re-engaged 2 yrs

     By this list we shew that all our men have taken Women in this quarter -- a measure once thought very impolitic nor do I affirm that in this condition they are preferable or perhaps equal to single men -- yet I am happy to say that a year's experience does not forebode any frightful evil; besides, as may also be seen above, it had had the effect of reconciling them to the place and of removing the inconvenience and indeed the great uncertainty of being able to get them year after year replaced from the Columbia. -- Provision for them they have none, save what they derive from the regular and ample allowance to themselves.

April:   John Kennedy, d-1830, a middleman and interpreter, who was unwell but still able to work, dropped dead from an apparent heart attack at Fort Langley.

July 3: Dalles (Washington/Oregon) a boat of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden  (1790/94-1854) is caught in a whirlpool, in all nine were drowned among them Joseph Portneuf (1796-1830) his wife and two children.  Joseph was a former employee of the NWC. 

August:  Pierre Therien was accidentally shot by a gun on a sailing ship out on the Frazer River near Fort Langley. 

August 4: Jean Baptiste Gervais (1798-1870)  found better luck with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, of which he became a partner, along with Thomas Fitzpatrick, Milton G. Sublette and Henry Fraeb, when the group met near South Pass. This partnership lasted until the summer of 1834 when he sold out his partnership for twenty horses, thirty beaver traps and five hundred dollars worth of merchandise.

October 19:  Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) and three men are sent out of Fort Vancouver on a trading excursion to the Umpqua.

October 28:  birth (II)-Alexander McDonald, Metis, died July 7, 1875 Moose Factory son (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) and Jane Klyne daughter Michael Klyne of Jasper House, Alberta.

 

1831  

Birth Amable Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) (1797/1802-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Louis Atearonquash Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1808 or 1914 Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined HBC (1831-1835) Columbia District.

Rose Aucent born 1828 Red River, died 1901 West Coast, family arrived Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) 1831, and Aucent shortly departed for California on Laframboise expedition.  

Jean Baptiste Asanyenton Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1803 Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined HBC (1831-1842) Columbia District.

Louis Aucent married 1831 West Coast, Catherine Cayuse (1813-1848)

William Brown b-1810, Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1843) as a laborer at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).

Jean Baptise Brulez b-1809 Quebec joined HBC (1831-1844) for Columbia District, he claimed joined 1826, settled Willamette 1844.  He was responsible for accidentally burning down Fort Langley.  Jean Baptiste Brulez had one recorded wife and a step-son. On February 11, 1838 at Fort Vancouver, he married the widow of Jacques Iroquois, Marguerite, Sook [T’Sou-ke], a person skilled at the native bone game. Jean Baptiste inherited a step-son 
    Joseph Thomas Iroquois/Sook Brulez (1831-1860). Stepson Joseph married Mary Ann Maranda b-1832 (daughter of Iroquois Louis Shaegoskatsta/Maranda, dit Le Frise [c.1796-?] and a Kalapooya woman) in Oregon in 1848, had three daughters but, according to one account, was shot dead at the age of twenty-nine in Oregon (1858 in Victoria Catholic Records? according to Sooke Story). After Joseph’s death Mary Ann Maranda Brule married Jean Baptiste Vautrin.

George Burger b-1806 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1837) as a sailor, departed East or returned to British Isles.

Pierre Chalifoux, born March 20, 1806, Lac Poisson Blanc son Charles Chalifoux and Suzette Chalifoux, Metis; married 1835, Lesser Slave Lake, (Alberta) Marie Cartier, Metis, born June 21, 1821, Lesser Slave Lake (Alberta) daughter Cartier a Whiteman and La8i8le Gladu a Metis.  Joined HBC in (1831-1832) assigned Columbia District.  His (1832-1833) wages were forfeited for deserting for the second time.  In 1835 he signed a 3year contract at Edmonton House and was still signing contracts as late as 1860.

Columbia District, marriage Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Mary a Ketse nation woman, 1st wife Tchialis aka Tchinouk Woman died before 1830

Antoine Dechamps Metis b-1800/04 Red River son Francois Deschamps d-1828 and a Cree Girl.  He signed HBC 1826 at Red River and worked (1831-1850) Columbia District.  He married Marie Anne, a Nez Perces and had a son 
    David Dechamps Metis on June 29, 1839 
On January 27, 1844, he married a minor, Marie Tikillis/Aloise of the Cowlitz/Louise Chehalis, who bore him a son 
    David (Jean Baptiste?) Deschamp Metis on August 1, 1845 
    Marie Deschamp Metis  in March, 1849.

Joseph Ducharme dit Maron Metis of Hudson Bay, joined HBC (1831-1852) Columbia District.   On April 27, 1845, both he and Thérèse, a native woman of unknown origin, were baptised and married. They sheltered a young girl by the name of 
    Rose ?(1836-1848), who died March 3, 1848.

Nazaire Dupre (1804-1849) joined HBC (1831-1847) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1846.  He married Catherine Lafantaisie Metis, daughter of Jacques Lafantaisie and Susanne Okanogan about 1843. The recorded Duprè children were 
    Charles Dupre Metis b-1839
    Angelique Dupre Metis m-1857
    Nazaire, Dupre Metis Jr. (1844-1849)
    Genevieve Dupre Metis (1847-1848).
After Nazaire’s death, his widow Catherine married David Mongraine.

 (III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853) assigned Fort Colvile, Columbia.(1831-1834) and accompanied the Flat Heads to Snake Country, married 1834 wife #3 Mary Three Dresses, a Flathead Woman; he abandoned wife  #2 Cleopatra an Okanagan Woman and sent his son (IV)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828 east.  (I)-Francis also had abandoned wife #1 and child in Severn.  With wife #3 he had an un-named son b-1836, daughter Mary (1838-1940) married Peter Ashley on Montana 

(I)-Thomas Francois joined HBC (1831-1837) Columbia District, might have had more than one son?
    (II)-Joseph Francois Metis

Bache (John) Goodriche d-1830 at the Dalles, Columbia River, Goodriche and eleven others drowned; as well, three hundred beaver pelts and Ogden’s papers were lost in the accident.  He was a freeman in opposition to HBC in (1827-1830)  Bache Goodriche had one recorded wife, Nancy b-1850 of the Dalles (Nancy Twinishe of Winakshe?)a sister of a chief at the Dalles and they had one child, 
    Susanne Goodriche Metis (1830-1912) who was baptised on July 15, 1838 at Fort Vancouver by Reverend Herbert Beaver (1800-1858). After the death of Goodriche, his widow Nancy married John Baptiste Dobin (formalized January 7, 1839).

William Kittson (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season (1831-1834) Kooteney House, Columbia District.  His 1st wife is unrecorded. 2nd wife Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian.

The following people are likely related;
Jean Baptiste LaRance (LaFrance) b-1790 NWT in Red River in 1838
Francois LaFrance b-1791 joined HBC (1827-1828) from Montreal assigned New Caledonia
Bazil LaRance b-1799 joined HBC (1826-1827) Fort Vancouver
Supplie Larance b-1808 joined HBC (1831-1851) New Caledonia
Theodore Larance b-1811 joined HBC (1832-1854 Columbia District
Bazil Larance (LaRance - LaFrance) b-1795/98 (from Berthier Country in Western Quebec) joined HBC (1816-1818) Montreal, assigned (1818-1819) Peace River District, (1819-1820) Fort Wedderburn (aka Fort Chipewyan) Athabasca District altered between noth Districts (1820-1826), (1827-1828) traveled York Factory, Saskatchewan District and Columbia District; (1828-1847) Saskatchewan District Fort Edmonton, Fort Carlton, retired Red River 1847; married Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise
    Basile Larance Metis b-1831 Columbia District married Marguerite Desjardins
    Charles Larance Metis b-1834 Fort Edmonton d-1872 Pembina married Marie Anbichion
    Iean Baptiste Larance Metis b-1836 Fort Edmonton married Josephte Hamelin b-1839
    Joseph Larance Metis b-1842 NWT married Clara Farquarhson b-1847 daughter John Ferguson (Farquarhson) (1809-1875) and Monique Hamlin b-1832 Pembina

Archibald McDonald is chief trader at Fort Langley.

Antoine Bonanfant, Metis (1831-1848) son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin Metis b-1835 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.  Living Oregon 1842.

Laurent Quintal,  married, 1831, Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Marie Anne Nipissing, b-1819 daughter, Louis Nipissing, Metis and Chinook woman.  The marriage was formalized at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) in 1839.

Augustin Lambert (1811/14-1881) son Augustin Lambert and Claire Lerruin of Yakaska, Quebec joined HBC (1831-1837) Athabasca, New Caledonia and Columbia District.  He married Catherine Pichet, probably in Canada and then went to Red River where, while Catherine waited the birth of her first child,  Augustin continued on to Oregon Territory/Columbia Department. Their recorded children were 
    Marie Lambert (1839-1852), born Red River
    Augustin Lambert (1839-1880), born Red River
    Adelaide Lambert (1844-1851), balance of children born Columbia District.
    Colette Lambert (1845-1850), 
    Michel Lambert (1847-1852), 
    François Lambert b-1849
    Catherine Lambert b-1852
    Cuthbert Lambert (1853-1880), 
    Antoine Lambert (1856-1882), 
    Marie (Lambert b-1857
    Adelaide II Lambert (1859-1869), 
    Alfrede Marie Lambert b-1865
    Alfred Lambert m. 1896

Pierre Leblanc trading at Rocky Mountain House, Alberta and the Oregon Territory since 1800 married Nancy Matooski the abandoned wife of John G. McTavish.  This appears to be Pierre's second wife as he took a wife to Oregon Territory in 1800.

Poerre McDonell Metis b-1808 Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined HBC (1831-1834) New Caledonia.

Benjamin McKenzie Metis (1807-1837) son Rodrick McKenzie and Angelique (1784-1859) worked (1825-1826) Lake Superior, joined HBC (1831-1837) New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.  He claimed to originate with the Nipigeon Indian Band.  He also lived Montreal.  He married February 28, 1837 Fort Vancouver Catherine Campbell Metis b-1815 daughter Colin Campbell b-1790 and Elizabeth Mc Gillivray Metis b-1801. They had two children:
    Colin Campbell McKenzie Metis bap-1837
    Benjamin McKenzie Metis bap-1837
Widow Catherine Campbell married William Clouston b-1823 at Red River.

David Mongrain (1808-1882) from Maskinonge, Quebec Joined HBC (1830-1832) spent (1830-1831) on Saskatchewan and (1831-18-32) Columbia District settling Oregon.  David Mongrain had one wife, Catherine Lafantasie Metis (1824-1875), the daughter of Jacques Lafantaisie and Susanne Okanogan and the widow of Nazaire Dupre d-1848. They were married on July 17, 1849 about a year after Catherine had been widowed and she brought two out of four surviving children into the marriage. David and Catherine then raised their own family of eight children: 
    Angelle Mongrain Metis b-1850
    Daniel Mongrain Metis b-1853, 
    Clarissa (Mongrain Metis b-1855
    Clementine Mongrain Metis b-1857 
    Josephine (Mongrain Metis b-1860, 
    Francois Xavier Mongrain Metis b-1864, 
    Emerance Mongrain Metis 
    Clhoris Mongrain Metis 
Catherine died on August 5, 1875 at around forty years of age.

John More b-1796, Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1834) as labourer

Samuel Norn b-1807 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1844) as labourer, settled Victoria.

Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) employed HBC (1815-1841) is posted Fort Walla Walla, Columbia District (1831-1833). 

Jean Baptiste Petit (Gobin) (1811-1898) son Antoine Gobin and Angelique Gaucher of St. Michel de Yamaska, Quebec.  Jean Baptiste Petit (Gobin) had three wives and nine or more children. By the time he had settled in the Willamette, he and an unnamed Indian woman had two sons, 
    Toussaint (1835-?) and 
    Jean Baptiste (II) (1837-58). 
On August 23, 1841 he married Marguerite Vernier (1819-1858); their children were: 
    François Xavier (1842-?), 
    Angelique (1845-73), 
    Julie (1849-76), 
    Isabelle (1851-?), 
    Antoine (1854-54), and 
    Joseph (1856-?). 
His wife Marguerite died at St. Louis on May 7, 1858 and ten years later he married Elizabeth Depot on June 1, 1868 at St. Louis.

Joseph Plouffe dit Carillon (2) Metis (1808/09-1849) from Berthier, Quebec Uncle to Antoine Plouffe (1808/09-1836) and likely the son of Joseph Plouff (1) d-1849 and was involved in the fur trade since 1793.  Josepg (2) joined HBC (1831-1847) Columbia District settling in Willamette.  On June 17, 1839 he married Thérèse Makaina , daughter of the Hawaiian, Makaina, and Louise, Chehalis. Theresa ran off with James Boucher (1820-1910) and when discovered Boucher killed Plouffe and fled to New Caledonia.  Widow Theresa married 1850 Jean Baptiste LaRoque.  Joseph's  recorded children were 
    Marie Rosalie Plouffe Metis b-1834 daughter uncle Antoine Plouffe (1808-1836) and Angelique Stawa
    Rosalie Plouffe Metis b-1840, married P.O. Riley; John Desportes McKay; and Xavier Pelland    
    Henriette Plouffe Metis (1841-1847), 
    Archange Plouffe Metis (1844-1851), 
    Joseph Plouffe Metis (1845-1850), 
    Gedeon Plouffe Metis b-1847 
    Jean Baptiste Plouffe Metis b-1848
    Marie Louise Plouffe Metis b-1849

(I)-James Rendall, b-1794, a cooper from Evie, Orkney, arrived Fort Langley in 1831 but had to quit due to ill health.  Others suggest he arrived 1833.

David Robertson b-1813 Orkney working west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1839) as labourer returned to British Isles. 

(II)-Charles Ross Metis Jr. Metis (1831-1905) son (I)-Charles Ross Sr. (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis bapt 1838.  joined HBC (1849-1859).  Charles Ross had one wife, Catherine Tumalt (1834-1917) half Iroquois and half Nisqually, and at least eleven children. Together they had 
     (III)-Mary Amelia Rose Ross Metis b-1853
     (III)-Catherine (Katie) Rose Ross Metis b-1856, 
     (III)-Cecelia Rose Ross Metis (1857-1888), 
     (III)-Sarah Rose Ross Metis (1862-1866), 
     (III)-Florence Rose Ross Metis b-1867
     (III)-Francis (Frank) Rose Ross Metis (1869-1930), 
     (III)-Charles Rose Ross Metis b-1871
     (III)-Elizabeth Rose Ross Metis b-1873
     (III)-James William Ross Metis (1875?), 
     (III)-Isobelle Rose Ross Metis b-1877
     (III)-John Rose Ross Metis (1880-1918). 
     (III)-William Rose Ross Metis bap-1862 who was baptised in Victoria on July 11, 1862, was likely another son. According to Huggins, Catherine Tumalt was half Iroquois and half Nisqually.

Charles Roussain, Sault Metis b-1797 likely son Eustace Roussain Metis b-1770/80 part of John Sayer Fur Co (1795-1804),  employed NWC (1816-1821) Fond du Lac, Lake Superior, St. Mares, Lac La Pluie, (Michigan) Lac la Plue as interpreter, then HBC (1821-1823) Lac La Pluie.Astor Fur Company in 1820, American Fur Company (1824-1829) HBC (1829-1849) Norway House, Babine Lake, New Caledonia (1831-1832), Athabasca (1834-1835) then back to Lake Superior and Lac La Pluie.  The following children are likely either Eustance or Charles?
    Francois Roussain Metis married 1835 Joe Cadotte
    Francia Roussain Metis (HBC (1843-1851) Lac La Pluie
    Julia Roussain d-1826 married William Morrison (1785-1866)

Louis Sagoshaneuchta (1805-1837) Mohawk/Iroquois joined HBC (1831-1837) Columbia District.   Louis Sagoshaneuchta had one wife, Marie Anne, Nisqually  and two recorded children, 
    Catherine Sagoshaneuchta b-1834 
    Ignace Sagoshaneuchta b-1837

Jacques Tahetsaronsari b-1805 Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Que4bec, joined HBC (1831-1847) Columbia District 1836 a freeman, 1847 settler Willamette..

John Taylor of Orkney, died May 12, 1839 Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon),  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1838) as seaman who returned to British Isles.

Joseph Tecanosegan Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined HBC (1831-1834 Columbia and New Caledonia Districts. 

Joseph Tocagerunton b-1809 Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined HBC (1831-1835) Columbia & New Caledonia.

Paul Tohoeangta b-1808 Sault St. Louise, Quebec Mohawk/Iroquois, joined HBC (1831-1842) Columbia District.

John Williams b-1812 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1831-1839) as labourer

Mt. St. Helens (in Washington near the Columbia River) erupted this year.  John Adams witnessed the event as did Dr Gassner.

(I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861) is in charge of the Snake Country Expedition (1831-1931) to the Flathead and Blackfoot Indians.

Summer:  Idaho, birth, (II)-Letitia Work, Metis, daughter, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married October 21, 1857, Nisqually (I)-Edward Huggins (1832-1907) employed HBC (1850-1870)

December 20: Columbia, marriage Louis Delonie b-1800 Quebec, employed HBC (1816-1842), assigned Columbia (1828-1842), married Elizabeth Kwothe (1817-1843)

 

1832 

Fort Vancouver is located on the north bank of the Columbia River in the Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  Some say it is upriver about 90 miles from the ocean?  Not likely, maybe 5-10?

John Ball (1832-1833) recorded at Fort Vancouver: I boarded the first three months at Jean Baptiste Desportes McKay a half breed, whose family consisted of two wives, besides one absent, by all seven children, four or five slaves and two or three hired Indians, beside cats and dogs without number. All inhabited one room in common.  At the time there is some dispute as to whether Old Fort McKay, the original site of Fort Umpqua, was named after Jean Baptiste Dupaty McKay (1793-1853) who was in the area or Thomas McKay Metis (1796-1850), but evidence suggests it was the latter.

(I)-Alexander Caufield Anderson aka S'Gatch Poose, (1814-1884) born Calcutta, India an Englishman, joined HBC (1832-1854) Columbia District.  May 1837 Fort Alexander married (II)-Elizabeth Birnie daughter (I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) and Charlotte Beaulieu Metis (1805-1878), nine children are recorded;
    (II)-Elizabeth Charlotte Anderson Metis d-1918
    (II)-James Robert Anderson Metis b-1842, baptim?
    (II)-Henry (Harry) Anderson Metis (1842-1893)
    (II)-Alexander Anderson, Metis b-1845
    (II)-Allen aka Seton Anderson Metis 
    (II)-Agnes Anderson Metis
    (II)-Walter Anderson Metis
    (II)-Rose  Anderson Metis b-1859
    (II)-Arthur Beattie  Anderson Metis baptised 1864

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Colville Columbia District (1832-1834) 

Hypolite Brissette b-1792 Montreal, employed HBC (1818-1837) is at Fort Cocvile, Columbia District (1832-1835) 

(I)-John Coon aka Coone, Coun b-1791 seaman for HBC on London to Columbia (Oregon Territory) run (1832-1939)

Columbia District, birth, Edward Cotenoir, son  Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Mary a Ketse nation woman, 

Oliver Dauphine (1816-1852) joined HBC (1832-1846) Columbia District, settled Cowlitz.  Olivier Dauphine had one recorded wife, Catherine Indian or Metis b-1825 from the Columbia District (Oregon Territory) and five recorded children: 
    Joseph Dauphine Metis (1835-1859) married a Nass woman, no children recorded
    Benjamin Dauphine Metis b-1844
    Jean Baptist Dauphine Metis b-1847
    Adelia Dauphine Metis b-1849 
    Sophia Dauphine Metis 

(I)-Paul Fraser (1797-1855) joined NWC (1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1855) east of Rockies but (1832-1855) New Caledonia and Columbia, married Angelique Harnois Metis
    (II)-John Fraser Metis (1835-1863) HBC (1849-1854)
    (II)-Marguerite Fraser Metis b-1837
    (II)-Alexander Fraser Metis b-1839
    (II)-Peter Fraser Metis b-1842

Columbia, birth (II)-Felicite Delonie, Metis, baptized January 29, 1843 Cowlitz, Columbia daughter  Louis Delonie b-1800 Quebec, and Elizabeth Kwothe (1817-1843)

Alexis Gendron (1811-1888) Yamaska, joined HBC (1832-1853) New Caledonia.Columbia District, retired 1853 Colvile.   Alexis Gendron married Esther Morrow/Moureau who was born in Columbia District (Washington or DC?). Two of their children were 
    Alexander Gendron b-1864
    Anthony Gendron b-1868

Jean Baptiste Jolibois born 1795 LaPrairie, likely Metis employed NWC 1813-1821) HBC (1821-1824) Athabasca HBC (1824-1831) New Caledonia and (1832-1851) Columbia District.  He married Susan  Tse-ka-ost (1820-1885) aka Josette from the Nass area, as well as seven children: 
    an unnamed child d-1836), 
    Sophia Jolibois Metis b-1840
    Julia/Julian? Jolibois Metis (1842-1880), 
    Ester/Esther Jolibois Metis b-1845 
    Catherine Jolibois Metis b-1848
    Jean Baptiste Jolibois Metis (1853-1855), 
    Edward Jolibois Metis bap.1855
    SusanJolibois Metis d-1885) or she may be the same as Josette. His descendants could not be found in the 1881 or 1891 Censuses and may have moved from the area.

Ignace Karohuhana Iroquois (Mohawks) from Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1832-1862) Columbia District.

Kootenay House, birth Jesse Kittson Metis d-1837 in epidemic son William Kittson (1792-1841) and Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian.

Pierre Lagace Metis joined HBC (1832-1855 Columbia District
    Charles Lagace Metis joined HBC (1853-1858) Nisqually, Washington

I)-William Fletcher Lane (1794-1863) an Irishman joined NWC (1820-1821) & HBC (1821-1863) assigned English River (1821-1823) assigned Ottawa River (1823-1824) fired, hired (1829-1832) Lake of two mountains, assigned New Caledonia (1832-1845), assigned MacKenzie River (1846-1854), assigned Albany (1855-1863) married 1846 (IV)-Metis daughter of (III)-Simon McGillivray Metis Jr (1790/96-1832) son (II)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Cree
    (II)-Simon Lane Metis
    (II)-Joseph Lane Metis   

(II)-Alexander Lattie Metis Jr. (1832-1867) son (I)-Alexander Lattey (1802-1849) and Marie Catherine Sikas.  Alexander joined HBC (1845-1848) and settled Willamette 1847.

Fabien Malois (1813-1855) of Montreal, joined HBC (1832-1843) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1843.  Fabien Malois had two wives and six children. He formalized his marriage with his first wife, a mixed descent Iroquois, Louise Atenesse/Satacaronty on January 12, 1839. Together they had six children, 
    Pierre Malois Metis b-1838
    Le’andre Malois Metis b-1840
    Monique Malois Metis b-1843 
    Louise Malois Metis b-1845
    Christine Malois Metis (1847-1848) 
    Joseph Malois Metis (1849-1867). 
When Fabien’s wife, Louise, died on February 27, 1850, Fabien married Victoire Laderoute (c.1815-?) ten months later in St. Louis Parish on November 28, 1850. After Fabien’s death, his widow Victoire married André Cloutier.

Antoine Masta b-1812 St. Espirt, Quebec joined HBC (1832-1840) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1840.  He formalized his marriage to Sophie Chinook on February 20, 1840 in the parish of St. Paul. Their children were 
    Catherine Masta Metis (1839-1839), 
    Victoire Masta Metis b-1843
    Marie Masta Metis b-1850

John McKay b-1812 son Jean McKay and Magdaleine of St Cuthbert, Quebec, joined HBC (1832-1835) Columbia District, married Angelique dit LaRiviere one child is recorded
    Henry McKay

Old man doctor (III)-John McLaughlin, a Scottish Canadian, is superintendent of Fort Vancouver, Columbia District (Oregon Territory).

William Henry McNeill Jr. Metis (1832-1889) son William Henry McNeill (1801-1875) and Miatilda Neshaki a Haida d-1850, joined HBC (1848-1854) Columbia District.   William McNeill had one wife and nine children. On June 3, 1853, he married Mary Macaulay, mixed descent daughter of Donald Macaulay. Together they had 
    Donald Henry McNeill Metis (1854-1928), 
    George Frederick McNeill Metis bap.1858
    Alfred McNeill Metis b-1857 
    William McNeill Metis b-1860 
    Matilda Rebecca McNeill Metis b-1861
    Lucy Margaret (McNeill Metis b-1864
    James Andrew (McNeill Metis b-1866
    Edward McNeill Metis b-1871
    Ellen Fanny McNeill Metis b-1874

(I)-John McPhail (1809-1876) joined HBC (1832-1857) Columbia District.  John McPhail had four successive wives and seven recorded children. His first wife was Catherine Kennedy likely of mixed descent and with whom he had a daughter,
    (II)-Mary McPhail Metis b-1833. Catherine died, possibly in childbirth, leaving John a widower. 
On March 29, 1846, he formalized his marriage to Marie Thérèse, Cascades (1816-1848) who was most likely the mother of his three children: 
    (II)-Catherine McPhail Metis (1837-1849), 
    (II)-Marie McPhail Metis b-1839 
    (II)-John McPhail Metis (1844-1848). Their formal marriage was short lived for she died at Fort Vancouver on September 24, 1848, two and a half months after the death of their son John. 
John McPhail then took a third wife who lived with him at Fort Nisqually. When both took ill with dysentery in November 1851, John survived but his third, unnamed wife died on November 23 and was buried on the 24th at the fort. (It is a possibility that she may have been the Catherine McFeel [McPhail] (c.1823-?) who was baptised on December 30, 1849 in St. Andrew’s Roman Catholic Church in Victoria.) 
On May 20, 1854, John McPhail married his fourth wife, Margaret Snohomish d-1864 and together they had 
    (II)-Catherine McPhail Metis (1853-1924), 
    (II)-John McPhail Jr. Metis (1856-1894) and 
    (II)-Murdoc McPhail Metis (1857-1931). 
Margaret died on May 18, 1864.

(I)-Jonathan Martin (1832-1907), joined HBC (1849-1860) Columbia District.  He appears to have had two wives and at least thirteen children. One wife was Jane, Stikine with whom he married before 1855. Their likely children were 
    (II)-William Martin Metis (1855-1930), 
    (II)-Mary Isabella Martin Metis (1860-1893), 
    (II)-Thomas Martin Metis (1865-1887), 
    (II)-John Martin Metis (1867-1944), 
    (II)-Joseph Martin Metis (1869-1891) 
    (II)-Henry Martin Metis b-1874
In 1883, he married Ellen/Helen, Cowitchan (1838-1918) and together they had 
    (II)-Sarah Jane Martin Metis  (1876-1900), 
    (II)-James Martin Metis (1877-1957), 
    (II)-Moses Martin Metis (1878-1916), Moses’ mother was also listed as Emma.
    (II)-Robert Martin Metis (1884-1973), 
    (II)-Samuel Martin Metis (1885-1934), 
    (II)-Angus Martin Metis (1887-1964) 
    (II)-Nellie Martin Metis b-1890

Joseph Onawanoron b-1810 Sailu St. Louise, Quebec Mohawk/ Iroquois joined HBC (1832-1856) Columbia District mostly Fort Vancouver.

Lazaed Onearste Metis from Caughnawaga, Sault St. Louis, Quebec, joined HBC (1832-1953) Columbia District.

(III)-Thomas Pambrun Metis (1832-1896) born Fort Walla Walla son (II)-Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792/93-1841) and Catherine (Kitty) Horteuse Umfreville Metis joined HBC (1846-1854) 
1st marriage Shoshone widow but kids took Pambrum name
    Francois Pambrun Metis
    John Pambrun Metis
2nd marriage was Jane Tenday, daughter Chief Tenday of the Lemhi Tribe.

Thomas Petit dit Gobin (1810/11-1886) Yamaska Quebec possible son Thomas Petit b-1797 or more likely Antoine Godin and Angelique Gauoher, joined HBC (1831-1842) assigned (1831-1832) Lac La Pluie then (1832-1842) Columbia District, retired Wallamette 1842; three marriages are recorded and nine or more children:
1st married native woman
    Toussaint Petit Metis b-1835
    Jean Baptiste Petit Metis (1837-1858)    
2nd marrisge 1841 Fort Vancouver Margeurite Venier (1819-1858)
    François Xavier Petit Metis (1842-?), 
    Angelique 
Petit Metis (1845-1873), 
    Julie 
Petit Metis (1849-1876), 
    Isabelle
Petit Metis b-1851
    Antoine
Petit Metis (1854-1854), 
    Joseph
Petit Metis b-1856
3rd married 1863/68 Therese Depot (Dubreuille)

Francois Quintel (Dubois) (1810-1863) born La Prairie aka (Willamette Valley) joined HBC (1832-1862) Columbia District.  François Quintal’s family life is unclear. He probably had two wives, one being Austeen a Tongass native, she left him by 1837 and returned to her people where she was mistreated. 
He then married Odelia. Three of his children were: 
    unnamed Quintel Metis child d-1852), 
    Pierre Quintel Metis b-1853
    Odeal Quintel Metis b-1855

Pierre St. Andrew b-1811 St. Paul, Quebec, joined HBC (1832-1843) Columbia District, settled Chinookville (Washington) 1852.   On February 11, 1839 he married Marie Mathlomet  at Fort Vancouver. Their children were; 
    Pierre St. Andrew Metis b-1837
    Ellen St. Andrew Metis b-1840
    Louis St. Andrew Metis b-1843

Joseph Tayentas (1809-1848) Iroquois joined HBC (1831-1836) in Columbia District 1832, had one recorded son"
    Andre Tayentas b-1841 of native wife.

Joachim Thibeault b-1812 St. Paul, Quebec joined HBC (1832-1851) Columbia District married Louis b-1814 two children recorded:
    Joachim Thibeailt Metis (1836-1838)
    Eunice Thibeault Metis b-1840.

Calvin Tibbets born Massachusetts d-1849 at sea, Wyeth's Expedition (1832-1833) settled Willamette (1833-1849), Fort Vancouver (1834-1836), 1837 driving cattle from California, 1840 moved to Clatsop Plains, married Calatop native and had two Metis children.

(I)-Dr. William Fraser Tolmie (1812-1886) joined HBC (1832-1870) Columbia District settled 1843 Willamette Valley brought in a herd of cattle and 3,000 sheep.  In 1846 the Americans would not let his or 16 others acquire land so he moved his family to Victoria . William Fraser Tolmie had one wife and fourteen children. On February 19, 1849 he married (II)-Jane Work Metis  (1827-1880), daughter of (I)-John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legace Metis (1812-1896).  (II)-Jane Work died at Victoria, B. C., June 23, 1880. Their children were 
    (II)-Alexander John Tolmie Metis (1851-1903), 
    (II)-William Fraser Tolmie Metis Jr. (1852-1926), 
    (II)-John Work Tolmie Metis (1854-1934), 
    (II)-James Work Tolmie Metis (1855/56-1917), 
    (II)-Henry Work Tolmie Metis (1857-1939), 
    (II)-Roderick Finlayson Tolmie Metis (1858-1924), 
    (II)-May Fraser Tolmie Metis (1860-1934), 
    (II)-Jane Work Tolmie Metis (1862-1935), 
    (II)-Annie Fraser Tolmie Metis (1863-1865), 
    (II)-Margaret Cecilia Tolmie Metis (1865-1865), 
    (II)-Maria Cecilia Tolmie Metis bap.1865
    (II)-Simon Fraser Tolmie Metis (1867-1937) 
    (II)-Josephine/Josette Catherine Tolmie Metis (1869-1949).
Simon Fraser Tolmie was premier of British Columbia, 1928-1933.

(I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861) is on a trapping expedition to Bonaventura Valley and on a trading excursion from Fort Vamcoucer to Umpqua

Nathaniel Wyeth, a young American businessman, and a small party came to Columbia District (Oregon Territory) this year to scout business prospects. While Wyeth's supply ship was lost at sea and the enterprise abandoned this year
Twelve Members of Nathaniel J. Wyeth's original twenty-five man unsuccessful 1832-1833 multi-purpose colonizing expedition who made it over the Continental Divide to Fort Vancouver were: 
    Wiggin Abbot, 
   
John Ball (1794-1884), son Nathaniel Bell;  he stayed Columbia District (1832-1833) teaching the Metis children
    William Breck (1832-1835) joined HBC (1832-1833) in Columbia District, 
    Stephen Edmunds Burdett b-1806 joined HBC (1832-1834) Columbia District, 
    Greely Sargent, 
    John Sinclair, 
    Solomon Howard Smith, (1809-1876)
    Calvin Tibbets, 
    Guy Trumbull, 
    Phineas Whittier, 
    John Woodman,
    Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth.

April 14:  Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) leads a party to Killimook Country to punish the Indians for the murder of Pierre Kakaraguiron and Thomas Canasawarette, and then proceed on a trapping expedition.

May 19:  birth (II)-Allen McDonald, Metis, died November 28, 1891 Winnipeg, Manitoba, son (I)-Archibald McDonald (1790-1853) and Jane Klyne daughter Michael Klyne of Jasper House, Alberta.

November: (I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson, of India, (1814-1884) arrived Fort Vancouver

 

1833 

Robert Anderson of Orkney worked for H.B.C west of the Rockies (1833-1838) as a middleman and returned to east of the Rockies in 1838.

Antoine Azure Metis Jr. b-1816 son Antoine Azure Sr. and Marguerite Assiniboine of Red River, Joined HBC (1833-1852) Columbia District.  He was the spouse 1844 of Lisette Killimaux (1818-Oct. 8, 1845), who bore children 
    Ursule Azure Metis b-1840, 
    Joseph Azure Metis b-1842 
    Pierre Azure Metis (1843-44); (a second son buried late 1844). 
On April 13, 1846, about six months after the death of Lisette, he married Marie Madeleine Cascades (1826-1847) but she died February 19, 1847. 
On February 7, 1855, Antoine fathered a new baby, naming her 
    Marie Magdeleine Azure Metis b-1855 after his second wife 
five days later married the new baby's mother, Catherine Shoshonie.

Pierre Belleque a former NWC man settled in Willamette Valley (Columbia District aka Oregon Territory) and began farming.

Pierre Bercier a French Canadian (1778-1833) from Columbia District died of the fever in California in 1833 while on a Southern expedition.  He was with the NWC since 1799 and crossed the Rocky Mountains many times.  He left his Metis family of seven children in Fort Spokane.

(II)-Benjamin Bonneville arrived America 1803 with his family and in 1833 he and Joseph Walker (1798-1876) with an expedition of 40 men ventured into California.  Between 1833-1835 he made two trips into the Columbia Valley, including visiting Fort Vancouver.  They maligiously killed friendly Digger people, first killing several dozen within minutes, on the return trip they again opened fire killing 14 Digger people and wounding many other defenseless people.

Francois Bouche (Boucher) Metis b-1816 joined HBC (1833-1843) Columbia District, settled Willamette

Louis Brown is recorded in Columbia District and married Emilie Tchitaosh.  They settled French Prairie in 1850.  Two children are recorded:
    Rose Brown Metis
    Modeste Brown Metis

Bazile (Basil) Brousseau (dit LaFleur) Metis b-1810 Montreal joined HBC (1833-1860) Columbia District.  His first wife was a Cowichan woman b-1841with whom he had:
    Basil Brousseau Metis Jr. b-1841
About 1841 he married a Kwantlen woman by the name of Rose  and together they had possibly 
    Marie Brousseau Metis b-1844
    Rose Brousseau Metis bap.1856
    Mary Brousseau Metis d-1923
After the death of wife, Rose, he married Marianne, Nanaimo, ("Nanaiok") on July 21, 1856 at Fort Langley. 
    Marie Brousseau Metis b-1844 may have been brought into the marriage as a daughter of Marianne. They may have had more children but they have not been traced.

HBC built coastal Fort McLoughlin (1833-1843)

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson, of India, (1814-1884) is at Fort McLoughlin, near Bella Bella and left in December.

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed HBC Fort Nisqually, Columbia, District (1833-1834), 

Antoine Clement Metis son Antoine Clement and Cree woman joined the Rocky Mountain Fur Company (1833-1839) to work the Pacific coast.  He was recorded as a crack shot, killing 120 buffalo (bison).  In 1839-1842 visited Scotland and London.  

Henry Collie Metis b-1824, joined HBC (1833-1850) Columbia District.

(I)-Charles Dodd (1808-1860) joined HBC (1833-1860) Columbia District.  On November 22, 1842, he married (II)-Grace McTavish Metis b-1826, daughter of (I)-John George McTavish a bigamist and Nancy McKenzie Metis. Their children were 
    (II)-Mary Grace Dodd Metis b-1843 
    (II)-Elizabeth Nancy Dodd Metis b-1845 
    (II)-Charles John Dodd Metis b-1848
    (II)-Edward James Dodd Metis b-1851, 
    (II)-Roderick Finlayson Dodd Metis b-1853
    (II)-Dugald McTavish Dodd Metis b-1857
    (II)-Henry Work Dodd Metis b-1860

George W. Ebberts b-1810 joined American Fur Company 1829 to the Rockies, visited Columbia District 1833 and 1839.  Married 1838 children John, Anna and Alfred.

John Finley Metis b-1800 joined HBC (1833-1847) Columbia District, settler Willamette 1846; married 1842 Catherine Chinook (1814-1844); this is likely a son of one of (II)-Jocko Finlay's brothers, Jocko also had a son John b-1791 Rocky Mountain House

(I)-Thomas Flett b-1815, joined HBC (1833-1851) mostly Fort Colvile, Columbia District, 
1st married married Nancy Coutonnays d-1852 or earlier
    (II)-Jane Clementia Flett Metis b-1837, married 1852 Oliver Brisebois, widower of Catherine Cayouse
2nd married Lisette Hubert
    (II)-Marguerite Adele Marie Flett Metis b-1841, married Auguste Douillot
    (II)-Jean Louis Joseph Flett Metis b-1846
    (II)-Joseph Flett Metis b-1850
    (II)-George Flett Metis b-1853
    (II)-Elizabeth Flett Metis b-1856

William Johnston of Orkney drowned July 7, 1835 Fort George,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1833-1835) as trapper 

(III)-Jean Baptiste Lafleur Metis b-1811 Athabasca joined HBC (1833-1835) New Caledonia (1835-1838) Fort Vancouver married Angelique Jourdain

Louis Latour aka Ballard (Balland) (1813-1857) Sorel, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1847) Columbia District, settled Cowlitz 1847.  He had, by an unnamed Indian woman, daughters 
    Eunic Latour Metis b-1832
    Helene Latour Metis b-1835 who was baptised in 1838 near the Cowlitz River. 
On September 10, 1839 at Fort Nisqually, he formally married Betsy, Nisqually b-1822. Their children were 
    Agnes Latour Metis b-1840 
    Ellen Latour Metis b- 1845
    Louis Latour Metis b-1849
    Francis Latour Metis

Joseph Lebrun (1811-1856) from Boucherville, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1858) New Caledonia. Joseph Lebrun appears to have had one wife, Stonake/Stseunake Louisa . Their children were 
    Francis Lebrun Metis b-1850 
    Charles Lebrun Metis d-1914
    John Lebrun Metis b-1857

Frances Xavier Liard (1815-1851) son Jean Baptiste Liard and Marguerite Lemerle of St. Constant, Quebec.  Joined HBC (1833-1846) Columbia District.  On February 11, 1844, he formalized his marriage to Marie Anne, Nez Perces  Their children were 
    Marie Adeline Liard Metis b-1843
    Marguerite Liard Metis b-1845 
    unnamed Liard Metis child (1848-1848)
    Xavier Liard Metis (1849-1849).

Thamire (Thomas) Liard (1816-1852) son Jean Baptiste Liard and Marguerite Lemerle of St. Constant, Quebec.  Joined HBC (1833-1847) New Caldonia and Columbia District retired Willamette 1847.    On August 9, 1847, he formalized his marriage to Nancy, Okanagan (1824-1848). Their son was 
    François Xavier Liard Metis (1847-1848). 
Nancy likely died around January 10, 1848, when "the wife of Liard" was buried at St. Paul. On February 5, 1849, he married Celeste Rochbrune (1834-1876), daughter of Joseph and Louise Rochqubrune from the nearby parish of St. Louis. In the 1850 U.S. census Thamire Liard (listed at Tarrise Liare) and wife Celeste had no children but on January 3, 1851, daughter Marguerite (c.1851-?) was baptised. After Thamire’s death, Celeste married Honore Picard in 1853 and raised a large family. Celeste died on December 24, 1876 at St. Paul

(I)-Thomas Linklater (181401890) Orkney, joned HBC (1833-1856) Columbia District, settled Thurston County 1851.  On June 6, 1859, he formalized his marriage to Mary, Kitkatla [Tshimshian] d-1884) with whom he had united in the 1840s. They had several children. One son, 
    (II)-John Linklater Metis, was one of the managers of the Nisqually outstations for a short time.

Ignace Loziere b-1812 St. Trancois, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1848) Columbia District, At Fort Vancouver on May 27, 1839 he married Sophie Chehalis who died within the next three years, probably in the Cowlitz area. He settled 1846 Cowlitz on 490 acresAfter her death on November 20, 1843, he married Julie Serpent (later Petter) and together they had; 
    Louisa Loziere Metis b-1844
    Francis Loziere Metis
    Julia Loziere Metis 
    Laura Loziere Metis

(II)-John Lymon (dit Lymon de Lemon) (1815-1883) joined Montreal HBC (1833-1851) Columbia District.  John Lymon had two wives and six recorded children. While at Fort McLoughlin he took an unnamed Bella Bella woman for a wife. At Fort Victoria he took Sarah b-1821, Saanich, Cowichan (?) and together they had 
    (III)-Sophie Lymon Metis -bap.1849
    (III)-Jean Baptiste Michel Lymon Metis (1854-1858), 
    (III)-Marguerite Lymon Metis b-1856
    (III)-Edward Lymon Metis b-1862 and was hanged 1884
    (III)-Josephine Lymon Metis b-1866
    (III)-Mary Lymon Metis b-1865 
In 1881, Katherine Voutrait/Voutrain (c.1850-?) was living with the Lymons

(I)-Donald McLean (1800/05-1864) son (I)-Alexander McLean d-1816 and Christina, joined HBC (1833-1860) Columbia and New Caledonia Districts. If his father was indeed (I)-Alexander McLean d-1816, his father was killed in the Seven Oaks Massacre in 1816 and young Donald returned to Scotland in 1817 with his widowed mother, brothers and sisters.   Donald left a trail of heavy-handedness and was shot in the back by a Chilcotin Indian.  Donald McLean had three known wives and eleven known children.  
Shortly after his arrival in the Columbia Department, he took Ali Spokane, b-1810 as a wife (1834) and together they had 
    (III)-Donald McLean Metis Jr. (1836-1920), 
    (III)-Elizabeth McLean Metis (1838-1857), 
    (III)-Duncan McLean Metis b-1840
    (III)-Alexander McLean Metis of Black Pines (1844-1921). 
When he moved north, he married an unnamed Babine Lake Indian woman had 
    (III)-John Allen McLean Metis (1847-1915). 
His third and final wife (1854) was Sophia Grant Metis (1831-1902) daughter Peter Grant and Anne, whom he married in 1854 at Fort Alexandria. Their children were 
    (III)-Hector McLean Metis (1854-1907), 
    (III)-Mathias Allen McLean Metis (1855-1881), *
    (III)-Christina Pauline McLean Metis (1856-1920), 
    (III)-Marie Angela (Annie) McLean Metis (1857), 
    (III)-Mary Jane McLean Metis b-1858
    (III)-Charlie McLean Metis (1861-1881) *
    (III)-Peter Arthur "Archie" McLean Metis (1864-1881). *
* hung for murder of Johnny Ussher

Edward Montigny Metis son Ovide de Montigny and Josephite Fagnon a country woman joined HBC (1833-1858) New Caledonis and mostly Thompson River.  His brother Tapisshe Montigny Metis also worked HBC

Narcisse Montigny Metis b-1815/16 son Ovide de Montigny and Josephite Fagnon a country woman of St. Scholastio (Montreal), Quebec Ovide was with the Pacific Fur company; joined HBC (1833-1853) Columbia District.   Narcisse claimed he was from Ste-Scholastique, Quebec but it wasn't a mission until 1834?  Narcisse Montigny had two wives and two children. In 1837 he had a child
    Edouard Montigny Metis b-1837 by Susanne, an Indian woman. 
On January 17, 1843, he married Bestsy Tchinouk of the Grande Dalles tribe and their one recorded child was 
    Narcisse Montigny Metis b-1848

Fort Nisqually, Columbia District, marriage Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) married Columbia District, Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually, baptized and churched September 10, 1839 Fort Nisqually.  Jean epouse 1826 Indian woman.

Laurent Quintal (1799-1860) employed by NWC (1817-1821) HBC (1821-1836) married 1833 Snake Country, Columbia District and was churched July 9, 1839 a Marie Anne Nipissing daughter of Louis Nipissing.

Camille Raymond b-1813 La Prairie, Quebec joined HBC (1833-1864) New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.  Camille Raymond had one wife (referred to as Madam Barnett, from the Tongass area, in the 1839 Fort Simpson journals) and one recorded child. On February 17, 1850, he legitimized his marriage to Louise, a native from the north. Their recorded child was 
    Catherine Raymond Metis bap.1849

Narcisse Raymond likely Metis (1816-1866) some say died 1887, from Prairie du Madelaine, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1850) in Columbia District as a guide and interpreter, he settled Walla Walla 1853.   Narcisse Raymond had one wife and an undetermined number of children. Through his wife, Pauline Walla Walla or Alla? b-1816 with whom he united in May, 1846 in Willamette, Clackmas Co, Oregon Territory, he was able to establish a relationship to numerous natives in the region. One recorded daughter was 
    Cecile Raymond Metis b-1845

(I)-John Fisher Robinson of Hamilton, Cumberland, England joined HBC (1833-1840) Fort Vancouver.  The Rev. Herbert Beaver asked John McLoughlin to replace John Bell who had retired as a teacher of young Metis children.  He was also a church clerk and they overlooked his alcoholism.  In 1838 his contract was up and he was about to return to England with honors when it was discovered he had been molesting the young girls in his care.  The Columbia District officers wanted him shot but he was tied to one of the guns in front of McLoughlin-Douglas house and flogged.  He was sent home in disgrace.

Pierre Sakoiarokom b-1809 a Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec was with HBC Athabasca 1833, Columbia 1834, York Factory 1838, Norway House 1841.

Joseph Sansource (1805-1883) from St. Eustache, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1853) Columbia District settled Willamette.  In 1850 he had assets of $5,000, an man of means.   He possibly had a family with an Umpqua woman for younger Sansoucis' (show up on the Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon in the 1860s)
    Jenny Sansource Metis
    Marianne Sansource Metis
    Paul Umpqua Sansouci Metis
On April 6, 1860, Joseph himself appears to have been a witness for a friend, John Larrison, who was buried in St. Louis. 
A San Souci, possibly Joseph died on February 5, 1883 in Salem, Oregon, and was buried the following day. In both church entries, he was known by his last name only.
    Joseph Sansource Metis, d-1883 

(I)-Malcolm Smith b-1844 joind HBC (1833-1852).   Malcolm Smith had one wife, Mary, Cowlitz, and four recorded children. Their children were 
     (II)-Marie Malcolm Smith Metis b-1848
     (II)-Catherine (?Malcolm Smith Metis bap.1853
     (II)-Joseph Malcolm Malcolm Smith Metis b-1854
     (II)-Elizabeth Malcolm Smith Metis b-1855

Solomon Howard Smith (1809-1876) from New Hampshire, joined HBC (1833-1834) settled Willamette 1837.  Soloman H. Smith had one wife, Celiast or Helen/Ellen, Clatsop, (1804-1891) daughter Chief Cobaway, bigamist wife of Bazil Poirier (1774-1844) Fort Vancouver baker (himself having a wife in the east), Solomon  married her 1833 solemnized marriage in February 11, 1837, and together had seven children, six of whom were.  Celiast upon discovering her first husband was a bigamist left him and got the marriage annulled.
    Silas Smith Metis the eldest son was sent to study law in New Hampshire. 
    Charlotte Smith Metis 
    Josephine Smith Metis b-1835
    Hélène Levina  Smith Metis (1837-1851) 
    Henry  Smith Metis
    Agnes  Smith Metis
   
In addition, they raised a French Canadian by the name of 
    Eli, Stoddard Metis 
    Bill Stoddard Metis, possibly a mixed descent son of Walter Stoddard, and Jessie Bill, a Hawaiian slave they bought from a sailor named Bill.

Charles Touin b-1813 Montreal joined HBC (1833-1858) New Caledonia 1st married 1829 Montreal left wife for poor conduct (elle se conduct mal) 2nd marriage 1847 Fort Alexander Mary or Marie Cletses
    Unnamed Touin Metis son b-1848
    John Sanford Twain Touin (1849-1946)
    Unnamed Touin Metis daughter d-1855 

Joseph Rutherford Walker (1798-1876) from Virginia, a fur trader and mountain man of the American Fur Company was in the Columbia District in 1833, he married Spirit Lake, Utah  Suison Shoshone and lived with her (1836-1846).  He led a band through Yosemite November 13, 1833.  His band of 60  American Fur Company people on the way to Mexican California encountered a band of Dagger Indians and the opened fired of these friendly people killing several dozen.  On their way back the encountered more Dagger people opened fire killing 14 more and wounding many more.  They had two known children
    Joe Walker Metis
    Unnamed Walker Metis maybe Joseph Reddeford Walker Jr.

 First recorded instance of Japanese shipwreck off the west coast of British Columbia.

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson, of India, (1814-1884) is posted to Stikine and was at Fort Simpson this year.  He wintered at Fort Vancouver.

Birth Amable Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married 1839 Vancouver (Portland Oregon),   Marguerite Waponte died October 1870.

Thomas Balfour of Orkney worked H.B.C. west Rockies (1834-1836) as a laborer returned to Saskatchewan

Pierre Charles b-1800 employed HBC Fort Langley, Columbia, District (1834-1840), retired to Cowlitz River

Malcolm Davie b-1812 of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1840) as middleman, returned to British Isles.

William Davie of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1838) as middleman, returned to British Isles.

Columbia, birth (II)-Catherine Delonie, Metis, baptized January 29, 1843 Cowlitz, Columbia. daughter  Louis Delonie b-1800 Quebec, and Elizabeth Kwothe (1817-1843)

(III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger Metis (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853) assigned Flat Head Post, Columbia.(1834-1842) and went on a Snake Country expedition including Forts Hall and Fort Boise married 1834 wife #3 Mary Three Dresses, a Flathead Woman; With wife #3 he had an un-named son b-1836, daughter Mary (1838-1940) married Peter Ashley on Montana he had abandoned wife  #2 Cleopatra an Okanagan Woman and his son (II)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828.  (I)-Francis also had abandoned wife #1 and child in Severn.  He would abandon wife #3 in 1842 as well as their children.

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) sent his step son Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849) to Idaho to establish Fort Boise situated on the Boise River.

Thomas Flett b-1814 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1851) as laborer, believed settled in Colvile, (Washington) Columbia District (Oregon Territory).

Malcolm Groat of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1839) as laborer, returned to British Isles.

John Johnston of Orkney, died 1853 at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon),  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1853)

Robert Johnson b-1812 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1849) as laborer moved to California or British Isles.

William Kittson (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1840) this season (1834-1831) Fort Nisqually, Columbia District.

Jason Lee, a methodist minister established a mission at Willamette Valley, Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  Some suggest it was 1834.

Thomas Linklater of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1851) as interpreter and likely settled (Washington) Columbia District (Oregon Territory).

(III)-William McBean (McBain) Cree Metis b-1807 Folle Avoine, Lake Superior, d-1892 Walla Walla, son (II)-John McBean (1778-1854) and country wife Sarah? a Chippewan; joined HBC (1828-1851) assigned Ruperts River (1828-1833) then New Caledonia (1833-1844) then Columbia District (1844-1851), married 1834 New Caledonia and churched 1844 Fort Vancouver, Jane Boucher Metis b-1821, daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1849) and Nancy McDougal  
    (IV)-John McBean Metis b-1837 New Caledonia bapt 1842 married 1st Jane; married 2nd Mary Eneas 
    (IV)-Nancy McBean Metis b-1839 New Caledonia bapt 1842 married Theophile Mesplie, 
    (IV)-Mary McBean Metis  b-1844 bapt 1844 married 1867 Walla Walla Edwaed Lefecvre
    (IV)-Sophie McBean Metis bapt 1845 
    (IV)-Charles Donald McBean Metis (1846-1916), born Walla Walla bapt 1847 married Amelia McBean
    (IV)-Josephine McBean Metis b-1853
    (IV)-Pierre McBean Metis b-1855
    (IV)-William McBean Metis
    (IV)-Henry McBean Metis 

(I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) is at Fort McLoughlin (1834-1838)

William Merryman b-1813 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1838) as laborer returned to British Isles.

William Morwick b-1813, Orkney, killed January 15, 1843 at Fort Babine, working west of Rockies H.B.C. (1834-1843) as servant

Henry Mowatt b-1814 Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1841) as laborer, returned to British Isles.

Columbia District, birth Louise Ouvre, Metis baptized April 24, 1839 Fort Nisqually daughter Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) and Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually

Charles Proulx b-1816 Baie du Febvre, Quebec, joined HBC (1833-1849) Columbia District.  Charles Proulx had two wives by the same name and one recorded child. On January 28, 1839, he married Mary Chehalis (1822-1840). A year later, on February 13, 1840, Mary died and was buried in the fort cemetery. Six years later, on January 2, 1846, he married another Marie Chehalis and together they had a son 
    Isidore Proulx Metis b-1854

Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) employed HBC (1815-1841) is posted Fort Nez Perces, Columbia District (1834-1840). 

Louis Quintal, Metis b-1834/35, baptized June 21, 1839, Snake Country, Columbia District, Metis son Laurent Quintal (1799-1860) and Marie Anne Nipissing daughter of Louis Nipissing; married Cecile Tyikwarkl a full blood Iroquois (Mohawks).

William Glen Rae b-1809 Orkney, suicided January 9, 1845 in Yerba Buena, San Francisco, working west Rockies for H.B.C. (1834-1835) as clerk

(I)-James Taylor (1814-1900) of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1833-1850) as dairyman then went to California gold rush.  James Taylor appears to have had two wives and possibly six children. His first wife was Jeanne, Chinook d-1847 (who died December 21, 1847 of the measles). Their two recorded boys were 
    (II)-James William Taylor Metis b-1844 
    (II)-Jean William Taylor Metis b-1847
His second wife was an unnamed woman d-1893) and between them, they had 
    (II)-Edwin William Taylor Metis 
    (II)-George William Taylor  
    (II)-Mary William Taylor  
    (II)-Emma William Taylor 

Louis Tetreau b-1814 St. Laurent (Montreal) joined HBC (1833-1839) Mew Caledonia & Columbia District.  Louis Tetreau had one recorded wife and one recorded child. He married Catherine, Kathlomat b-1822 on February 11, 1839 at Fort Vancouver. Tetreau had little choice for, while amongst the Flathead Indians, he had mistreated some horses and had been told to leave in an easterly direction. In doing so, he left behind at Fort Vancouver a native wife and child who reintegrated with her Cathlamet people. According to the priests, had Tetreau been able to take his pregnant wife with him into the Flathead region, they would never have been separated.  Their child was 
    Philomene Tetreau Metis b-1839).

(I)-John Tod (1794-1882) married England Elizabeth Waugh and had one daughter Emmeline Jane Tod born December 3, 1835. 

(III)-Francois Xavier Vautrin dit Bienvenne, Metis, born May 10, 1815, St. Philippe, Quebec, son (II)-Pierre Vautrin dit Bienvenne and Agathe Baudin (Baubin) a Miami Indian of the Detroit River region.  Francois arrived Fort Vancouver 1834.

Jean Baptiste Vautrin Metis (1813-1893) son Pierre Vautrin and Agathe Baudin' from Fort Edouard joined (1833-1852) New Caledonia and Columbia District. Jean Baptiste Vautrin had three successive wives and possibly eleven recorded children. When he was working at Fort Alexandria in the 1840s, his wife was one of Jean Baptiste Leolo’s daughters. She was taken ill and died on Nov. 9,, 1846, after giving birth to a still-born child. No other children have been traced. On December 11, 1852 in the Victoria area, he married Elizabeth b-1857), Songhees, who died and was buried on March 20, 1857. Their one recorded child was 
    Pierre Elie Vautrin Metis (1852-1853). On July 26, 1860 again in the Victoria area, he married the widow of Joseph Brule, of Pacific Fur Company Marianne (Mary Ann) Legros Metis (1823-1922). Their eight children were 
    Julienne Vautrin Metis bap.1861
    Louisa [Louisa Theodora?] Vautrin Metis b-1865
    Pierre/Peter Vautrin Metis b-1864 
    Mary Anne [Marie Louise?] Vautrin Metis bap.1865
    Jean Baptiste Vautrin Metis bap.1869 
    Catherine/Katherina Vautrin Metis (1870-1897) 
    Clare Olive Vautrin Metis 
    Francisco Xavier Vautrin Metis b-1879.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Vautrin dit Bienvenne, Metis, born February 1, 1813, St. Philippe, Quebec, son (II)-Pierre Vautrin dit Bienvenne and Agathe Baudin (Baubin) a Miami Indian of the Detroit River region.  Jean with brother Francois arrived Fort Vancouver 1834.  Jean 1st. married Elizabeth Songhee aka Marie Quantlen, d-1857; 2nd marriage 1860, Marie Brule, widow Joseph Brule,  they moved to Grande Ronde, Oregon, Marie;s home area. 

The Jason Lee party founded a mission upriver from the Willamette Falls, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) near to the claim of Joseph Gervais on French Prairie aka Willamette Valley. French Canadians already settled on French Prairie helped to build the mission with supplies from both Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth and Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) . 

Ewing Young arrived Willamette Valley, Columbia District, this year from California, settling near Chehalem Creek.

Lac Kw'alaams aka Fort Simpson also Port Simpsonon the Nass River, near Prince Rupert, B.C. is established 1834 by Capt. Aemilius Simpson and (III)-Peter Skene Ogden  (1790/94-1854).  The first Chief Factor for HBC is Dr. John Frederick until 1856.
Others suggest coastal Fort Simpson on the Nass River was (1831-1911)

The company reckoned that inter-marriage between the whites and Indians would lessen hostile relations. James Murry Yale (1776-1871) set a good example for his men and taught the natives that bigamy was ok for Hudson Bay Company men.  He married three Indian women within his first three years at the fort, and they each bore his offspring. His first wife was the daughter of Chief Whattlekainum of the Kwantlen, his second the daughter of the Katzie Chief, and the third the daughter of Pal-hal-lak, the religious head of the Thompson Indians above the Fraser Canyon. A daughter from the third wife married (II)-George Simpson Metis Junior, the son of the Governor  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, James Murry Yale (1776-1871) still later married a relative of Chief T'soschia, of the Cowichan Confederacy.  Sir George had five known illegitimate Metis children of his own.

By this time labourers, at Forty Langley had also intermingled with the Indians and began raising families. The Kanakas were not permitted to bring their women into the fort so instead built homes across the river from the fort. Each morning these men paddled across the river to work and in the evening paddled back again to be with their wives and children.

James Murray Yale (1776-1871) from a friend, Mary Julia Mechtler. On page 2, she writes:
"Continue to keep your good resolutions of not taking an Indian wife, on account of yourself as well as of the dreadful fate that generally awaits the Bois Brule offspring of such a connection. Reflect what every man owes himself. What apology can a white man make to his children for mixing and polluting his pure blood with that of a savage. How dare such a person pretend to principle and feeling! Fie upon him for a selfish monster! I hope, my dear James, you will never have such a reproach to make to your conscience." 

Three shipwrecked Japanese sailors arrived Fort Vancouver, 

February 7:  The Hojun-Maru, a Japanese ship from Toba, Japan, disabled in a typhoon,  drifted to America and was washed up on Point Greenville, south of Cape Flattery on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.  Of the 14 man crew three survived.  These were Iwakichi age 28, Kyukichi age 15 and Otokichi age 11.  The survivors were taken as slaves by the locals until Captain McNeil rescued them taking them to Fort Nisqually of the H.B.C. as recorded by Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) . 

February 20:  Archibald McDonald (1790-1853)  left Fort Langley so his growing family could attend school at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon). He, soon afterwards, founded Nisqually House on the south end of Puget Sound. The following year he was put in charge of Fort Colville. He retired from the service in 1844 and died in St. Andrews, near Cornwall, Ontario, in 1853. 

February 20: James Murray Yale took command of Fort Langley and a Hudson's Bay Company farm was established at Langley Prairie. The farm will become very successful, shipping salted salmon to Hawaii.

April HBC builds Fort Nisqually, the first non Indian settlement on Pugent Sound. 

April 26:  Kootenay House, birth Caroline (Kit) Kittson Metis d-1837 in epidemic daughter William Kittson (1792-1841) and Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian.

July 15: Fort Hall (1834-1855) built at the "The Bottoms" of the Snake River.   In the early 1830's a young businessman of New England named Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth become interested in the trade possibilities of the Pacific Northwest.   

1834 

Fort William on the Columbia River is built (1834-1836)

Ovid Allard (Alard) (1817-1874) born St. Roch, Montreal son Francois Allard dit Chatelin and Suzanne Mercier of Montreal, He joined HBC (1834-1874) Columbia District
1834-1837 Fort Hall (Idaho)
1837 Fort Boise (Idaho)
1839-1874 mostly Fort Langley (B,C.)
He married a native girl at Fort Hall, one child;
    Marie Sennie Allard Metis who married Aprnaut and became the mother of Julia Hamburger Apnaut Metis; Ovid's second wife gave Sennie at Fort Langley to Mr. McKay
He married Justine Cowichan (1823-1907) marriage formalized 1853
    Lucie Allard Metis (1842-1924)
    Jason Ovide Allard Metis (1848-1931) married Seraphine Indian of Port Townsend area and had 12 children
    Mathilde Allard Metis b-1851
    Sara Allard Metis bapt-1856
    Joseph Allard Metis b-1862
    Marie Allard Metis 
    unnamed daughter born died Fort Langley
Two other children are recorded;
    Laurent Allard Metis (1851-1860)
    Eugenie Allard Metis bapt-1854

Pierre Ateassta Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1811 son Pierre Kalaton ha na and Catherine Kwahwan ne, of Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec, joined HBC (1834-1852) Columbia District.  On January 17, 1843 likely at Fort Vancouver, he legitimized his marriage to Angele Louis André. Their children were:  
    Louis Ateassta Iroquois b-1839
    Catherine Ateassta Iroquois b-1840 
    Sifroy/Sigfroid Ateassta Iroquois b-1843
    Pierre Ateassta Iroquois (1845-1845).

Nicholas (Joseph) Auger (1806-1885) French Metis employed HBC (1829-1854) died in Victoria had possibly three wives and eight recorded children. On March 14, 1853 he legitimized his marriage to Amelie Nass. 
Their children were:             
    Catherine Auger Metis b-1835, married William Cook b-1829 March 14, 1853
    Celestin Auger Metis b-1837 Fort Simpson
    Joseph Auger Metis (1839-1859?), 
    Nicholas Auger Metis  (1841-1858), 
    Olivier Auger Metis (1846-1858)
    Pierre  Auger Metis (1851-1884). 
It is possible that Joseph Auger Metis (1859-1859), born to the native woman, Catherine, and Angelique Auger Metis b-1860, born to the native woman Cecile (.1822-1882), were also both Nicholas' children. Cecilia died on July 22, 1882.

Birth Michel Arquette, Metis (1834-1915) son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Francois Bouche aka Boucher Metis (1817-1852) son Jean Baptiste BoucherMetis d-1850 and Nancy McDougal Metis of New Caledonia, joined HBC (1834-1852) retired to Wtllamette but returned to Fort Vancouver.  He had three, possibly four, successive wives and at least three recorded children. His first wife, Costahna /Contantina  was recorded in 1843, when, in the Fort Vancouver area, their child, 
    Joseph Bouche Metis (1843-43), was born and died on the same day. 
Wife Costahna, however, was likely the same as Thérèse, Porteuse died before 1851. With Thérèse (Costahna?), François had 
    François Bouche Jr. Metis (1844-47?) 
    Isabelle Bouche Metis b-1847. 
January 20, 1851, he married Henriette, Calapooya died shortly after. 
April 19, 1852, François married his third or fourth wife, Marianne of the Fort Vancouver area.

Spokane; Charles Campo, likely a Metis as he was fluent in Nez Perces and Flathead languages.  He worked for the American Fur Company on the Missouri in the 1820's.  In 1835 he served as interpreter and guide for Samuel Parker.  He joined the HBC (1835-1838) at Fort Nez Perces, settled Willamette in the 1840's.  Charles Campo had one wife, Helene, Walla Walla  aka Louise. Their traced children were: 
    Henri Campo Metis, 
    Joseph Campo Metis (1841-53), 
    Paul Campo Metis b-1845
    Helene Campo Metis b-1848.

Michel Cottenoire Metis Jr.  (1820-1854) son Michel Cottenoire Sr. (1791-1851) and Chehalis woman from Clatsop County, Columbia District (Oregon). joined HBC (1834-1837) Columbia District, settled Cowlitz 1837.  March 3, 1841, he married Sophie Plamondon Metis, daughter of Simon Plamondon (1800-1900) and Veronica Scanewa (Thas-e-muth)  a Cowlitz woman. They formalized their marriage on June 7, 1842. Their children were 
    Cecilia Cottenoire Metis b-1843 
    Isabella Cottenoire Metis b-1843 
    Simon Cottenoire Metis b-1847
    Elizabeth Cottenoire Metis b-1850
    Victoria Cottenoire Metis b-1852
    Francis Cottenoire Metis 

(II)-John Patrick Cunningham Metis born Feb 16, 1818, IIe a La Crosse, Saskatchewan District d-1870 Paint Creek (Edmonton, Alberta area) son (I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789/94-1831) Ireland, and (II)-Mary (Anne) Bruce, Metis, (1794-1859). John joined HBC (1833-1868)-Saskatchewan and Athabasca Districts  (1834-1836) Columbia District in 1841,  John Patrick Cunningham had three successive wives and twelve recorded children. On 1837 married Jane Work Metis and on child,  On February 28, 1841, he married Margaret Mondion of Saskatchewan at Rocky Mountain House. It appears that they had no children. Margaret may have died, as four and a half years later on September 15, 1846 at Lac Ste Anne married Rosalie L'Hirondelle Metis b-1829 Lesser Slave Lake and had 11/12 children.  See Alberta for list of kids

McLeod Lake, New Caledonia marriage Paul Fraser to Angeliques Harnois, four children are recorded:
    John Fraser Metis (1835-1863) McLeod Lake, New Caledonia joined HBC (1849-1854) Columbia District
    Marguerite Fraser Metis b-1837 McLeod Lake, New Caledonia
    Alexander Fraser Metis b-1839 McLeod Lake, New Caledonia
    Peter Fraser Metis b-1842 Fort Umpqua

Joseph Gale (1800-1881) arrive Wallamette 1834 with Ewing Young and Hall Kelly.  Gale married Elizaabeth a Nez Perce/Walla Walla and had five Metis children with her.

Joseph Gervais (1777-1861) home at Willamette Valley was the site of the first school in Oregon, the teacher being Solomon Howard Smith.  The Oregon town of Gervais (founded 1871) is named after Joseph Gervais

Ignace Kainhewait Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1815 joined HBC (1834-1853) Columbia District.  He wanted to take his wife of the trade trips which was the Indian tradition but was refused so he retired.

Michel Kaonasse Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1814 from Sault St. Louis (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1834-1854) Columbia District.

Xavier Kateman (1812-1892) from St. Edouard, Quebec joined HBC (1834-1846) settled Lewis Co and Cowlitz Orairie, Washington.  On October 3, 1852, he formalized his marriage to Catherine in Lewis Co. They had an 
    unnamed baby Kateman Metis girl (1838-1838) 
    George Kateman Metis b-1840
Other children have not been traced.

(I)-John Linniard an Orkney joined HBC (1834-1860) interior Columbia District, settled east of Fort Kamloops on south side Thompson River 1862.  He had at least two native wives and several children. At Fort Alexandria, he had a local native wife, Alkoh d-1849) who bore him at least four children, 
    (II)-Mary Linniard Metis b-1845
    (II)-unnamed Linniard Metis child (1848-1848) 
    (II)-unnamed Linniard Metis child d-1853) 
    (II)-unnamed Linniard Metis son . 
Alkoh died November 23, 1849. At Thompson River, Linniard took a second wife, 
Married 1868, Kamloops, Margaret Shuswap native . Children of this union were 
    (II)-Jean Katherine Linniard Metis b-1861
    (II)-John Linniard Metis b-1857
    (II)-Anne Linnard Metis b-1863
    (II)-Guillaume Linnard Metis b-1865
    (II)-Joseph Linniard Metis b-1869 
    (II)-Louis Linniard Metis b-1866

York Factory joined HBC, (II)-John Patrick Cunningham Metis (1811/1818-1870) son (I)-Patrick Cunningham (1789-1831) and Nancy Anne Bruce Metis (1794-1859); joined HBC and is assigned Athabasca, (1834-1836) Columbia District, then back to Athabasca (1837-1845), then Red River (1845-1855), where he married and started his family.

(I)-Donald McAulay (1805-1868) joined HBC (1832-1868) Saskatchewan District (1832-1834) on to Columbia District 1834.  On July 30, 1850, Donald McAulay married Margaret Snaach (1819-69) from Fort Simpson. Margaret Snaach was buried on August 31, 1869 in Victoria. Their children were 
    (II)-Catherine McAuley Metis (1848-1880)
    (II)-Flora McAuley Metis-bap.1850
    (II)-Mary McAuley Metis-bap.1850
    (II)-Sarah McAuley Metis-bap.1850
    (II)-Margaret McAuley Metis-bap.1853
    (II)-Mary Ann McAuley Metis-bap.1855


(I)-William (Cochon Bill) McCarty (1807-1854) an Irishman, joined HBC (1834-1836) Columbia District. On January 28, 1839 he married Charlotte Chehalis (.1808-1842). A son 
    (II)-Joseph McCarty Metis (1825-1839) was from another marriage. 
Upon the death of Charlotte, he took for a wife, Silsao (Cecelia) Carcowan (1826-1871), daughter of a Chinook chief on the lower Washington coast. They had one daughter, 
    (II)-Catherine McCarty Metis b-1846

Henry McNeill Metis (1834-1872) son William Henry McNeill and Matilda Neshaki a Haida d-1850, joined HBC (1853-1859) Columbia District

(I)-William Glen Rae (1808-1845) joined HBC (1827-1845) assigned (1833-1834) Fort Edmonton, (1834-1836) Columbia District, married 1838 Fort Vancouver Eloisa McLoughlin daughter John McLoughlin (1812-1842) HBC (1837-1842) Columbia District

(I)-William Glen Rae (1809-1845) son (I)-John Rae and Margaret Glen Campbell, is at Fort Nez Perces to help P.C. Pambrum who was having problems with the Indians. 

(I)-William Glen Rae (1808/09-1845) son (I)-John Rae and Margaret Glen Campbell; joined HBC 1827-1845) assigned Red River (1828-1830), (1833-1834) at Fort Edmonton, assigned Columbia District (1834-1845), committed suicide at Yerba Buena [San Francisco] Mexico California.  married 1838 Eloisa (Elizabeth) McLoughlin Metis daughter Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857) and Margaret Wadin Metis (1775-1860).   William Glen Rae had one wife and three children. In 1838, Rae married Eloisa McLoughlin b-1814/18 Lake Superior born daughter of Dr. John McLoughlin. Brothers (I)-Richard H. Rae b-1812 and (I)-Dr. John Rae (1813-1893) both involved in the fur trade.  Their children were 
    (II)-John Rae Metis b-1840
    (II)-Margarit Rae Metis b-1841
    (II)-Eloisa Rae Metis b-1842 
By 1850 the widow Eloisa had moved back into the house of Dr. John McLoughlin and in that year, she married Daniel Harvey of Oregon.

Francois Xavier Vautrin Metis b-1815 son Pierre Vautrin and Agathe Baudin' from Fort Edouard joined (1834-1856) Columbia District.  François Xavier had two wives and five recorded children. His first wife was Emily Kwoithe, who appears to have died or was abandoned before 1841. Their child 
    Florence Vautrin Metis b-1838 was baptised on September 4, 1841 at Fort Vancouver. 
Eleven years later, on December 11, 1852, in the Victoria region, François Xavier legitimized his marriage to Marie b-1821 Kwantlen. Their children were 
    Emilie/Amelia Vautrin Metis (1841-1891), 
    Helene Vautrin Metis (1846-1864), 
    Catherine Vautrin Metis b-1849 
    Rosalie Vautrin Metis (1852-1854)
    François Xavier Vautrin Metis Jr. b-1857

Courtney Meade Walker (1804-1887) from Pennsylvania joined mission in Wallamette Valley 1834, joined HBC (1835-1840) Columbia District  He married (II)-Margaret McTavish, Metis bapt 1823 lame daughter of (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) and (II)-Nancy McKenzie Metis and together they had 6 Metis children 
    Joseph Raymond Jacob Walker Metis b-1864
    Helen Walker Metis

January 17: Fort Vancouver marriage Pierre Ateassta aka Akaiss-sa, Akeija b-1811 employed HBC (1834-1852) son Poerre Lalaton and Catherine Kwahwan; married Angle Louis Andre; four children are recorded:
    Louis Ateassta Metis b-1839
    Catherine Ateassta Metis b-1839
    Sifoy (Siefroid) Ateassta Metis b-1839
   Pierre Ateassta Metis b-1839

1835 

Louis Assinchuru Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1809 Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1835-1844) Columbia District.

(I)-George William Barton (1816-1842) employed HBC (1830-1842).   George Barton had two wives and at least two children. In the 1830s, he married a native or mixed descent woman in the Columbia District and had a Metis child probably by 1836. Probably in the summer of 1839, when George was temporarily back in the British Isles, he married (I)-Maria Ridley sister (I)-James H. Ridley HBC (1830-1840) Columbia District. and by 1842 had one child.

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Simpson aka Fort Nass, Columbia District (1835-1837) 

(I)-George Borabora aka Budabud, Tahito employed HBC (1835-1851) working the Columbia District,  George had one daughter, Catherine Borabora, likely a Metis but the name of his wife is unknown b-1848/1849), who was baptised a Catholic on June 17, 1849.  He was likely the father of Louis Bin Metis who was baptized Catholic at Fort Langley on February 8, 1852.

Charles Campo Metis trapper in the upper Missouri in 1820's for the American Fur Company.  He was an Interpreter and guide in the Columbia in 1835 when he joined HBC (1835-1838) Columbia District, settling Willamette 1840.  Charles Campo had one wife, Helene, Walla Walla aka Louise. Their traced children were 
    Henri Campo Metis 
    Joseph Campo Metis (1841-53), 
    Paul Campo Metis b-1845 
    Helene Campo Metis b-1848

Christopher Houston Carson (1809-1868) a free trader son Lindsay Carson and Rebecca Robinson of Kentucky, trading in the west 1826-1842.  In 1835 was trading with Thomas McKay (1797-1849) of HBC.  Kit Carson’s family life is unclear but he appears to have had several successive wives. Two of the more lasting were Waanibe d-1841 with whom he had two children, and Josefa Jaramillo  with whom he had 
    Charles Carson Metis (1849-1851), 
    William (Julian) Carson Metis b-1852 
    Teresina Carson Metis b-1855
    Christopher (Carson Metis b-1858
    Charles Carson Metis b-1861
    Rebecca Carson Metis b-1864, 
    Estanfanita Carson Metis b-1866
    Josefita Carson Metis b-1868

(I)-James Craigne an Orkney (1813-1895) joined HBC (1835-1852).  In 1839, while at Fort Boise, he married a “Bannock” native and had one Metis daughter. 
On July 12, 1853 James Craigie married Mary Ann Desjarlais who may be the same as his first wife. No other children have been traced.

(I)-William Frederick Crate (1812-1871) of London, joined HDC 1834 Lachinr, Quebec, (1834-1835) in Red River, (1835-1861) in Columbia District, married an Indian girl and had a child, 
    (II)-Elizabeth Crate Metis b-1843, 
He returned from England, possibly with an English wife?, Sarah Glazebrook, with whom he had three more children: 
    (II)-William F.Crate  Jr. b-1845
    (II)-Adolfus Crate born July 28, 1849
    (II)-Mary Ann Crate  born Oct. 1852

(I)-James Dickson (Dixon) (1787-1861) employed HBC (1825-1844) assigned Fort Vancouver, Columbia (1835-1844)

Dominique Farron aka Frarron b-1798 employed HBC (1815-1840) assigned Fort Nisqually, Columbia (1835-1836)

(I)-Duncan Finlayson (1795-1862) employed HBC (1815-1859) is assigned to Fort Vancouver, Columbia District (1835-1837) as Chief Factor.

(I)-George Kirby Gay (1797-1882) with William Bailey and John Turner settled Willamette Valley.

William Gullion of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1835-1839) as laborer, returned to British Isles.

(II)-Margaret Goudie, Metis b-1835, daughter (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53). 

(I)-Gavin Hamilton (1835-1909) son John Macaulay Hamilton and MKarion Rae, joined HBC (1852-1878) Columbia District.  At Fort St. James, he married (IV)-Margaret Juliana Ogden Metis (1844-1918), daughter of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1852) and Julie Flathead (1788-1886),. Together, they had: 
    (II)-Peter Ogden Hamilton Metis b-1863
    (II)-John Rae Hamilton Metis b-1864
    (II)-Thomas McAulay Hamilton Metis (1865-1955), 
    (II)-Colin Alexander Hamilton Metis b-1866
    (II)-Charlie Ogden Hamilton Metis (1868-1954), 
    (II)-Richard Rae Hamilton Metis b-1870 
    (II)-Gavin James Hamilton Metis b-1873
    (II)-Moffat Hamilton Hamilton Metis (1873-1971), 
    (II)-Margaret Jessie Hamilton Metis (1874-1958), 
    (II)-John Alexander Hamilton Metis bap.1877, 
    (II)-Robert Tibbet Hamilton Metis bap.1877
    (II)-William Rae Hamilton Metis (1875-1953), 
    (II)-Rae Hamilton Metis (1877-1953), 
    (II)-Christine M. Hamilton Metis b-1879 
    (II)-Isaac Ogden Hamilton Metis (1881-1963), 
    (II)-Ellen/Helen Kate Rae Hamilton Metis b-1883 
    (II)-Mary S. R. Hamilton Metis 
    Theodore Henry Hamilton Metis (1892-1967).  
After the death of Gavin, Margaret [Ogden] Hamilton Metis married Ewen Duncan McKinlay, son of Archibald McKinlay and (IV)-Sarah Jane Ogden Metis, in Kamloops, B.C. on November 6, 1917.

William Harkness Metis (1835-1857) joined HBC (1850-1857) Fort Victoria.  In 1856 he appears to have had a daughter, 
    Rosalie Harkness Metis by an unnamed woman of the "Quyslen" (Kwantlen?) tribe. Rosalie was baptised on June 29, 1856 at Fort Langley.

Norman Henry Metis (1819-1845) son William Henre and Agathe Baptiche, joined HBC (1835-1845) Columbia District.

Pierre Lavalle Metis b-1811/20 son Ignace Lavallee (1760-1849) and Josephte Cree b-1786., joined HBC (1835-1841), settler to Willamette 1841.

Edouard Lelo Metis son Jean Baptiste Leolo Metis (1798-1868) of New Caledonia.  Joined HBC (1835-1837) New Caledonia and Columbia District.

John Linniard of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1835-1861) as farmer likely settled B.C.

John Logie b-1814, Orkney, died March 24, 1854 on Sauve Island, Washington,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1835-1849) as dairyman

(I)-John McLean (1813-1849) joined HBC 1832 York Factory assigned (1835-1848) Fort Vancouver, settled Willamette 1848.  John McLean had one wife, Betsy Chehalis, and three recorded children. Their children were 
    (II)-Marguerite McLean Metis b-1839 
    (II)-Augustin (McLean Metis b-1842 
    (II)-Marie McLean Metis b-1845

Marie Pepen, Metis, b-1835 Fort Langley daughter Etienne Pepen alias Maille and Magice (1799-1874) and Uiskiwin Woman:  the son of Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec; married Simon Gill son Thomas Gills and Catherin Basin of Montreal. 

Joseph Pineau from Sorel, Quebec joined HBC (1835-1845) Columbia District settled Willamette.  Joseph Pineau married  a Snake woman and had an unknown number of children. Four of their recorded children were: 
    Marguerite Pineau Metis (1845-1848), 
    Louise Pineau Metis b-1846
    unnamed daughter Pineau Metis (1847-1848),
    Angele Pineau Metis b-1848

(I)-William Pottinger b-1814 Orkney working west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1835-1854) as laborer, retired to Victoria, married a native wife in Fort Simpson and one son is recorded:
    (II)-James Pottinger Metis (1843-1909)

Joseph Teonetaneka b-1809 Sault St. Louise, Quebec Mohawk/Iroquois, joined HBC (1835-1837) New Caledonia and (1837-1838) Columbia Districts

William Fraser Tolmis, a young Glaswegian, reported the presence of coal deposits on Vancouver Island.  A blacksmith had told him who learned of it by a visiting Kwakiutl Indian.

Pierre (Waccan) Umpreville Metis b-1817 

Louis Vassal Metis (1823-1896) from Red River, joined HBC (1835-1845) Fort Vancouver, retired Willamette.  Louis Vassal had two wives and five recorded children. On July 2, 1848, he formalized his marriage to Catherine Atalo/Ki-yah-tol (1818-53), a Lower Chinook from Baker’s Bay (although the Census Rolls of 1906 say she was half Chinook and half Clatsop). Their children were 
    Isidore Vassal Metis (1844-before 1848), 
    Victoire Vassal Metis b-1846 
    Flore Vassal Metis (1848-died early), 
    Adelaide Vassal Metis (1850-1850) 
    Moyse Vassal Metis (1852-1852). 
After Catherine died in 1853 (Census Rolls), he chose as a wife Charlotte Siletz (1838-68), who died on May 24, 1868 on the Grande Ronde Reservation

Robert Wavickareea Metis b-1835 Fort Langley son Wavicareea and Uiskin womand, joined HBC (1853-1862) Fort Langley, settled Port Haney.  Robert Wavikareea appears to have had one, possibly two wives, who were variously described as a Quytlen [Kwantlen?] and Marguerite, Sta-ei-els [Chehelis?:] and a native of Kretsin [Katsey?] as well as nine recorded children. His children were 
    Robert Robert Metis bap.1856
    John Robert Metis b-1856
    Susan Robert Metis b-1861
    Blanche Robert Metis b-1864 
    George Robert Metis b-1867
    Henry Robert Metis b-1870
    Lawrence Robert Robert Metis b-1871 
    Lavinia Robert Metis b-1872
    Frank Robert Metis b-1875-?). 
The family was Catholic. The family adopted their father’s first name of Robert as a surname.

Eight United States men, one with a family, journeyed from northern California to Oregon. Four of the travelers were killed in an attack at the Rogue River and the survivors arrived wounded and destitute.

Fort Langley was moved up-stream because the Fraser River flooded the origin site. 

The Columbian whaling industry started the hunted the whales to near extension.

Mt. St. Helens (Washington) erupted this year.

 

1836 

HBC built Fort Umpqua (1836-1852) (southern Oregon)

John Anson Metis Jr.  b-1836 son John Anson Sr. and Helene Chinook who was married to Ignace Iroquois most likely from Sault St. Louis (Caughnawaga) in 1840 at the baptism of John Jr.

Andre Ariwhoianta d-1842 Iroquois (Mohawks) of Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joind HBC (1836-1842) Columbia District.

Birth Lisrtte Arquette, Metis (1836-1897) daughter Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Ignace Atachsarar Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1809 Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1836-1845) Kamloops. 

Fort Vancouver:  arrival of John (Jack) Calder Metis b-1819 Joined HBC (1829-1846) was in Red River 1845 but settled Cowlitz Area in 1846.  John Calder had one recorded wife, Mary b-1815 of unknown origin, and two children are recorded:
    Edward Calder Metis b-1846
    Mary Calder Metis b-1848.

William Campbell of Orkney, died March 22, 1887 at Hillside, (Washington), worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1839) as laborer, returned to British Isles.

Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) married Columbia, Catherine Russie, Metis daughter Augustin (Russie) Roussil b-1760 and Indian woman.  Some suggest he married Catherine in Canada some years before and came out to Columbia in 1838 with several of their children.  That two children Michel and Charles drowned on the way out.  It is noteworthy that Catherines first child is recorded as Rose born 1837 and Andre married Rose Cayuse an Indian and they had a child Augustin Chalifoux Jr. Metis (1839-1898) 

Hugh Cormack of Orkney worked west of Rockies (1836-1842) as steward returned to British Isles 1842.

James Craige b-1813 Orkney, died September 29, 1895 Yaquina Bay, Oregon, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1852) as interpreter 

Francois Deschiquette Metis Jr. (1819-1862) son Francois Deschiquette Sr and Marie Marguerite Okanagan, joined HBC (1836-1862) Columbia District.

James Dickson of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1838) as blacksmith, returned to British Isles.

(II)-Cecilia Douglas, Metis, b-1834 Fort Vancouver d-1865 daughter (I)-James Souglas, Metis (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): married December 1852, Fort Victoria Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken; they had 7 children. 

Alexander Dumond (Guerette) Metis b-1815 Green Bay, Wisconsin.  employed HBC (1837-1843) Columbia District and settled Willamette 1843.  He claimed to be in the Columbia District in 1836.   He married Susette (Josephte Finlay) Metis  in 1841. They had 14 children but recorded children were 
    Marguerite Dumond Metis b-1837, married 1853 George Rondeau and 1870 Joseph Chamberlan
    Alexandre Dumond Metis b-1839
    Auguste Louis (1843-1868)
    André Dumond Metis b-1849 
    Marie Dumond Metis b-1850/51 
    Genevieve Dumond Metis b-1850/51, 
    David (confirmed 1851)
    Jacques (b. 1854)
    François Dumond Metis b-1856 
    Emilie Dumond Metis b-1858
    Eleanore Dumond Metis b-1861.
    Cecile Dumond Metis married Francois Acosta

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) settled Willamette, Columbia (Oregon Territory)

(I)-David Flett (1818-1846) of Orkney, drowned May 31, 1842/46 at Okanagan Falls, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1842) as servant, married (II)-Letitia (Letty) Cook b-1824 daughter (I)-William Hemmings Cook (1766-1846) and (II)-Mary Cocking Metis b-1782, (II)-Letitia epouse 1847 Fort Vancouver Joseph Berry Rodgers.

(II)-James Goudie Jr.Metis, (1836-1864), son (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and his wife from the village of Schwenetekoo [“Keep Sounding Water” or Kettle Falls]

Adam Gunn of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1839) as laborer, sent to London hospital.

Iwakichi (1806-1851) of Japan and thirteen others had boarded the rice and porcelain laden vessel and sailed from Toba and out of sight of its castle into the Totomi-Nada or Enshunada Sea, they encountered a typhoon which caused the ship to lose its rudder. For the next thirteen months, they drifted across the ocean, keeping themselves alive by eating the cargo of rice and whatever fish they could catch. Back in Onoura’s Ryosanji Temple, as it was presumed that all had perished, a memorial stone was eventually erected to all fourteen, but three (Iwakichi, Kyukichi, Otokichi) managed to survive the sickness on board before being washed up on the shores fifteen miles south of Cape Flattery. There the Makah natives, seeing the vessel in their traditional territory, took full possession of the cargo and enslaved the three surviving crew members. The rescue of the three was delayed for news of the wreck first reached Fort Nisqually on January 29, 1834, but by February 7, 1834, the story was deemed to be a hoax. After the news reached Fort Vancouver, Thomas McKay (1797-1849) was sent out on a rescue mission via the Chehalis area but he and his party turned back at Point Grenville. In late May, a paper on which the survivors had scrawled a message in Japanese arrived at Fort Vancouver whereupon McLoughlin instructed his captains to effect a rescue. Finally, by June 9, Wm. H. McNeill (1801-1875) on the Lama, on a voyage to Fort Langley, had managed to rescue two by exchanging them for local hostages (who had climbed on board) and the local Makah natives promised to bring the third to the coast to be picked up by the Lama.  All attempts to return them to Japan ended in failure.  The Morrison with another four Japanese castaways then withdrew and Iwakichi and his friends, upon being rejected by their homeland, shaved their heads and renounced Japan as their home.

John Jackson b-1836 B.C. and wife Sadie b-1826 B.C. are living Skeena in 1901 census

William Johnston b-1819 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C, (1836-1851) as laborer retired to Idaho.

John Low Sr. of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1840) as seaman/cook, returned to British Isles (see 1836)

John Low Jr. of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1839) as seaman/cook, returned to British Isles

Louis Mocuman Indian or Metis born Columbia District joined HBC (1836-1844), settled Willamette 1840.

Columbia District, birth Therese Ouvre, Metis baptized April 24, 1839 Fort Nisqually daughter Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) and Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually

James Peace of Orkney working west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1838) as seaman, deserted June 10, 1838 in Monterey, California.

Andre Picard (1781-1846) employed NWC (1800-1821) HBC (1821-1836)  in Columbia District retired to Willamette (Oregon) with his Metis family. 

Thomas Sinclair b-1791 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1836-1834) as ship's master returned to British Isles.

Ignace Sagoganinkas (1816-1850) Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec joined HBC (1836-1850) Columbia District.

Joseph Sagpyenhas b-1816 Mohawk/Oroquois from Sault St. Louis, Quebec, joined HBC (1836-1844) Columbia District.

Thomas Sagoyawatha a Seneca Iroquois from St. Regious, Quebec joined HBC (1836-1862) Columbia District.  On April 29, 1850, Thomas Sagoyawatha married Josephine Kakaish  and had three or four recorded children. Their children were 
    Joseph Sagoyawatha d-1850
    Thomas Sagoyawatha bap.1853
    Mariam Sagoyawatha who may be the same as Marie Sagoyawatha bap.1855

(II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis (1827-1894) son (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) and Margaret Taylor Metis (1810-1860) whom he abandoned; arrived Fort Vancouver 1836.  Joined HBC (1841-1860) Columbia District.  On June 12, 1857 at Fort Langley, Simpson married Isabella Yale b-1840, daughter of James Murray Yale and together they had four children, 
    (III)-George Simpson Metis (1858-1926), 
    (III)-Elizabeth Aurelia Simpson Metis (1865-1872), 
    (III)-Miles/Mylles Yale Simpson Metis b-1869
    (III)-James Simpson Metis (1872-1898).

Dr. Marcus Whitman (1802-1847) married Narcissa Prentiss sight unseen and departed for Oregon in a Red River River cart on the Oregon trail.  The cart had to be abandoned at Fort Boise.  Some claim this was the first cart used on the Oregon trail and Narcissa Prentiss the first white woman.  

Settlers built the first Catholic Church in Oregon at St. Paul (on French Prairie). Without a priest, the church was not blessed and dedicated until 1839.

The USS Shark, a schooner sank off Cannon Beach, Oregon

The London built Beaver a paddle wheeler that looked like a man-of-war had 4 brass cannon, muskets and cutlasses in racks arrived Fort Vancouver (Portland, Oregon).  The Beaver was designed for the Hudson Bay Company to control the Pacific Northwest fur trade.  United States sailing ships were no match for her as she could steam up to 8.5 knots and enter coves and inlets not accessible to sailing ships.  She operated until July 1888 when she ran onto rocks at the entrance to Vancouver harbor.  The Coastal Indians believed it carried a fire devil.

March 22:  The following families reside at French Prairies, (St. Paul), aka Walama and Wallamette abd Willamette Oregon Territory

Peare Belleck (Pierre Belleque?), 3 children
Charlo Chata
Joseph Delar (Deslard) (1797-1869), 5 children
Pear Depo, 1 child
Joseph Desport, 3 children
John Baptist Desportes, 8 children
Lamab Erquet, 3 children
Luey Fourcy, 3 children
Joseph Jarvay (Gervais), 7 children
William Johnson, 2 children
Louis Labonte (Labonte)
Xaviar Laderout, 1 child
Etienne Laferte
Andrey Longten, 4 children
Eken Luceay (Lucier), 6 children
William McCarty
Andrey Pecor (Picard) (1781-1846), 4 children
Jean Bt Perrault, 2 children
Charles Plant, 4 children
Charles Rondo, 3 children

The Jesuit fathers Francis Blanchet and Modeste Deners reached the Plateau Salish Indians passing through Fort Colville down the Columbia to Fort Vancouver.  They recorded the area was already occupied by French Canadians and Iroquois (Mohawks) Catholic.  Most Iroquois were Mohawk speaking from Sault St. Marie (Caughnawaga) near Lachine, Montreal, Quebec and were Catholic.

April The Beaver arrives Burrard Inlet, six months after leaving England. It is the first steamship to reach the Pacific Ocean.

May 22: James Bird, Metis near Fort Hall, near Snake River on the Oregon trail entered into trade with Antoine Godin Metis  d-1835/1836 a Iroquois (Mohawks) Indian with the American Gur Company when a Blackfoot shot Antoine dead. 

June 18: The Beaver, arrived Puget Sounds, the first steamship sailed from Fort Vancouver.

July 25: Fort Nisqually, birth Eloisa Jemima Kittson Metis, daughter William Kittson (1792-1841) and Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian: married William Sinclair III.

September 15:  Fort Vancouver, birth, (II)-Margeraet Work, Metis, daughter, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married February 5, 1860, E.H. Jackson

 

1837  

Louis Aurtaronquash Iroquois (Mohawk) from Sault St. Louis (Caughnawaga) near Lachine, Montreal, Quebec, he joined HBC (1837-1861) Columbia District.

Edouard Beauchmin b-1816 Lachine, Quebec likely son Auguste Beauchemin and Josette Lavelle; employed HBC (1837-1855) retired 1855 to French Town (Lowden near Walla Walla, Washington) 
1st  married Marianne Walla Walla.  
    Charles Beaching Metis 
    Jean Baptiste Beauchmin Metis , 
    Justine Beauchmin Metis, 
    Norris [Louis?]Beauchmin Metis , 
    Paul Beauchmin Metis b-1850,
    Alix Beauchmin Metis b-1852 
    Narcisse Beauchmin Metis b-1855.
2nd marriage Marie Laroque at St. Rise Mission.

Pierre Belleque, (1797-1849) employed NWC (1819-1821) location not recorded but likely Caledonia, New Caledonia, Western Caledonia and Columbia; and HBC (1821-1837) same areas as canoeman.  He married 1831 1st. Genevieve St. Martin, Metis daughter Andre St. Martin and Indian Woman; she married after 1850 Willamette, Columbia, Casimar Gardepie.  Some suggest he was the 1st white settler in French Prairie aka Walama or Wallamitte Willamette Valley, Columbia (Oregon).  I suspect Metis settlers in the early days are not considered as white.  HOWEVER other settlers to Walama aka French Prairie or Willamette Valley, Columbia District (Oregon), are listed below:  It's possible but not likely that he settled his first wife Genevieve St. Martin, Metis, in Walama Valley, when he first arrived in 1829 or on other trips (1819-1829) as he was a canoe man (Steersman).   See 1819
The Champoeg trading post of Walama aka French Prairie, later called Wallamette then Willamette, contained 34 men not counting women and children and likely existed before 1814.  It is noteworthy that the village of Clow-we-wallas was not far from the Champoeg trading post.  The two freemen called Nepisangues (assumed to be Metis) likely were the first settlers, more than likely predating Lewis and Clark.  Its noteworthy that the aboriginal peoples of the Walama Valley were not hunter-gathers but lived for centuries on agriculture.  They did trade with costal Indians for salmon occasionally.  They were very friendly and it's likely they taught the first settlers agriculture practices.

        1814 Alexander Henry, Alfred Seton and 30 more company men plus two huts of Free Men believed to be Canadian Metis.
        1821 Andre Picard (1781-1846)
        1829 Etienne Lucier
        1830 Louis Labonte
        1832 Joseph Delard (Deslard) (1797-1869)
        1833 Pierre Belleque
        1834 Jason Lee
        1834 Joseph Gervais
        1834 Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth
        1836 March 22 there are 20 families listed totaling 99 people and this would only include those living near Champoeg (Oregon)
        1837 Pierre Belleque, (1797-1849)
        1840 This year 50 families are noted on the French Prairie aka Willamette Valley (Oregon.
        

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Umpqua, Columbia District (1837-1838) 

William Cannon, aka Canning & Cannon (1763-1854), employed HBC at Willamette, Columbia (1837-1839), he settled in Willamette Valley in 1839.

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson, of India, (1814-1884) married Fort Alexandria Elizabeth Birnie.

Columbia, birth, Rose Chalifoux, Metis died October 10, 1846, Wallamett, Columbia District, daughter Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851)and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

Adolphe (Adolphus Francopis Dolphus) Chamberlain (1819-1888) from Montreal but joined HBC 1836 at Lachine, 1836-1837) Norway House, (1837-1841) Columbia District retired to Willamette after trip to Caada, Adolph Chamberlain was married twice, maybe three times, and had nineteen children.
1st married December 27, 1838, Julienne Watiece, daughter George Watiece,  On May 28, 1838 at John McLoughlin’s house inside Fort Vancouver, Reverend Beaver married Adolphe and Laquinesse George, possibly the same as Julienne Anne Watiece Indian whose marriage was formalized in the Catholic Church, some months later. On December 27, 1838, he married Julienne Watiece, the daughter of George Watiece, Iroquois and Chinook woman, Julienne died most likely between 1847 and 1851.and together they had six children:
    Zoe
Chamberlain Metis b-1839 
    Joseph
Chamberlain Metis b-1840
    Virginia
Chamberlain Metis (1843-1844), 
    Marie Rose
Chamberlain Metis  (1845-1845), 
    Marie
Chamberlain Metis  b-1846
    Paul
Chamberlain Metis  b-1847 
2nd married Louise Humpherville (Umperville) Metis b-1829 Louise died April 17, 1876 at St. Paul, Oregon.,daughter Canote Umpreville aka Canotte Umfreville, Humpherville Athabasca Metis (1788-1842) and Marie Marguerite Michina (1798-1868) a Coeur d'Alene Salishan; and had 13 children between 1851-1873
    Calixte Chamberlain Metis  (1851-1851), 
    Fabien
Chamberlain Metis  b-1852
    Euphemie
Chamberlain Metis  b-1854 
    Barthelmy
Chamberlain Metis  b-1855 
    Jeremie Clement
Chamberlain Metis b-1858
    Adolphe
Chamberlain Metis  b-1860 
    Narcisse
Chamberlain Metis  (1861-1878), 
    François
Chamberlain Metis  b-1864, 
    Pauline
Chamberlain Metis  b-1866, 
    Elie
Chamberlain Metis  (1867-?), 
    Alfred Jerome
Chamberlain Metis  b-1869
    an unnamed son
Chamberlain Metis  (1871-1871), 
    John Baptist
Chamberlain Metis  (1873-1874). 


Oliver Couturier joined HBC (1837-1843) Columbia District, returned east 1843.  On April 8, 1839 he married Marguerite Kaiseno (.1820-1844), daughter of Chief Cassino. At that time she had a four-year-old son, 
    Pierre Calder Metis b-1835, the son of Peter Calder who had gone to Fort Edmonton in 1838. 
Marguerite died on June 30, 1844 a year after Olivier had gone east of the Rockies.

Cowlitz, Columbia District, birth, David Cotenoir, son  Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Mary a Ketse nation woman, 

Jean Baptiste Dubreuille born 1791, working Columbia District (1806-1842) assigned to the Southern Expedition (1837-1841), Columbia District.

Dominique Farron aka Frarron b-1798 employed HBC (1815-1840) assigned Fort Vancouver, Columbia (1837-1840)

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Umpqua, Columbia District (1837-1841)

(I)-George Hirby Gay (1797-1882) joined Ewing Young to form the Willamette Cattle Company to bring in live stock from California to compete with the HBC.  This company made Gay one of the richest men in the Oregon Territory but he died broke.

Joseph Gendron, involved in fur trade since1830, Missouri region,  HBC (1837-1844) Columbia District, 1843 settled French Prairie, Willamette 1843. Joseph Gendron had three wives and a total of seven recorded children. He and an unnamed woman had 
    Louise Gendron Metis b-1834
    Pierre Gendron Metis b-1837
On February 11, 1839 he married Louise Chinook and had the following children: 
    Catherine I Gendron Metis b-1840
    Catherine II Gendron Metis b-1844
    Edouard Gendron Metis b-1841 
    Jean Baptiste Gendron Metis (1846-1888). 
With Pauly of the Dalles, he had a daughter, 
    Rose Gendron Metis b-1850

Thomas George Metis joined HBC (1837-1844) Columbia District settled Willamette 1844.

 (II)-James Goudie, Metis (1837-1864), son (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53). 

Urbain Heroux b-1811/12 Trois Rivieres joined HBC (1833-1844) assigned Northern Department and English River, then assigned (1837-1844) Columbia District.  Married 1837/38 Chinook woman
    Julien Heroux Metis b-1840 Fort Vancouver
    A Metis daughter b-1842 Fort Simpson

Antoine Kawenassa Quebec Iroquois (Mohawks) joined HBC (1833-1836) Columbia District (1837-1844)

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) is appointed in charge of the Umpqua Expedition (1837-1839).

Joseph Irvin of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1837-1839) as steward discharged in 1839 in Oahu.

Jean Baptiste Jolibois born 1795 LaPrairie, likely Metis employed HBC (1822-1851) assigned (1822-1824) Athabasca; posted (1837-1849) Fort Simpson

(II)-John (Jack) McIntosh Metis (1803-1844) born Lake Superior son (I?)-Donald McIntosh b-1773 and Chippawa girl;  joined HBC (1821-1836) worked Lake Supior (1821-1831) working (1837-1844) Columbia District.  John McIntosh had two wives or more and five recorded children. 
He married Charlotte Robertson b-1810-?) and together they had 
    (III)-Catherine McIntosh Metis b-1831, possibvly from a different woman?
    (III)-Donald  McIntosh Metis b-1836-?), likely from a different woman?
    (III)-John  McIntosh Metis (1840-59)  joined HBC (1853-1860) Oregon territory
    (III)-James [Jacobus] McIntosh Metis b-1843/1845
With Nancy Mestdzey Porteuse, Carrier, he had 
    (III)-Mary McIntosh Metis b-1843

(I)-John McLeod (1820-1905) joined HBC (1837-1855) Pacific Coast.  John McLeod had a Nisqually wife d-1889.   His wife had been taken north to Vancouver Island in childhood, likely as a slave, and her freedom was purchased by Joseph Carless, engineer of the Beaver. Carless’ wife took charge of her and took her to Victoria; afterwards, she was taken as a wife by McLeod.and had a daughter, 
    (II)-Kitty McLeod Metis 

(I)-Angus McPhail joined HBC (1837-1856) Northern Department (1837-1838) then to Columbia District, married twice:
1st married Anne bapt or churched -1850
    (II)-unnamed daughter who married Alphonses Verdier
2nd married 1851 Victoria, Angele Chartier Metis d-1862 a Canadian minor, likely orphaned daughter Pierre Chartier (1794-1828)
    (II)-Marie McPhail Metis b-1859

Alexis Martineau Metis from Red River joined HBC (1837-1840) Columbia District.

(I)-Donald Munro employed HBC (1837-1838) only spent 1 month at Fort Vancouver in 1837.

(II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. is at Fort Colvile, Columbia District (1837-1838)

Edward Julins Muench (1837-1882) married Kathleen Flathead Indian.  They had one recorded daughter Emily Elizabeth Muench, Metis, who married Christopher Moses.

Joseph Petrain (1819/20-1876) son Jacques Petrain and Marie Anne Placie (Plaire) from Montreal, joined HBC (1837-1849) Columbia District.  Joseph Petrain had two successive wives and seven recorded children. On April 19, 1843, he married a fourteen-year old Marie Wagner Metis (1829-1847) daughter Peter Wagner (1799-1865) and Mary Steins (Soks) Chinook. Their short-lived children were 
    Catherine Petrain Metis (1844-1844), 
    Joseph Petrain Metis (1845-1846)
    Joseph Ovide Petrain Metis (1846-1848). 
A still young Marie/Marianne died on December 20, 1847. On August 14, 1848, he married Catherine Dolan, from Ireland. Their recorded children were 
    James Petrain b-1849, 
    Charles Petrain b-1851, 
    Mary Jane Petrain b-1853,
    Julie Agnes Petrain  (1855-1855).

Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) is at Fort Nisqually, Columbia District until 1842..

Fort Vancouver, Columbia District marriage (I)-Amable Petit (1797/1802-1867) Berthier, France, employed HBC (1829-1842) to Susanne Tawakon.  Churched 1838.  Listed children are: (II)-Charles Petit, Metis, (II)-Henri Petit, Metis, (II)-Celeste Petit, Metis, (II)-Marie Petit, Metis, married Regis Picard son Andre Picard, (II)-Pierre Petit, Metis, (II)-Francois Petit, Metis, (II)-Louis Petit, Metis,  (II)-Louise Philomene Petit, Metis, & (II)-Flavie Petit, Metis, the family settled Willamette, 1842.

Rosalie Quintal, Metis b-1837, baptized June 21, 1839, Snake Country, Columbia District, Metis daughter Laurent Quintal (1799-1860) and Marie Anne Nipissing daughter of Louis Nipissing.

Cuthbert Robillard b-1810 Lachine/Montreal joined HBC (1837-1846), retired French Prairie, married 1846 Marie Okanagan widow of Andre Picard  (1781-1846) of Quebec, no recorded children

(I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) employed HBC (1818-1844) and is working Kootney, Columbia District (1837-1838)

(II)-John Ross, Metis, (1822-1863) baptized January 10, 1837 son (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Saulteau Woman from Lac La Pluie.

(II)-Walter Ross, Metis, (1823/27-1855) baptized January 10, 1837 son (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Saulteau Woman from Lac La Pluie.

Charles Sagogetsta d-1852 Iroquois from Lachine, Quebec joined HBC (1837-1852) Columbia District.

Andre St. Martin Metis b-1814 Sorel, Quebec son Andre St Martin and Indian woman; joined in Columbia HBC (1837-1849) Columbia District, likely brother Genevieve St. Martin Metis daughter Andre St. Martin Sr. of Sorel, Quebec, married 1831 1st. Pierre Bellique b-1797 married 1850 2nd wife Casimir Gariepy (1825-1849) 

(III)-Francois Xavier Vautrin dit Bienvenne, Metis born May 10, 1815, St. Philippe, Quebec, son (II)-Pierre Vautrin dit Bienvenne and Agathe Baudin (Baubin) a Miami Indian of the Detroit River region: married 1837 Emilie Quantlen woman.  Francois arrived Fort Vancouver 1834.  He eventually retired to Cowichan Valley.

The HBC refused to sell cattle to the Metis of Willamette Settlement they would lease cows but wanted to control the produce.  The citizens of Willamette formed the Willamette Cattle Company and sent 11 men to California to buy cattle..  

James Murray Yale (1776-1871) received word that the Yuculta from Quadra Island planned an attack on the Indian village near the Fort Langley. He felt an attack on these friendly Indians was the same as an attack on the fort. When the attackers did eventually come around the bend in the river within view of the fort the odds were unbelievable. The 25 men of the fort faced an enemy of 600.  When word came to open fire the carnage was incredible. Canoes were blasted right out of the water. The muddy river turned red as the dead and dying fell from their wrecked crafts. Any that escaped the initial onslaught of heavy firing were soon dispatched by Kwantlen warriors who had hidden across the river from the fort. As their hereditary enemies swam to shore they ran out and cracked them over the heads with stone hammers. It was never ascertained how many Yuculta warriors died in that brief encounter. The raiders never recovered from the defeat.

In 1837, Captain McNeill (1801-1875) was sent in the Company's steamship Beaver to scout the southern tip of Vancouver's Island, with a view to establishing such a post, and in 1842 his preliminary scouting was followed by a meticulous examination of the area from Ten-Mile Point to Sooke, carried out by young Chief Factor James Douglas (1803-1877). There were three possible harbors in this area. James Douglas (1803-1877) rejected the most westerly of these, called Sooke (from the Tsoke Indians who lived there), and the large central harbor, called Esquimault (from the Indian name Is-Whoy-Maulth, or "place of the shoaling waters"). In his opinion, the entrance to the former was too narrow and unprotected in rough weather, and the latter did not have sufficiently accessible fresh water. He finally settled on the easterly harbor, called by the Indians Camosun, or Camosack, from the profusion of Camas lilies which grew along its shores and were used by them as food in winter. Although rather shallow and muddy, it did have a protected entrance and adequate fresh water, with plenty of reasonably level ground on which a fort could be raised.

January or February:  Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth, (II)-Mary Work, Metis, daughter, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married September 5, 1860, J.A. Grahame

March:   settlers at Willammeth, (St. Paul) Oregon Territory
Pear Belleck [Pierre Beleque] (1793-1849) NWC 1818-1821) & HBC (1821-1830) New Caledonia, settling French Prairie 1830
Charlow Chayta
Joseph Delor
Peare Depo [Pierre depot]
Joseph Desportes
Lamab Erquert [Amable Arcouet]
Louey Foursey [Louis Fourcier]
Joseph Jarvay [Joseph Gervais]
Louey Labounty [Louis Labonte]
Jonva Ladroute [Xavier Laderoute]
Atoain Lafourty [Etienne Laferte]
Andrey Long[tain]
Etien Luceay [EtienneLucier]
John Bt Desportes McK[ay]
John Bt Pearone [Perrault]
Charls Plant
Charls Rondo

May 1837:  Fort Alexandria marriage (I)-Alexander Canfield Anderson (1814-1884) employed HBC 1832-1854) New Caledonia and Columbia District married  (II)-Elizabeth Birnie Metis married 1837 daughter (I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) and Charlotte Beaulieu Metis (1805-1878) of Red River and they had 9 children.
   (II)- Elizabeth CharlotteAnderson Metis (?-1918), 
   (II)-James Robert Anderson Metis (c.1842-?), 
   (II)-Henry/Harry Anderson Metis (c.1842-1893),
   (II)-Alexander  Anderson Metis (c.1845-?), 
   (II)-Allen  Anderson Metis (a.k.a. Seton) (?-?), 
   (II)-Agnes  Anderson Metis (?-?), 
   (II)-Walter Anderson Metis (?-?),
   (II)-Rose  Anderson Metis (c.1859-?) 
   (II)-Arthur Beattie Anderson Metis  (?-bap.1864-?).


1838  

HBC built Fort of the Lakes in the Columbia River region.

Louis Andre from Quebec, employed HBC (1821-1838) Columbia District, is posted Fort Vancouver (1838-1840).

Caesar Beaudouin b-1814 Grand St. Espirit, Quebec employed HBC (1838-1846) son Joseph Beaudoin and Cecile Jobin; married May 30, 1844 Fort Vancouver Sophie Charpentier Metis b-1830 (daughter of Charles Carpentier and a native Snake woman although she is more likely the daughter of François Charpentier (1796-1834) and native woman). Their recorded children were 
    Joseph Beaudouin Metis (1845-1847), 
    Francis Xavier Beaudouin Metis  b-1847  
    Suzanne Beaudouin Metis b-1848

(I)-Rev. Herbert Beaver (1800-1858) and his fierce wife Jane were incompatible with the fur trade.  He joined HBC (1836-1838) and immediately despised country marriages, and his wife Jane refused to associate with the fur traders Indian or Metis wives.  In frustration McLoughlin caned Herbert who promptly departed for England. 

John Bell Metis (1826-1857) son John James Bell and a Chehalis woman of Fort Vancouver, he worked HBC (1838-1857) and married July 21, 1856 Fort Langley to Nathale Quyilen (Kwantlan) and had one unnamed Metis son (1848-1854)

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort George aka Fort Astoria, Columbia District (1838-1840) 

Oliver Brisbois (1822-1883) joined HBC (1838-1883) settled Willamette 1843.  He was married twice and had nine children. His first wife 1847 was native Catherine Cayuse bapt 1847 Walla Walla, d-1850 with whom he had a daughter and son, 
    Catherine Brisbois Metis b- January 1847, baptized-May 18, 1847 at Walla Walla
    Olivier Brisbois Jr. Metis. 
His second marriage, on February 23, 1852 at St. Louis (Oregon), was to Jane Clementia Flett Metis (1837-1902) (daughter of Thomas Flett b-1814 and Nancy Coutennay Indian or Metis of Fort Colvile). Their recorded children were: 
    Jean Thomas Brisbois Metis b-1853
    François Brisbois Metis b-1860
    Catherine Jane  Brisbois Metis b-1863
    Clementia Jane Brisbois Metis b-1865
    Nazaire Benoni Brisbois Metis b-1867
    Martha Emily Caroline Brisbois Metis b-1869
    two more unnamed children.

Adolphe (Adolphus Francopis Dolphus) Chamberlain (1819-1888) from Montreal but joined HBC 1836 at Lachine, 1836-1837) Norway House, (1837-1841) Columbia District retired to Willamette after trip to Caada, Adolph Chamberlain was married twice, maybe three times, and had nineteen children.
1st married December 27, 1838, Julienne Watiece, daughter George Watiece,  On May 28, 1838 at John McLoughlin’s house inside Fort Vancouver, Reverend Beaver married Adolphe and Laquinesse George, possibly the same as Julienne Anne Watiece Indian whose marriage was formalized in the Catholic Church, some months later. On December 27, 1838, he married Julienne Watiece, the daughter of George Watiece, Iroquois and Chinook woman, Julienne died most likely between 1847 and 1851.and together they had six children:
    Zoe
Chamberlain Metis b-1839 
    Joseph
Chamberlain Metis b-1840
    Virginia
Chamberlain Metis (1843-1844), 
    Marie Rose
Chamberlain Metis  (1845-1845), 
    Marie
Chamberlain Metis  b-1846
    Paul
Chamberlain Metis  b-1847 
2nd married Louise Humpherville (Umperville) Metis b-1829 Louise died April 17, 1876 at St. Paul, Oregon.,daughter Canote Umpreville aka Canotte Umfreville, Humpherville Athabasca Metis (1788-1842) and Marie Marguerite Michina; and had 13 children between 1851-1873
    Calixte Chamberlain Metis  (1851-1851), 
    Fabien
Chamberlain Metis  b-1852
    Euphemie
Chamberlain Metis  b-1854 
    Barthelmy
Chamberlain Metis  b-1855 
    Jeremie Clement
Chamberlain Metis b-1858
    Adolphe
Chamberlain Metis  b-1860 
    Narcisse
Chamberlain Metis  (1861-1878), 
    François
Chamberlain Metis  b-1864, 
    Pauline
Chamberlain Metis  b-1866, 
    Elie
Chamberlain Metis  (1867-?), 
    Alfred Jerome
Chamberlain Metis  b-1869
    an unnamed son
Chamberlain Metis  (1871-1871), 
    John Baptist
Chamberlain Metis  (1873-1874). 

Joseph Champagne Metis b-1821 son of Joseph Champagne and Marguerite Sauguinette joined HBC (1838-1849) Columbia District, settled just west of Roseburg, Oregon.  Joseph Champagne had at least three wives and seven recorded children.   First unnamed wife before 1845.
On November 19, 1850 at St. Paul, Oregon, 2nd marriage Catherine Sauve (1838-1852), daughter of Laurent Sauve and Josette (Fraser).  On May 16, 1852, two years after an apparently childless marriage, Catherine died at St Paul. Subsequently, Joseph Champagne moved south to the Roseburg/Umpqua area where 3rd marriage to Elizabeth (Liza) Redmond (Ridnawr). Their children were;
    Mary Ann Champagne Metis b-1857, 
    Victory Isodora Champagne Metis b-1859, 
    Henri Adolphe Champagne Metis b-1861, 
    Sarah Malvina Champagne Metis b-1869, 
    Joseph Champagne Metis b-1871, 
    Nancy Bell Champagne Metis b-1874) 
    Philomena Champagne Metis b-1876).

James Conner worked for the American Fur Company and HBC and is likely Metis working as an interpreter (1838-1840) Columbia District, trapping with Henry H. Spalding out of Fort Hall (1838), married a Nez Perces girl they had 2 children recorded:
    William Conner Metis
    Jane Conner Metis 

Edward Crete (1821-1894) from Soral, Quebec son Jean Baptiste Crete and Marie Anne Laur, joined HBC 1838-1853) New Caledonia, Fort Nez Perce, retied Crate's Point west of the Dalles.  He married 1844 Sophie Boucher Metis (1830-1922) daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1849) and Nancy McDougall Metis  and grand-daughter (I)-James McDougall (1783-1851) of NWC and native woman. Edward and Sophie had fourteen children but only 4 are recorded in 1850 census;
   
Edward Crete Metis b-1843
    Nancy Crete Metis b-1845
    Jane Crete Metis b-1847
    John B. Crete Metis b-1848

   

Father Modeste Demers: Catholic priest; arrived at Fort Vancouver in 1838 from Canada with Francis Norbert Blanchet; later became Bishop Demers.

Pierre Deschamps Metis (1838-1866) son Francois Deschamps d-1828 and Cree native woman of Red River.  HBC (1838-1846) settled Willamette (1846.  On September 7, 1853 Pierre Deschamps married Marie Oskanha (daughter of Louis Oskanha [Monique] and Charlotte Chinook) at St. Louis, (Oregon). Their recorded children were 
    Florence Deschamps Metis (1851-1855), 
    Christine Deschamps Metis b-1854
    Odile (1) Deschamps Metis (1856-1856), 
    Odile 2nd Deschamps Metis b-1857
    Chloris Deschamps Metis b-1859 
    Rosalie Deschamps Metis b-1862 
    Pierre Deschamps Metis b-1863     
    Celestine Deschamps Metis b-1865
    Jean Ephram Deschamps Metis b-1866
In 1869, after Deschamp’s death, his widow Marie married Jean Baptiste Jeaudoin.

Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888) employed HBC (1838-1863) Fort Langley.  married 1838 Fort Langley, B.C., Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen.  (Heléne, Tlhepartenate [Kwantlan] (c.1816/23-1905) and nine or more children).  Together, they had: 
    Harriot Falardeau Metis (1839-1918), 
    Catherine, Falardeau Metis (1841-1874), 
    Matilda Falardeau Metis (1844-1926), 
    Louisa Falardeau Metis (1848-1902), 
    Noel Falardeau Metis b-1851
    Narcisse Falardeau Metis b-1852
    Rose/Rosalie/Rosaline Falardeau Metis (1862-1944), 
    George Falardeau Metis b-1865
    Marie/Mary Falardeau Metis (1865-1948).

Louis Fallardeau Metis (1817-1873) joined HBC (1838-1863) worked Northern coastal forts, New Caledonia and Fort Victoria.  
He is likely the brother of Michel b-1807 and Narcisse (1818-1888) both working Coulmbia District.  He formalized his marriage to Agnes, Stikine [Katoosh] (1825-1855) on April 29, 1850. Their likely children were 
    Eleanore Falardeau  Metis bap.1849 
    August Noel Falardeau Metis b-1849 
    Louis Camille Falardeau Metis  (1855-1855). 
Agnes died on July 25, 1855. Two years after Agnes' death, Fallardeau married Mary Louise, Songhees or Tongas (1843-1908) on February 18, 1857. Their further children were 
    Carrie Fellardeau Metis b-1856 maybe a daughter who married an Ewing??
    Pierre Hypolite Falardeau Metis (1862-?), 
    Basile (aka Peter) Falardeau Metis b-1865
    John Falardeau Metis b-1868 
    Thomas Falardeau Metis (1860-1909), 
    Adelaide Falardeau Metis b-1870
    Daniel Falardeau Metis b-1871
    Denis Falardeau Metis bap.1872 
Wife Louise died in Victoria, August 15, 1908.

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892) joined HBC (1838-1872) Columbia District, married 1849, Fort Victoria, (II)-Sarah Work Metis b-1829 Fort Couvile d-1906, daughter (I)-John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legace Metis/Spokane
    (II)-Mary Finlayson Metis (1850-1894), 
   
(II)-Sarah Jane Finlayson Metis (1852-1853), 
   
(II)-Catherine Finlayson Metis (1854-1855), 
   
(II)-Ann Jane  Finlayson Metis(1856-1937), 
   
(II)-John Work Finlayson Metis (1858-1895), 
   
(II)-Sarah Susette Finlayson Metis (1860-1935), 
   
(II)-Duncan Nicol Finlayson Metis (1862-1910), 
   
(II)-Letitia Agnes Finlayson Metis (1864-1945), 
   
(II)-Roderick David Finlayson Metis (1867-1916), 
   
(II)-Cecilia Margaret Finlayson Metis (1870-1955)  
   
(II)-William Henry Finlayson Metis (1873-1908).
    

Charles Forrest (Forest) (1810-1851) from Montreal joined HBC (1825-1851) assigned Island Lake (1825-1828), Mackenzie River (1828-1835) Red River 1835, Fort Alexander, Lac La Pluie (1836-1838), Columbia District (1838-1851), married at least three women, 
1st wife (II)-Nancy Sutherland bapt 1837 likely daughter (I)-James Sutherland (1778-1844) and Jane Flett (1785-1935) an Indian, 2nd wife  Wiltamist Chinook Woman and 3rd wife Cowletz Woman
    Julia Forrest Metis bapt 1837 Red River daughter Nancy Sutherland
    Mary Jane Forrest Metis born before 1833 likely daughter Nancy Sutherland
    Anne Forrest Metis born before 1833, bapt Fort Vancouver, living Victoria 1851, married 1859 daughter of Wiltamist Chinook Woman, there might be two Anne's?? one with Nancy and one with Chinook woman?
    Therese Forrest Metis daughter of Cowletz Woman

Joseph Gale (1800-1881) a settler in the Willamette Valley (Oregon) noted that all the tribes in the valley called it Walama and it was speculated that the French Canadians had changed the name to Wallamette then Willamette.  It is noteworthy the French Metis first called the Valley the 'French Prairie'.

Hilaire Gilbeaut (1818-1849) joined HBC (1838-1848) Columbia District.  On April 21, 1842 Gilbeault married Louise Walla, who brought four children with her to the marriage. He most likely had children with Louise, but their names are not known for certain. On December 29, 1847, the “wife of Guilbeau” was buried, likely a victim of the measles

Josephte Kanhopitsa b-1802, is living Fort Colvile, Columbia District (Oregon Territory), 1st married John Clarke, 2nd married Jean Baptiste Boucher; 3rd married 1825 Joachim Hubert

Josephte Laframboise (1838-1879) daughter Michel Laframboise interpreter, scout and brigade leader to California of Astoria and Emelie Picard; married Louis Labonte II son Louis Labonte and Marguerite Kil-a-ko-tah Clatsop (1800-1873) 

Joseph (Xavier) Laverdure (1791-1892) likely a freeman of Athabasca and Columbia District, married about 1838 Lizette Walla Walla (1817-1891) one child is recorded:
    Angelique Laverdure Metis b-1839
This is like a confusion with Joseph Laverdure Jr. b-1786 Lake Superior son Joseph Laverdure Sr. and Lisette; who married Nancy (Doquette) Duck b-1806 in the Northwest.  It's also possible this is a 2nd marriage?

Pierre Leblanc of the Columbia District (Oregon Territory) since 1800 married Nancy Matooski the abandoned wife of John G. McTavish.  This appears to be Pierre's second wife as he took a wife to Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1800.  Pierre died this year along with 4 of their children but no mention is made of the fait of his wife.

Pierre Leblanc (1782-1838) son Luc Leblanc (Charles?) and Marie Lemoine of Montreal; joined NWC (1803/10-1821) HBC (1821-1838) in Columbia District 1838, married Nancy McKenzie, Metis likely daughter Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and an Indian woman.   Pierre Leblanc had one wife, Nancy, niece of Chief Factor Donald McKenzie, and three recorded children. The Leblanc children were 
    Henriette Leblanc Metis (1832-1838), 
    Pierre Leblanc Metis (1834-1838), 
    Marie Rose Leblanc Metis (1837-1838)
    unnamed  Leblanc Metis child d-1838) who disappeared in the river.

William Glen Rae d-1846 married (IV)-Maria Eloisa McLoughlin, Metis (1817-1884) daughter Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) and Marguerite Wadin , Metis (1775-1860) widow Alexander McKay, d-1811; Eloisa 2nd marriage 1850 Daniel Harvey

February:  Willamette River, birth Joseph  Longctain, Metis (1838-1859) baptized January 6, 1839 daughter Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793/94-1879) and Nancy Okanagan; married 1859 Marie Ducharme

(II)-Simon McGillivray Sr. Metis (1790-1840) son of (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Indian.  (II)-Simon joined NWC (1813-1821) & HBC (1821-1834) he was in Columbia Dostrict (1830-1834)  Simon McGillivray appears to have had one wife, Thérèse Roy and nine children. Their children were 
    (III)-Cecilia McGillivray Metis 
    (III)-Mary McGillivray Metis 
    (III)-Montrose McGillivray Metis b-1822 
    (III)-Napoleon Buonaparte McGillivray Metis (1825-1906), married Sarah
    (III)-Ann Auldjo McGillivray Metis  
    (III)-Frederick McGillivray Metis  
    (III)-Edward McGillivray Metis 
    (III)-Susan McGillivray Metis 
    (III)-Theresa McGillivray Metis  
Another child by an untraced mother was 
    (III)-John McGillivray Metis 


(II)-Montrose McGillivray Metis (1822-1850) son (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Cree/Metis.  He was baptized 1835 Red River, joined HBC (1838-1850) Columbia and New Caledonia District.

Jean Baptiste McKay Metis b-1823, joined HBC (1838-1847) Columbia District.

(I)-Angus McDonald (1816-1899) joined HBC (1838-1872) Columbia District married 1842 Catherine a Nez Perce
    (II)-John McDonald Metis b-1845
    (II)-Christine McDonald Metis b-1847
    (II)-Duncan McDonald Metis b-1849
    (II)-Donald McDonald Metis b-1851
    (II)-Anne McDonald Metis b-1853
    (II)-Margaret McDonald Metis b-1855
    (II)-Thomas McDonald Metis b-1858
    (II)-Alexander McDonald Metis b-1861
    (II)-Archibald McDonald Metis b-1863
    (II)-Joseph  McDonald Metis b-1866
    (II)-Angus C. McDonald Metis b-1868
    (II)-Mary McDonald Metis b-1871

Alfred McNeill Metis (1838-1921) claimed birth at Fort Victoria site,  son William Henry McNeill (1801-1875) and Matilda Neshaki a Haida d-1850, joined HBC 1857 (William was operating the Beaver in Columbia District in Southern Vancouver Island searching for the best location for Fort Victoria, when Alfred was born.)  Alfred McNeill appears to have had one wife Jane b-1855, of mixed French/native descent, and five recorded children. Their children were 
    Susan McNeill Metis b-1873
    Rebecca F. McNeill Metis b-1876 
    Alfred W. McNeill Metis b-1878
    May E. McNeill Metis b-1880 
    George McNeill Metis 

Frederique Minie b-1817 signed on at Lachine, Quebec HBC (1838-1852) Columbia District.  Frederique Minie had two successive wives with whom he had seven children. His first wife was mixed-descent Marguerite Maurice ["Bibalets" tribe], with whom he had children 
    Victoire Minie Metis (1853-1862), 
    Appoline Rebecca Celinia Minie Metis b-1858 
    an unnamed son Minie Metis d-1860
    Marie Anne Adelaide Minie Metis (1859-1862). 
On December 29, 1862, he married Mary "Morris" [Maurice?]. Together they had 
    Flavia Cecilia Mary Minie Metis bap.1867
    Edward Minie Metis bap.1869
Another daughter by an unknown native woman was 
    Cecile Minie Metis d-1862).

(II)-Nicholas Montour Jr. is at Willamette, Columbia District (1838-1843) where he settles down in 1842, he has a wife Susanne Umperville and two children; (III)-George Montour and (III)-Isabelle Montour who married 1838, Fort Vancouver, and Thomas McKay, Metis, (1797/98-1849) settled near Scapoose and became a U.S. citizen .

Francois Pepen, Metis, b-1838 Fort Langley son Etienne Pepen alias Maille and Magice (1799-1874), Uiskimin Woman;  the son of Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec; married Country style Indian woman.

(II)-Elizabeth Ross, Metis, baptized April 29, 1838 Kootney daughter (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)

(II)-Charles Ross, Metis, baptized April 29, 1838 Kootney son (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)

(II)-Catherine Ross, Metis, baptized April 29, 1838 Kootney daughter (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)

(II)-Alexander Ross, Metis, b-1838 baptized April 29, 1838 Kootney son (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)

(II)-Francois Ross, Metis, (1837-1910) baptized April 29, 1838 Kootney daughter (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and Isabella Mainville Metis (1809-1885)

John Spence of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1838-1863) as ship's carpenter settled Victoria

(I)-John Stensgair b-1816 Orknet joined HBC (1838-1851) Columbia District, retired near Vancouver, married an India girl and they had 7 Metis children baptized Catholic

(I)-Thomas Stensgair (1819-1891) Orkney joined HBC (1838-1852) Columbia District settled 2 miles north Addy, Thomas Stensgair, according to Antoine Plante biographer, Jerome Peltier, had two wives and four children. His first wife, a Spokane native woman who died of smallpox, apparently left him no children. Stensgair then married Antoine Plante’s wife Mary Thérèse (a.k.a. Julia?) b-1830-?), Pend Oreille, sometime between 1840 and 1855 and they apparently had ten children. Eight of their children were 
    Tom Stensgair Metis 
    John Stensgair Metis 
    James Stensgair Metis 
    Maggie Stensgair Metis 
    Charles Stensgair Metis 
    Nancy Stensgair Metis  
    Isaac Stensgair Metis b-1865
    Alec Stensgair Metis 

Joseph Tappage aka Regnier Metis b-1838 likely New Caledonia son Iean Baptiste Tappage dit Regnier Metis (1799-1849) and Onteloy a fort George native woman; joined HBC (1855-1892) New Caledonia 
1st married Tsoss
    Donald Tappage aka Regnier Metis b-1879
2nd married Nellie/Ellen b-1850, two adopted children are recorded;
    Henriette b-1886
    Duncan Bouche b-1881

(I)-John Tod b-1794, Scotland is posted Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).

Louis Vandalle (1819-1859) son Augustin Vendal and Josephte Bouriet, joined HBC (1838-1844) Columbia District, retired Willamette aka French Prairie.  Louis Vandalle had two wives and eight children. On September 14, 1840, he married Ce’cile McDonald Metis d-1848), mixed descent daughter of Chief Trader Allan McDonald. Their two children were 
    Jean Baptist Vandalle Metis b-1846
    Esther Vandalle Metis b-1844 
On June 12, 1848, a short time after Cecile’s death in 1848, Vandalle married a thirteen year old Marie Anne De’lard Metis  b-1835, daughter of Joseph De’lard (1797-1869) and Lisette Shuswap (1806-1841). Their six children were 
    Marie Vandalle Metis (1851-1852), 
    Leandre Vandalle Metis (1853-1853), 
    Catherine Vandalle Metis b-1854 
    Claire Vandalle Metis b-1856
    Helene Vandalle Metis b-1858 
    Eleanore Vandalle Metis b-1860
 After his sudden death in 1859, his widow married Medard Foisy, and still later, Joseph Morrel 

(IV)-Florance Vautrin, Metis, b-1838, Fort Langley, died February 18, 1893, Grande Runde, Oregon, daughter (III)-Francois Xavier Vautrin, Metis, b-1815 and Emilie Quantlen (Kwoithe) 

Other settlers in St. Paul, Columbia District (Oregon Territory), includes # children and year settled
Amable Arcouet * 3 * 1833 
Pierre Beleque * 3 * 1833 
Charlo Chata * ? ? ? ? ? ?
Joseph Delard * 5 * 1832 
Pierre Depot * 1 * 1833 
Joseph Desport * ? ? 
John Bt Desportes * 3 ? ?
Louis Fourcier * 3 * 1835 
Joseph Gervais * 7 * 1832 
William Johnson * 2 * 1834 
Louis Labonte * ? ? 
Xavier Laderoute * 1 * 1834 
Etienne Laferte * ? ? 
Andre Longtain * 4 * 1835 
Etienne Lucier * 6 * 1832 
William McCarty * ? ?
Jean Baptiste McRoy * 1831
Jean Bt Perrault * 2 * 1832 
Andre Picard * ? ? 
Charles Plante * 4 * 1835 
Charles Rondo * 3 * 1836 

The Roman Catholic priests Francois Blanchet and Modestre Demers visited Edmonton on their way to Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).   Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) is believed to be on the brigade that brought Fathers Blanchet and Demers West this year.  I is suggested he brought his wife Catherine Russie, Metis born Columbia and several of his children on this brigade, however see 1836 Columbia. 

The Hudson Bay Beaver was the first steamboat to travel up the Fraser River to Fort Langley.

Fathers Demers and Blanchet, went up the Saskatchewan, to Fort Edmonton, to become the first Catholic Priests in Alberta.  They erected a large cross above Fort Edmonton on the hill that now houses the Alberta Legislative Buildings.  They then proceeded to Jasper and on to the Columbia River, to the Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  At Jasper they encountered (I)-Colin Fraser(1806-1867) one of the traders.

The Hudsons Bay Company's second in command at Ft. Vancouver (Portland Oregon), James Douglas (1803-1877), took a census of the Willamette Valley and counted a total of 51 non-native males. United States settlers numbered 18 and Canadians 23 (the other ten were presumably missionaries and priest)

October 2:   Father Blanchet reached Fort Jasper, named after Jasper Hawes a Hudson Bay Company trader, and reported that he baptized thirty-five Metis children.  Three being the Metis daughters of (I)-Colin Fraser (1806-1867) .  Father Blanchet would become the first bishop of Oregon City and his companion, Demurs, became the first bishop of Vancouver Island.

October 14:  James Murray Yale (1776-1871) of Fort Langley wrote Chief Factor James Douglas, Mulatto Metis (1803-1877), Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) , right hand man on the Columbia, that "we have abandoned the old fort which was in a dilapidated condition and removed into a new fort a few miles up the river."

November 24: Reverend F.N. Blancet and Modeste Demers, catholic priests arrived Fort Vancouver, Columbia District (Oregon Territory).

 

1839  

Joseph Allard b-1820 St. Charles, Quebec, joined HBC (1830-1860) New Caldonia, in 1841 he married Marie a native of Prince George, they had two recorded children;
    Lizette Allard Metis (1842-1938)
    Elizabeth Allard Metis b-1848
January 23, 1873 second marriage Elizabeth Tatzan b-1846 from Testlee, B.C., no children recorded

Birth Jean Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, b-1833 son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married January 28, 1839 Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), b-1820, died October 1870.

Jean Baptiste Aubichon (1790-1879) 1st married 1839 Marie Tsalile and 2nd married 1847 Isabelle Indian, Columbia District.

Antoine Azure Jr. Metis b-1816 Red River son of Antoine Azure Sr. and Marguerite Assiniboin employed HBC (1833-1852 married likely Fort Vancouver Lisette Killimaux (c.1818-Oct. 8, 1845), who bore four children 
    Ursule Azure Metis (1840-?), 
    Joseph Azure Metis (1842-?), 
    Pierre Azure Metis (1843-44); 
    (a second son buried late 1844). 
On April 13, 1846, about six months after the death of Lisette, he married Marie Madeleine Cascades (c.1826-1847) but she died February 19, 1847. 
On February 7, 1855, Antoine fathered a new baby, naming her Marie Magdeleine Azure Metis  (1855-?) after his second wife and five days later married the new baby's mother, Catherine Shoshoni.

Andre Balthasard b-1821 son Joseph Bathasard and Genevieve Rochrune, of Vaudreuil, Quebec, joined HBC (1839-1866) Columbia District settled Victoria 1853.   On September 28, 1852, he married Ursule, Satsine (1827-1862). The Balthasard children were 
    Joseph Balthasard  Metis (1847-1861) 
    Denis Balthasard  Metis -bap.1853 
    Monique Balthasard  Metis (1855-1855), 
    Zoe Balthasard  Metis b-1857-?), 
    André Balthasard  Metis (1859-1859)  
    Marcelle Balthasard  Metis -bap.1862
    Ursule Balthasar Metis   died, aged thirty-five, on May 10, 1862.

(I)-Forbes Barclay (1812-1873) in 1831 he was with John Ross Arctic Expedition that got shipwrecked and some were saved by the Inuit (Eskimo) and taken to Island of Fisco and lived with the Danes until rescued.  Joined HBC (1839-1850) Columbia District.  In 1842, Barklay married Marie Pambrun Metis (1826-1890) born New Caledonia daughter Pierre Pambrun (1792-1841) and Catherine (Kitty) Humpherville Metis with whom he had seven children:
    (II)-Jean Jacques [John James] Barclay Metis (1845-1847),     
    (II)-Peter Thomas Barclay Metis b-1847 
    (II)-Alexander Forbes Barclay Metis (1849-1905), 
    (II)-Adrienna Catherine Adah Barclay Metis (1852-1934), 
    (II)-Hariet Marie Barclay Metis b-1854
    (II)-William Charles Barclay Metis b-1856 
    (II)-Edmund F. Barclay Metis (1859-1863).

Joseph Barnable (Barnabe) b-1812 married 1839 likely Fort Colvile, aka Kettle Falls Oregan Territory (Oregon/Washington), Isabelle (Elizabeth) Boucher Metis, b-1821 likely Fort George, (British Columbia), d-1860, daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher an interpreter at Fort George for the N.W.C. and Josephte Kanhopitsa.  Recorded children are:
    Adélaide Barnabe Metis 
    Francois
Barnabe Metis  
    Francois Xavier
Barnabe Metis 
    Gideon
Barnabe Metis
    Joseph
Barnabe Metis
    Therese
Barnabe Metis
    Julienne
Barnabe Metis
    Christine
Barnabe Metis
    John
Barnabe Metis

Pascal Bisscornet d-1854 St. Paul, Oregon, Married 1839 Louise Cowitchin, living Donald, Oregon 1842. 

Thomas Brancheau b-1818 Quebec, joined HBC (1839-1850) for Columbia District.  At Walla Walla married Angelique Koatsteps a Nez Perce girl.  Their recorded children include:
    Angelique Brancheau Metis b-1845-?), 
    Sophie Brancheau Metis (1852-1854), 
    Louise Brancheau Metis b-1855
    Genevieve Brancheau Metis b-1865. 
They appeared to have moved to Frenchtown in 1855. According to oral tradition they also raised the children of Edouard Beauchmin & Marianne who were killed by Indians
    Paul Branchmin Metis 
    Louis Beauchmin Metis . 
The 1860 census has Thomas being married to an Indian, Rosalie, with children 
    Thomas Brancheau Metis  , 
    Rosalie Brancheau Metis  
    Francis  Brancheau Metis 
    Joseph Brancheau Metis  
    Antoine Brancheau Metis 
but, this may be another family unless Thomas had two simultaneous families).

Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) arrived Fort Langley this year his wife in Quebec having died.  His second wife he married 1835-1836 was a Cowitchen and they had a son 
    Basil Brosseau, Metis born 1835-1837, died 1906 who married Sarah Pierre (1842-1889) of the Katzie band.  They had three Metis children, 
    Frisidine Brosseau, Metis who married Williams, 
    Lucy Brosseau, Metis who married George Moody and 
    Mary Brosseau, Metis who married Koanne Peterson. 

Basil Bottineau b-1819 likely the son of Pierre Bottineau b-1761 and listed in 1835 census Red River with a son.  He joined HBC (1839-1852) Red River for Columbia District.  He had a Stikina wife and Metis children but not named. 

Bazil Courville Metis b-1822 New York State but lived Pointe Claire, Quebec, joined HBC (1839-1845) Columbia District.  He deserted HBC 1846 for the Metis settlement of Willamette.  On June 16, 1851 when he was living in St. Louis, he married Marianne King Klickatat in St. Paul, the widow of Honore King. Their recorded children were 
    Louis Courville Metis b-1853
    Edward Courville Metis b-1857
    Gilbert Courville Metis b-1861

Pierre Depot a HBC man and wife Marguerite Klamak (1819-1850) are at Willamette, Oregon Territory.

Pierre Desrivieres, Metis or Indian b-1797, employed HBC (1839-1841) assigned Fort Vancouver, Columbia (1839-1843)

(II)-Jane Douglas, Metis, b-1839 Fort Vancouver d-1909 daughter Governor (I)-James Douglas, (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): married March 1858, Fort Victoria (I)-Alexander Grant Dallas (1816-1882). 

Emanuel Douillette (1824-1858) employed HBC (1839-1852) New Caledonia.  He married, [Ah Jael] Isabelle , Shuswap, whom he most likely met when he was working in the Kamloops area in the 1840s. Their recorded children were:
    Joseph Douillette Metis b-1845
    Emmanuel Douillette Metis b-1846
    Isabel/Isabella Mary Douillette Metis (c.1846-1921) 
    François Douillette Metis b-1855 
    Pierre Douillette Metis bap.1857

Jean Baptiste Dubreuil was part of the Umpqua, Snake and Bonaventura brigades, he married Marguerite Yougleta b-1814 of the Nootkan tribe.

Jean Baptiste Dupuis (1818-1874) joined HBC (1839-1857) Columbia District, retired to the Saanish colony on Vancouver Island.  His first recorded wife was Emilie b-1833, a Saanich, with whom he had:
    Alexandre Dupuis Metis (1851-1852), 
    Narcisse Dupuis Metis (1853-1859) and 
    Louis Dupuis Metis bap.1855
Emilie must have died in the late 1850s, for, on February 8, 1859, he married Marie  Saanich. She may also have died (or also been called Julie) for a Julie, the wife of Jean Baptiste, died on November 21, 1859. A later wife appears to have been native Cecile who was the mother of their child 
    Maxime Dupuis Metis bap.1870. 
Another son from one of the mothers was 
    Charles Dupuis Metis d-1866.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Fafard Laframboise Metis b-1788 bapt 1796 Fort Machilimackinac, d-1861 St. James, Vancouver, Washington, son (III)-Francois Fafard dit LaFramboise (1767-1830) born Trois Rivieres d-1830 Chicago, Cook County, Illinois (killed by Wimmabago Indians; son (II)-Jean Baptiste Fafard dit LaFramboise and Genevieve Exupere Trotter La Bissonniere;  married 1870, Mackinac Island Shaw We No Quar Pottawatomi Metis b-1760; 1st married Marguierite Monominee Indian, 2nd married 1806 Mary Tsaleel Chieftess, 3rd married July 9, 1839 Fort Vancouver, (Washington) Emilie Picard, 4th married unknown Margaret Sauragess Sauteuse

Harriet Falardeuil, Metis, b-1839, Langley, d-1918, Washington,  daughter Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married 1860 Fort Langley, B.C.  Daniel Kilcup born Fort Langley.  They had 11 children in Washington.

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), son Alexander Finlayson and Mary Morrison, employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Stikine, Columbia District (1839-1840)  Roderick Finlayson had one wife and eleven children. On December 14, 1849, he married Sarah Work Metis (1829-1906), daughter of (I)-John Work (1792-1892) and Josette Legace Metis (1812-1896). Together they had 
    (II)-Mary Finlayson Metis (1850-1894), 
    (II)-Sarah Jane Finlayson Metis (1852-1853), 
    (II)-Catherine Finlayson Metis (1854-1855), 
    (II)-Ann Jane Finlayson Metis (1856-1937), 
    (II)-John Work Finlayson Metis (1858-1895), 
    (II)-Sarah Susette Finlayson Metis (1860-1935), 
    (II)-Duncan Nicol Finlayson Metis (1862-1910), 
    (II)-Letitia Agnes Finlayson Metis (1864-1945), 
    (II)-Roderick David Finlayson Metis (1867-1916), 
    (II)-Cecilia Margaret Finlayson Metis (1870-1955) and 
    (II)-William Henry Finlayson Metis (1873-1908).

John Flett of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1939-1854) as blacksmith.

Louis Forcier b-1808 formally married unnamed Indian woman and had three children;
    Louise Forcier Metis
    Olive Forcier Metis b-1834 who married Jean Gingras (1802-1856)
    Dominique Forcier Metis
2nd marriage 1839 Catherine Canaman a Chinook woman, five children are recorded:
    Alice Forcier Metis 
    Rose Forcier Metis 
    Gedeon Forcier Metis 
    Francois Forcier Metis 
    unnamed girl Forcier Metis 
     

Augustin Garant (might be derived from Garao, Garno dit Perrin) b-1813/14 likely Metis from Yamaska, Quebec, says parish was Maska, joined HBC (1839-1841) Columbia District returned east but returned and settled Willamette.  Augustin Garant had a wife, Lucie Cowlitz, and seven children. The Garant children were: 
    Paul Garant Metis (1846-1846), 
    Zoe Garant Metis (1849-1850), 
    Louis Marie Françoise Garant Metis b-1851 
    Louis Garant Metis
    Pierre Garant Metis b-1853
    Thomas Garant Metis b-1855

James Garson of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1839-1843) returned to British Isles.

Francois Gravelle (1817-1876) from Terreboine listed HBC (1839-1849) for Columbia District.  On February 28, 1849, he formalized his marriage to Henriette/Harriet Saanich d-1866), . 
    Joseph Gravelle Metis (1841-1862) and 
    Narcisse Gravelle Metis  may have been their children. 
Other children were 
    Paschal Gravelle Metis (1851-1865), 
    Mary Gravelle Metis b-1852
    Frank Gravelle Metis b-1856
    Isidore (Gravelle Metis bap.1861
Henriette died in Saanich and was buried on May 26, 1866.

George Huron Metis b-1824 son of James Huron of Hudson Bay, joined HBC (1839-1844) Columbia District.

Pierre Kanaguasse Iroquois (Mohawks) joined HBC (1839-1844) Columbia District, he was a rogue. 

Jacques Kanhetara Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1821 Sault St. Lpuis, Quebec joined HBC (1839-1844) Columbia District.

Edward Kittson Metis b-1839 son William Kittson (1794-1841) and Helene McDonald Metis of Fort Nisqually, Columbia District joined HBC (1856-1860) settled Esquimalt District 1860

(I)-James Johnston (1805-1855) employed HBC (1839-1850) seaman in Columbia District. married Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk (Chinook) d-1855 daughter Comtia Koholwish and Chief Hoqueen of the Quinaults
    (II)-Unnamed child (1842-1844)
    (II)-Gregoire Johnston Metis (1844-1844)
    (II)-George Johnstone Metis b-1845
    (II)-James Johnstone Metis b-1848 married Jeanne Cecile Hasquet

Michel Lacroix (1821-1873) joined HBC (1839-1869) settled north of Frasier River.  In New Caledonia, he married Catherine Pookrvietak b-1831, Babine. He was likely in Columbia District earlier under the name Michel Laeroix.  Their children were 
    Michel Lacroix Metis b-1854 
    Gabriel Lacroix Metis (1855-1933), 
    Joseph Lacroix Metis (1863-1953), 
    Helen/Ellen Lacroix Metis b-1867 
    Mary Louise Lacroix Metis b-1860 
    Marie Catherine Lacroix Metis b-1872

Louis Le Doux dit Daunt b-1821 Montreal joined HBC (1839-1851) Columbia District, married 1843 Marguerite Cowlitz 

Cowlitx Farm (1839-1857) is established this year.

Lahowbalow likely Hawaiian joined HBC (1839-1842) Cowlitz farm and Fort Langley.   He abandoned his wife and child.   Lahowbalow and an unnamed Indian woman were the parents of 
    Christine 
Lahowbalow Metis b-1840-?).

Michel Lafforte (Ferte) (1788-1861) engage NWC 1st assigned to Fort des Prairies (Edmonton) 1811 before going to Columbia (1812-1838) with HBC & freeman and one assignment Fort George, Caledonia (1813-1814), married 1839 Willamette, Columbia (Oregon Territory) to Josephte Nez Perce; recorded children Antoine Lafforte, Metis, Oliver  Lafforte, Metis,  Michel II  Lafforte, Metis,  Marie  Lafforte, Metis, Catherine  Lafforte, Metis, Madeline  Lafforte, Metis, and Pierre  Lafforte, Metis.  

Michel Laframboise (1788-1861) is appointed in charge of the Bona Ventura Expedition (1839-1841)

Augustin Levigne (Lavigne) Metis (1821-1841) born Red River, joined HBC (1839-1841) Columbia District, died coastal Fort Taku (Fort Durham, Columbia District) (1840-1843)

Michel Lambroise aka Lorimier Martineau Metis b-1819 or 1825 Sault Ste Marie and he could be McIntyre the son of a Scott and a Red River Chippewa woman.  He joined HBC (1839-1851) New Caledonia and Columbia District.  A twenty-two year old Lamboise married Mary Catherine, Cascades b-1827 at Fort Vancouver? on January 4, 1847. Their children were 
    Michel II Lambroise Metis (1849-1849), 
    Michel III Lambroise Metis b-1850
    Marie Lambroise Metis b-1855
His second wife was Jenny, by whom they appear to have had a son, 
    George .Lambroise Metis 

    (II)-Napoleon McGillivray Metis (1822-1906)  married Sarah

(II)-Napoleon Buonaparte McGillivray Metis (1822/25-1906) son (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Metis, joined HBC (1839-1844) settled Willamette and married 1853 Sarah.

George McKenzie Metis (1820-1893) joined HBC (1839-1859) Columbia District.  On September 23, 1849 at Fort Victoria, George McKenzie married Sarah Goudie daughter (I)-James Goudie (1810-1887) and (II)-Catherine Schwayips Metis (1819-1953). Their children were 
    Donald McKenzie Metis bap.1851 
    James McKenzie Metis 
    Matilda McKenzie Metis 

James Millar of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1839-1843) as labourer returned to British Isles.

Fort Nisqually, Columbia District, birth Jean Baptiste Jr. Ouvre, Metis baptized September 8, 1839 Fort Nisqually daughter Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) and Jany Sempson a Teoutit of Nisqually

(IV)-Isaac Ogden Metis (1839-1869) son (II)-Peter Skene Ogden (1794-1854)and Julie Rivet a Spokane/Flathead at Fort St. James, New Caledonia joined HBC (1853-1855) Fort Vancouver, he retired and was killed in a brawl by a man named Howard.  He married (II)-Anna Manson daughter (I)-Donald Manson and Felicite Lucier Metis.  Recorded children are:
     (V)-Emme Julia Ogden Metis (1864-1894)
     (V)-Sara May Ogden Metis b-1866
     (V)-Unnamed son an Ogden Metis 

Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) employed HBC (1815-1841) lead the 1839 expedition from Fort Walla Walla to Fort Nisqually via Nisqually Pass through the Cascade Mountains.

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, d-1842.

Francois Presse Metis Jr. b-1815 son Francois Presse Sr.. and Marianne Barin from Trois Rivieres, Quebec.  Joined HBC (1839-1847) Columbia District.  On August 16, 1847, Marie Stikines (1841-1857) his daughter to a Stikine woman was baptisted. On October 9, 1854 in the Victoria region, a François Pressé, probably the same person, married Marie d-1857, Tsimpshian (the Stikine wife?), who died and was buried on April 28, 1857. A further child may have been 
    François Presse Metis (III) bap.1857

Abraham Raby (Payan) b-1822 son Jean Baptiste Rabie and Madelelaine Poirier, joined HBC (1839-1853) Columbia District, settled Willamette 1850.  On January 12, 1843 at Fort Vancouver, he married sixteen year old orphan Julie, Cassino Tchinouk b-1827 who appears also to have been named Louise and Catherine in the Catholic records. Their children were 
    Mathilde Raby Metis b-1844
    Moise Raby Metis bap.1846
    Baptiste Raby Metis (1849-1849), 
    Joseph Raby Metis bap.1849
    François Raby Metis (1850-1850), 
    Marie Philomene Raby Metis (1854-1854
    François [2] Raby Metis bap.1861

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854), living at Fort Calvile and later retired to Oregon City with his wife Julia Rivet Flathead (1800-1886) a Spokane Salishan

(I)-James (Jimmie) Scarth (1790-1870's) joined HBC (1839-1867) Columbia District.  On July 9, 1850, probably in Victoria, he married Nancy (1812-1859), a native who had been a slave amongst the Chinook Indians. His wife left him in 1856 and he could not look after himself.  Nancy died on July 5, 1859. They had a daughter who was also called 
    (II)-Nancy Scarth Metis b-1847

(II)-Edward Spencer Metis (1821-1898) born York Factory son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1839-1851) Columbia District, (1851-1858) postmaster Caweeman,  (1858-1861 postmaster Fort Nisqually. (Oregon). 

John Stensgair b-1817 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1939-1851) as labourer

Thomas Stengair b-1819 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1839-1852) as labourer settled likely Fort Colvile, Washington.

Andre St. Martin b-1810 son Pierre St. Martin and Francois Peloquin; joined HBC (1837-1843) Columbia District  married Fort Vancouver 1839 Catherine Towaka
    Pierre St. Martin Metis b-1839
    Isidore St. Martin Metis b-1841
    Andre St. Martin Metis b-1846
    Francois St. Martin Metis b-1848

(I)-John Tod b-1794, Scotland is posted 1839-1842 to Fort Alexandria.

Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth, (II)-John Work, Metis, son, (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; 

Gabriel St. Gre Metis b-1817, Red River joined HBC (1839-1853) Columbia District.  Gabriel St. Gré had one wife, Marianne Saanich, and seven children. Their children were 
    Josephine St. Gre Metis (1849-1849), 
    Caroline St. Gre Metis (1850-1850), 
    Marie Angele St. Gre Metis (1853-1857), 
    Joseph St. Gre Metis (1856-1857), 
    Pierre St. Gre Metis (1858-58), 
    Magdaline St. Gre Metis bap.1860
    Catherine St. Gre Metis bap.1864

Louis St. Gre Metis b-1820 Red River joined HBC (1839-1842) Columbia District

(II)-James Tod Metis (1818-1904) son (I)-John Tode (1794-1882) and Catherine Birstone Metis born York Factory area.  Joined HBC (1839-1841) Columbia District.  James Tod had one wife and sixteen children. On October 15, 1857 in Victoria, James Tod married Flora McAulay b-1842, daughter of Donald McAulay. Their children were 
    (III)-Catherine Tod Metis b-1858
    (III)-James Tod Metis b-1860
    (III)-John Tod Metis b-1862
    (III)-Donald Tod Metis b-1864
    (III)-Flora Tod Metis b-1866
    (III)-Frederick Tod Metis b-1868
    (III)-Charles Tod Metis b-1870
    (III)-William Tod Metis b-1872
    (III)-Mary Tod Metis b-1873
    (III)-Miles Tod Metis b-1876
    (III)-Laurence Tod Metis b-1876
    (III)-Fanny Tod Metis b-1878
    (III)-Gladys Tod Metis b-1878
    (III)-Thomas Tod Metis b-1880
    (III)-Albert Henry Tod Metis b-1881
    (III)-Frances Tod Metis b-1882

(II)-John Work Metis Jr. (1839-1886) born Fort Simpson son (I)-John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legrace Metis, joined HBC (1851-1852 Fort Simpson.

Magnus Yorston of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1839-1840) as carpenter then worked in Saskatchewan. 

The Hudson Bay Company is giving the exclusive trading rights to Vancouver Island.

Garry Oak or Oregon White Oak, Quercus Garryana, its 1839 name honoring Nicholas Garry (1781 - 1856), an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company.  It is the only oak native to B.C.

At Fort Hall on the Snake River, (Idaho) Oregon Territories of Canada, the Hudson Bay Company is encouraging United States settlers to go to California instead of Oregon to delay its settlement and protect the fur trade.  Small parties of settlers, however, are reaching Oregon, and the Hudson Bay Company attempts to encourage Metis settlers to go from Red River to Oregon proved fruitless.  The fears are that Fort George (Astoria) on the mouth of the Columbia River, Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla), Fort Covile on the upper Columbia, Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) on the Columbia and Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound would be lost.

James Murray Yale's (1776-1871) Fort Langley work force was reduced to 15 men. They were:--Ovid Allard (1817-1874), Basil Brousseau, Pierre Charles a beaver hunter and guide, Louis Delonie, Narcisse Fallardeau Metis (1818-1888) , (I)-Angus McPhail, Fredereque Minie, Joseph Peaennau, Etienne Pepin (1799-1874), James Rendall, Louis Satakarata, I Ta, Xavier Vautrin, Wivicari, and Zahowbalow.

Up Calapooia Creek (River), near Snake River, District of Columbia resided an old Frenchmen named Louis Coutrell who had a Siwash Koochman.  He had a numerous family including grand children. 

January 21: Columbia District, 1st, marriage Charles Plante (1790-1854) and Agathe Kaousse who died January 5, 1842.

January 21:  Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793-1879) was Churched this date to Nancy Okanagan, they appear to be married country style 1823.

January 28:  Vancouver (Portland Oregon),  marriage, Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married Marguerite Waponte died October 1870.  Oregon census 1842.

April 19:  Cowlitz Farm; marriage Pierre Badayac (LaPlant) b-1808 St. Michel de Yamaska, Quebec, likely Metis? employed HBC (1829-1841) around Fort Vancouver; married  twice and had two children. His first marriage was to a somewhat frail seventeen year old named Lisette Coutenoir/Cognoir (c.1822-1842) [daughter of Michel Cognoir and a Chehalis woman] on April 19, 1839 but she succumbed on February 20, 1842. He later married Catherine and had two children, 
    Catherine Badayac Metis
    Joseph Badayac Metis

July 8; Alexis Aubichon (1792-1867) enployed NWC as a freeman, HBC (1821-1839) married Mariane Aubichon  b-1805, a Chinook woman and with whom he had eight children: 
    Alexis Aubichon Metis (c.1822-?), 
    Sophie Aubichon Metis (c.1826-?), 
    Emilie Aubichon Metis (c.1830-?), 
    Julie  Aubichon Metis (c.1833-?), 
    Catherine Aubichon Metis (c.1836-?), 
    Philomene Aubichon Metis (1840-?) 
    Elizabeth/Isabelle Aubichon Metis (1843-?). 
    Alexis Aubichon Metis was killed on a California expedition.

December:  Columbia, birth, Lucie Chalifoux, Metis died Wallamett, Columbia District, December 30, 1849, daughter Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

The Cayuse of Oregon say the Christian God is stingy, since baptism there has been no improvement in the prowess in the hunt, in war, or in love.  The Missionaries description of the torments of hell led them to believe that these laws are from man not God and we do not honor these laws.  Finally they witness the antagonism between the Protestants and Catholics and concluded the Christians do not believe or practice brotherly love.

 

1840  

HBC built two coastal forts, Fort Stikine (1840-1849) and Fort Taku (1840-1843)

Birth, Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Amable Arquoitte, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) b-1797 and Marguerite Waponte d-1870.  

(I)-Forbes Barely (1812-1873) joined the Arctic search for John Ross in 1831, was shipwrecked but saved by the Eskimo (Inuit), joined HBC (1840-1850) Fort Vancouver.  He was also the Clackamas County coroner (1853-1873), City School Superintendent (1857-1872), mayor of Oregon City (1864-1873), and City Councilman (1864-1873). He died May 12, 1873 and was buried in Mountain View cemetery.  Married 1842 Marie Pambrun Metis (1826-1890) daughter Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) and Catherine (Kitty) Humpherville, Metis daughter of Thomas Humpherville b-1740 and Anna Turner Cree/Metis b-1785 Moose Factory
    (II)-Jean Jacques [John James] Barely Metis (1845-1847),
    (II)-Peter Thomas Barely Metis b-1847
    (II)-Alexander Forbes Barely Metis (1849-1905),
    (II)-Adrienna Barely Metis
    (II)-
Catherine Adah Barely Metis (1852-1934),
    (II)-Hariet Marie Barely Metis b-1854
    (II)-William Charles Barely Metis b-1856
    (II)-Edmund F. Barely Metis (1859-1863).

(II)-Duncan E. Cameron Metis born before 1777 Quebec brother of (II)-John Dugald Cameron Metis (1777-1857) joined NWC (1790-1821) & HBC (1821-1846); Duncan joined HBC (1840-1845, Columbia Distract, settling in Willamette 1845, he must have been involved in the fur trade before 1840; John settled Grafton, Ontario with his Indian wife Mary an Ojibwa and together they had at at least four sons and three daughters..  John spent about two years in the Columbia District.

Captain Cole d-1850, Fort Rupert, possibly a Hawaiian from Oahu (Woahoo) joined HBC (1840-1850) Fort Stikine, Fort Victoria and Fort Rupert however in 1845 he had accounts at Columbia District, Saskatchewan District, Red River, Norway House and York Factory Shops.  This doesn't sound like an average Hawaiian?  In 1811 a John Cole was lost near the mouth of the Columbia River but no body was found.  Some believe he and 6 others deserted and likely adopted Hawaiian as a cover and lived among the Indians?  In 1772 a John Cole is at York Factory.  In 1780 a John Cole is on the Elbow River.  1780 John Cole is at Fort Montagne d'Aigle (Eagle Hills, 9 miles south of Battle River, Saskatchewan. In 1851 a John Cole came to Columbia District.  There is a Cole's Falls near Carlton House.  Also a Cole's Bay in northern Saskatchewan.

Cowlitz, Columbia District, birth, Marie Cotenoir, daughter  Michel Cotenoir Sr. aka Cottenoire, Cotenour, Cotmoir and Cognoir b-1790 and Mary a Ketse nation woman, 

Francois Xavier Cote b-1821 Acadia, joined HBC (1840-1850) Columbia District, settled Fort Victoria 1850.  He married Catherine, possibly a Clallam native. Together they had 
    Catherine Cote Metis bap. Nov 4, 1849
    Jean Baptiste Cote Metis (1853-1876)
    Marguerite Cote Metis (1859-1860).

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Vancouver, Columbia District (1840-1842) 

(I)-George Blenkinsop (1823-1904) worked HBC (1840-1860) retired Fort Rupert.  George Blenkinsop had two successive wives and eleven recorded children. In July, 1846 at Fort Stikine, he was married to the adopted daughter of Captain William Henry McNeill (1801-1875), & Helen McNeill (1829-1869), by a Luthern minister.
Their children were 
    (II)-Charles Henry Blenkinsop Metis (1848-1864),
    (II)- Robert Blenkinsop Metis (1850-1881), 
    (II)-John George Blenkinsop Metis  (bap.1858), 
    (II)-William Henry Blenkinsop Metis  (bap.1858), 
    (II)-Mary Denny [Fanny] Blenkinsop Metis  (bap.1860), 
    (II)-Frederick William Blenkinsop Metis b-1863
    (II)-Francis Drummond Blenkinsop Metis b-1867
Helen died on March 26, 1869 and at Fort Rupert, and George married Emma Oteokorie/Currie; together, they had four children: 
    (II)-Bertie Blenkinsop Metis b-1885, 
    (II0-Emily Bertha Blenkinsop Metis  b-1885, 
    (II)-Brenda Blenkinsop Metis  b-1891
    (II)-Benny/Benjamin Blenkinsop Metis b-1898.

Pierre Cadotte Metis b-1821 North West son Laurent Cadotte and Suzanne Cree, Pierre Cadotte joined the HBC from Rupert’s Land in 1840 and was mainly involved in transporting people around the Columbia.  Fort Vancouver general charges (1840 - 1841); Middleman, Fort Vancouver general charges (1841 - 1842); Middleman, Snake Party (1842 - 1844); Middleman and boute, New Caledonia (1844 - 1845); Boute, Columbia Department general charges (1845 - 1846).  In 1846, the death of his wife the year before may have caused him to desert. He probably moved east of the Rockies for, during the early 1850s, a Pierre Cadotte, and a son by the same name, worked as a hunter in the upper Missouri area out of Forts Benton and Union.  Pierre Cadotte had one wife and no recorded children but the Pierre Jr. found at Fort Benton in 1853-1855 was likely a son by an unknown marriage. On January 29, 1844 he married Louise Nisqually (c.1825-1845) at Fort Vancouver.  Louise died on December 14, 1845.

Duncan E. Cameron Metis joined HBC (1840-1845) settled Willamete 1845.

Henry Collie Metis b-1824 Moose Factory joined HBC (1833-1850) and in Columbia district (1840-1850)

Francois Xavier Cote b-1821 Acadia joined HBC (1840-1850) Columbia District, he married Catherine possibly a Clallam native. Together they had; 
    Catherine Cote Metis bap. Nov 4, 1849
    Jean Baptiste Cote Metis (1853-1876)  
    Marguerite Cote Metis (1859-1860).

(II)-Cuthbert Cumming Metis son (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian of Swan River, joined HBC (1840-1844) Columbia District, went to Red River 1844.

Louis Francois Dauny b-1823, joined HBC (1840-1852) Columbia District, retired Walla Walla.  On May 12, 1844, he married Suzanne b-1830, Walla Walla at Walla Walla. Two of their three children were:
    Suzanne Dauny Metis b-1846 or Margaret b-1846 (1850 Census)
    Joseph Dauny Metis b-1849.

Charles Deroche b-1819 son Charles Desroches and Susanne Patrie of Quebec city.  HBC (1840-1854) settled Fort Vancouver.  On November 26, 1842, Deroche married Nancy Kilemniks, a Chinook and together they had four children,
    Susanne Deroche Metis b-1845
    Pierre Deroche Metis (1847-1847), 
    Louise Deroche Metis b-1850
    Emelie Deroche Metis b-1853
On August 16, 1854, after the death of Nancy, Desroche married Angele Poirer, daughter of Basile Poirier and Louise Moatwas.

Charles Diamare (Baron) b-1822 St. Ours, Quebec joined HBC (1840-1847) Columbia District, settle Willamette 1837.   Charles Diamare (Baron) had one wife, perhaps two, Thérèse Tmiway , and/or Louise (1825) (1850 Census) and one recorded daughter 
    Marie Irène Diamare Metis b-1846.

Felix Dudouaire b-1816 son Louis Dudevoir and Marie Francoise Maillet of St. Denis sur Richelieu, Quebec.  Employed HBC (1840-1859) Fort Simpson.  He married Deax of the Gitandou branch of the Kispalotz tribe.  The girl had fled to the protection of the Fort Simpson to avoid a marriage to an older man.  One child was recorded:
    Alfred Dudouaire Metis b-1850
Felix was a wife beater and he departed to Fort Victoriv taking his son with him.  He had a 2nd marriage to Mary (Kate or Catherine) Holmes a Metis Gitna-khan-geak.  Seven children are recorded:
    William Dudouaire Metis
    Alice Dudouaire Metis
    Floria Dudouaire Metis
    Ernest Dudouaire Metis
    Fred Dudouaire Metis
    Rufus Dudouaire Metis
    Charles Dudouaire Metis

Joseph Dupere (1818-1858) son Joseph Dupere and Marie Anne Dupille of Montreal.  He joined HBC (1840-1846) Fort Vancouver.  In 1843 he delivered a beating to David Harvey and in 1858 shot and killed William Martindale at Chinook.  He jumped ship at the moth of the Willamette River trying to escape justice and drown as he was in shackles. He married Susanne Chinook (1824-1844) at Oregon City on March 30, 1842; 
Louisa Cowlitz/Nisqually b-1822 at Vancouver on March 26, 1845 and 
Marianne Walla Walla at St. Louis on January 17, 1848.

In 1840 (I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892) of HBC went north to leased Russian territory and built Fort Taku [Durham]. There the local natives were determined to take revenge for a previous incident in which a boatload of Boston men had killed a large number of local Aboriginals. Finlayson was injured and the fort was besieged for several days. Because they were unable to trade, the natives agreed to a cease fire and a potlatch of reconciliation was held in which ten native slaves were killed as a demonstration of power

The Reverend Herbert reported that (II)-George Stewart Simpson (1827-1894) Metis at Fort Victoria appeared as a beggar's child covered in sores.  He was the abandoned son of Governor George Simpson and Margaret Taylor b-1810 Metis.  (II)-George married June 12, 1857 Fort Langley, Isabella Yale b-1840.

    FOUR CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

    (III)-George Simpson Metis (1858-1926)
    (III)-Elizabeth  Aurelia Simpson Metis (1865-1872)
    (III)-Miles/Mylles Yale Metis b-1869
    (III)-James Simpson Metis (1872-1892) 

Antoine Gregoire Metis b-1823 New Caledeonia son Etienne Gregoire Metis (1791-1867) and Marguarite Kamloops Suuswap (Shouchauabe) (1790-1860).    On September 17, 1849, in St. Louis, Oregon, he married Thérèse Ouvre b-1836, daughter of Jeane Baptiste Ouvre (1791-1849) and Genevieve (Jany) Simpson Teoutit, Nisqually. Their children were 
    Maxime Gregoire Metis b-1853     
    Medard Gregoire Metis b-1855 
    Marie Louise Selina Gregoire Metis (1857-1857).

Charles Humphrey, of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1840-1846) as ship's master retired to British Isles.

William Kittson (1792-1841) employed NWT (1817-1821) and HBC (1821-1841) this season (1840-1841) Fort Vancouver, Columbia District and is in poor health.  He died December 25, 1841.  His 1st wife is unrecorded. 2nd wife Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian.

Fort Vancouver, birth Edwin (Kit) Kittson Metis son William Kittson (1792-1841) and Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Indian.

(I)-Konea aka Konia of Hawaiian origin joined HBC (1840-1860) Columbia District settled San Juan Island.  Took a country wife and had two children:
    (II)-Suzanne Konea Metis b-1844
    (II)-Rosalie Kona Metis b-1846/47

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Tacon & Upper Stikine, Columbia District (1840-1841)

Antoine Lamprant Metis (1823-1909) son Joseph Lamprant b-1798 Quebec (worked Athabasca) and Red River mother.  Employed HBC (1840-1870) at Thompson River (Kamloops) but HBC couldn't verify this claim.  Antoine Lamprant alias Lamprente, Lampreau, Lamprone, Lampoire, Lamproue and his family life is a little complex for he appears to have had eleven children by three different women. Lamprant’s wife was native Mary b-1847 (probably Kivemulek). Together, they had:     
    Agnes Lamprant Metis (1864-1946), 
    Antoine? Lamprant Metis 
    John? Lamprant Metis 
    Emilie/Amelia Lamprant Metis b-1867 
    Augustin (Lamprant Metis b-1869
    Mary (Lamprant Metis b-1872 
    Simon Lamprant Metis b-1874
    André Lamprant Metis b-1877
    Donald (Lamprant Metis b-1879
Lamprant and Nancy were the parents of 
    Julie Lamprant Metis 1874 
Lamprant and Romenair they had 
    François Lamprant Metis b-1876

Maxime Lavoie b-1820 son Thomas Lavoie and Julienne Skint of St. Paul, Quebec.  Joined HBC (1840-1866) Columbia Districr and worked on and off over the next years.  On September 20, 1852, he formalized his marriage to Cecile Stikine -bap. 1851. Their children were:
    unidentified Lavoie Metis boy d-1849), 
    Helene Lavoie Metis -bap.1849
    Thomas Lavoie Metis b-1851 
    Justine Lavoie Metis -bap.1852 
    Julienne Lavoie Metis d-1854 
    Abraham Lavoie Metis -bap.1857
    Marie Philomene Lavoie Metis b-1860, 
    François Xavier Lavoie Metis -bap.1862
    Charles Lavoie Metis -bap. 1863
A dangerously ill twenty-three year old Abraham Lavoie was baptised on November 14, 1860. He may have been a relative.

Pierre Legrace Jr. born August 4, 1840, Fort Simpson, B.C., d-1865, married H.B.C. Amelie Vautrin, Metis, b-1840, Fort Langley, B.C., died December 7, 1891, Mill Bay, Vancouver Island daughter Francois Xavier Ventrin, born May 10, 1815, Quebec, died Vancouver Island 1st married Emily Kwoithe, 2nd married December 11, 1852, Victoria Marie of the Quytten (Kwantlen) tribe.

(II)-Kenneth Logan, Metis (1825/26-1859) born Red River, son (I)-Robert Logan (1773-1866) and Mary Saulteaux d-1838; joined HBC (1841-1853) Columbia District, retired Red River 1853.  Married 1850 (III)-Susan McGillivray Metis d-1859 daughter (II)-Simon McGillivray Metis (1792-1840) and Therese Raefe Metis b-1819.  (II)-Simon McGillivray Metis (1792-1840) is son (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Susan Cree
One child is recorded:
    (III)-Alice Logan Metis b-1855
    A number of others daughters were not recorded.

(I)-Andrew Louttit Sr b-1800 of Orkney worked Fort Vancouver for H.B.C (1840-1844) as blacksmith then then returned to British Isles.  He had a 12 acre farm and was recorded living on it in 1851.  April 22, 1822 he married Helen (Ellen) Marwick and had 4 children;
    (II)-Magnus Louttit Metis b-1823
    (II)-Helen (Ellen) Louttit Metis b-1835
    (II)-Alexander Louttit Metis b-1835
    (II)-Andrew Louttit Metis Jr. b-1837

(II)-Angus McPherson Metis b-1817 Hudson Bay, son (I)-Donald McPherson d-1819 Hudson Bay and (II)-Charlotte Metis daughter of (I)-John Sutherland b-1768, (other records suggest (II)-Charlotte McBeath Metis or Indian b-1770) Angus Charlotte married Thomas Corcoran 1822 after his death, they sent him to England and he joined HBC (1830-1840) Lake Superior and (1840-1843) Columbia District

Leon Morel d-1877 Victoria son Louis Morel and Josette Chandrenat of Nicolet, Quebec.  He joined HBC (1840-1856) Columbia District settled 1853 Victoria.  Leon Morel and three successive wives and eleven children. On September 20, 1852, he formalized his marriage to his first wife was Adelaide Stikine (1830-1855), whom he undoubtedly met in the early 1840s during his seven year stay in the Stikine area. Their children were 
    Moyses Morel Metis (1844-1860), 
    Agnes Morel Metis (1846-1855), 
    Narcisse Morel Metis (1847-1853), 
    Emilie Morel Metis (1850-1866) 
    Alexander Morel Metis -bap.1853-?). 
Adelaide died most likely in the Fort Victoria area and was buried on February 20, 1855. 
His next wife was Marguerite Despard Metis d-1859) who presumably bore him 
    Xavier Morel Metis (1857-1858)  
    Arulie Morel Metis (1859-1859). 
She died, and was buried on October 15, 1859 to no witnesses. 
December 26, 1859, Morel married Marguerite Gagnon Metis daughter Luc Gagnon and Julie Gregoire Metis (1814-1877) who had already bore him 
    Ambroise Morel Metis (1858-1858) 
    unnamed child Morel Metis (1861-1861).

Chief Nanak b-1840 B.C. married Shutin b-1840 B.C., living Skeena in 1901 census

(IV)-Michael Ogden Metis b-1824 son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Julie Rivet joined HBC (1840-1861) New Caledonia to Columbia.   Michael Ogden had two successive wives and several children. The name of his first wife has not been traced. His second wife, "Julia Bordeniun", widow of "C. Bordeniun", survived him and died July 28, 1886.

William Glen Rae, d-1846 was sent from Fort Vancouver to Fort Stikine to establish a new post. 

(IV)-Amelie Vautrin, Metis, b-1840, Fort Langley, d-1891, Mill Bay, Vancouver Island, daughter (III)-Francois Xavier Vautrin, Metis b-1815 and Agathe Baudin (Baubin) a Miami Indian: 1st married Pierre Legace, Metis b-1840 son Pierre Legace, Metis and Lisette Tshimsian Indian,  2nd. married January 15, 1866, New Westminister Samuel Wesley Handy, 

There were fifty families on the 'French Prairie' (Willamette Valley, Oregon) most of them near Champoeg, (Oregon).  All (most) were French Canadian Metis with Calapooia or Nez Perce wives but later Protestant, particularly Methodists, mingled with the Catholics.  There was little friction.

It is estimated that between 1840 to 1860 between 315,000 to 320,000 settlers traveled the Oregon and Mormon Trails to the west and Northwest.

Reverend Alvin Waller a Methodist missionary established a mission in Willamette Valley (Oregon)

This year less than 100 United States fur traders and missionaries lived in the Canadian Oregon Territory (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon) and it was dominated by the Canadian Metis.  It is noteworthy that this region was claimed by the Spanish, Russians, British, Canadians and United States.  This region was not part of the alleged Louisiana Purchase of 1803.  The United States believed they had a Manifest Destiny of the Republic to occupy the whole continent.  The next century would see this European thinking resulting in two major world wars.  This evil thinking is based on the simple belief that might is right.  Most citizens of the United States still believe in the principle of Manifest Destiny for themselves but not for others.

Early Metis settlers noted the valley was well groomed, as the native people, used slash and burn farming practices for centuries.  The 1840's settlers stopped this traditional farming method not understanding the value.

April 11:  The second Fort Langley burned to the ground due to carelessness with a fire and they were forced to rebuild and it continued operations until 1896.  Jean Baptiste Brulez b-1809 HBC (1831-1844) accidentally caused the fort to burn, he helped rebuild it.

May 26:  Father Blanchet a Catholic priest is staying on Whidbey Island.

 

1841  

George Aiken (Aitken), of Orkney worked for H.B.C. as a blacksmith west of the Rockies (1841-42) and settled in Willamette Valley, Oregon.

Charles Bayfield Metis b-1825 joined HBC (1841-1850) Columbia District settler Fort Vancouver 1850

(II)-Chloe Bird, Metis d-1842 Columbia District (Oregon) daughter (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Indian woman, married James Flett;  If born before 1818 mother is Mary Kelly Swampy Cree Indian Woman if born after 1818 then mother is Oo-menahomiski Indian woman,

(II)-Nicolas Garry Bird, Metis b-1824 Red River son  (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Oo-menahomiski Indian woman; Nicolas traveled to Columbia District in 1841 likely to attend at his sister or step-sisters death.  He joined HBC (1841-1847) Columbia District and settled Willamette 1847.

Robert Birnie Metis joined HBC (1841-1843) Columbia District.

(II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1805-1869) born York Factory son (I)-Alexander Birston, Orkney, (1774-1829) and Indian Woman; (Share of fathers estate admininistered by HBC (1831-1837) He or family was in Columbia District (Oregon) in 1841?
married 1st April 7, 1831, Red River Sally Budd (1806-1833);
    (III)-Jane Birston Metis bapt 1832
    (III)-James Birston Metis bapt 1833 
  married 2nd Betsy Atkinson bapt 1838, d-1839
    (III)-Betsy Birston Metis bapt 1828
    (III)-Alexander Birston Metis bapt 1836

(I)-Samuel Black (1785-1841) worked for XYC/NWC/HBC and was feared by the Indians who shot him 1841 at  Thompson River, Samuel Black appears to have had at least one wife likely a native and had five children. His two sons were:
    (II)-George Black Metis (who was in Scotland in 1835, died before 1843)
    (II)-Kamloops Black Metis; 
His three daughters were:
    (II)-Jean Black Metis, 
    (II)-Elenionora Black Metis (died before 1843) 
    (II)-Angelique Black Metis

Jean Baptiste (James) Boucher Metis joined HBC (1841-1844) Fort Colvile, settled Willamette

Thomas Brancheau b-1811 Quebec employed HBC (1841-1850), retired to Walla Walla, married Angelique Koatsters a Nez Pearces,  Recorded children are:
    Angelique Brancheau Metis b-1845
    Sophie  Brancheau Metis (1852-1854), 
    Louise  Brancheau Metis b-1855
    Genevieve  Brancheau Metis b-1865. 
They appeared to have moved to Frenchtown in 1855. According to oral tradition they also raised Paul and Louis Beauchemin after probably one parent (unlikely two) was killed. (According to the CCR, the 1860 census has Thomas being married to an Indian, Rosalie, with children Thomas, Rosalie, Francis, Joseph and Antoine; but, this may be another family unless Thomas had two simultaneous families).

Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) married Fort Langley his 3rd wife Rose Kwantlen (Quytlan) who likely died 1856.

Tualitin Plains, District of Columbia (Oregon)  (I)-Henry Buxton, (1794-1870) employed HBC (1821-1825) retired Upper Red River, married (II)-Francois Thomas, Metis b-1795, d-before 1843, and son (II)-Henry Buxton, Metis bapt 1829 traveled to Columbia District with the Sinclair Party. 

Jean Baptiste Chalifoux b-1812 joined HBC (1841-1858) Fort Vancouver, Stike, Cowe;itz and Nisqually, married Faland Indian (1825-1852)
    Josette Chalifoux Metis b-1843
    Isabella Chalifoux Metis b-1844

Joseph Charbonneau Metis (1820-1856) son Joseph Charbonneau and Sasanna  a Saulteau, joined HBC (1841-1852) Columbia District retired 1854.  Joseph Charbonneau had one recorded wife and three or four recorded children. On December 4, 1852, he married Genevieve Tongass d-1868). Three of their short-lived children were 
    Pierre Charbonneau Metis (1852-1857), 
    Joseph Jr. Charbonneau Metis d-1869), 
    Julie Charbonneau Metis (1856-1858). 
The Catherine baptised on the day of the wedding may have been wife Catherine Tongass or a daughter, a 4th child. Genevieve died on May 28, 1868 in the Royal Hospital in Victoria.

Pierre Charles b-1800 came out of retirement at Cowlitz River to go as guide for the Wilkes Ezploring Ecpedition. 

(II)-Alexander Christie Metis Jr. b-1818 Rupert's House son (I)-Alexander Christe Sr. (1783-1872) and (II)-Ann Thomas Metis b-1796; employed HBC (1841-1843) Mackenzie River District, Fort Frances, Riviere aux and Fort Halkett.

(I)-Isaac R. Christopher joined HBC (1841-1844) Vancouver/London run, a troublesome individual.

Octave Collette b-1824, joined HBC (1841-1846).  Octave Collette had two wives and no recorded children. While he working at Fort Nisqually, he took Marguerite, Nisqually (1827-1848) as his wife. Marguerite died February 21, 1848 at the age of twenty. On October 13, 1851, he married, Marie an Indian who had been raised by Jean Baptiste Toupin (1792-1862) who was in Columbia District (1815-1842).

(II)-John Cumming Metis b-1820 son (I)-Cuthbert Cumming (1787-1870) and Susette Indian of Swan River, joined HBC (1841-1844) Columbia District, went to Red River 1844 joined HBC (1846-1854) as interpreter and retired 1854 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Deschamp Metis born Prairies joined HBC (1841-1846) Columbia District

Pierre Desrivieres, Metis or Indian b-1797, employed HBC (1839-1841) assigned out of Fort Vancouver, Columbia (1841-1843) to T. Party (Thompson Party)

Charles Diamare aka (Baron, Baront, Boro, Borrons) HBC (1841-1847) Fort Vancouver, settler Willamette 1847.  Charles Diamare (Baron) had one wife, perhaps two, Thérèse, Tmiway, and/or Louise b-1825 (1850 Census) and one recorded daughter 
    Marie Irène Diamare Metis b-1846.

Louis Dubeau b-1822 Montreal joined HBC (1841-1866) Columbia District.  Louis Dubeau may have married Isabelle [Elizabeth] Cotnois of Cowlitz Prairie on June 8, 1863. One daughter was recorded as having been born 
    Unnamed Metis daughter b-1876

Rocque Duchainais b-1821 Maskinonge, Quebec, joind HBC (1841-1860).  He married Mary Rondeau b-1829, born to Louis Rondeau B-1800 and a Marguerite Concomly Chinook Indian, daughter Chief Concomley (1754-1830) during the Company brigade to California. The Duchainais children were 
    Judith Duchainais Metis b-1844 
    Louis André Duchainais Metis b-1846 
    Joseph Duchainais Metis d-1849
    unnamed child Duchainais Metis (1851-1851), 
    Lucie Agnes Duchainais Metis b-1852 
    Charlotte Cécile Duchainais Metis b-1860

Catherine Falardeuil, Metis, b-1841, Langley, died December,1874, Fort Langley,  daughter Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married July 26, 1858 Fort Langley, B.C. James Taylor   They had 7 children.

Father Modeste Demers, an Oblate at Fort Langley reported that "about 20 men were engaged in agricultural activies, of whom 8 are Canadians, one a Iroquois (Mohawks) and the others Kanakas, inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands; all having wives and children after the fashion of the country."

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Stikine, Columbia District (1841-1842).  This year  (I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892) was attached to the party which assumed control of Fort Stikine from the Russians.

(III)-David Flett Metis (1818-1846) likely son (II)-David Flett (1813-1842) son (I)-David Flett who worked York (1806-1812) and Janet Borwick; joined HBC (1841-1842) Columbia District.

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Fort Vancouver, Columbia District.

Francois Gagnon Metis Sr b-1799  Francois Sr appears to have died before 1853, California, .employed NWC (1817-1821) in Upper Red River and HBC (1821-1831) Upper Red River and Swan River appears on the list of emigrants for Columbia (Oregon Territory) in 1841 with wife and 5 children, they settled Cowelitz.  He was part of the Sinclair part out of Red River for Columbia District.  
    Francois Gagnon, Metis Jr  married June 30, 1853, Angelique Marcellai and  
    Adelaide Plourde, minor daughter Francois Plourde and Suzanne Dubais.  

Casimir Gariepy b-1825 N.Y. joined (HBC 1841-1849) mostly Vancouver and Victoria.  Casimir Gariepy had two wives and an unknown number of children. The name of his Fort Vancouver wife and Metis child is unknown. 
On November 25, 1850 at St. Paul, he married Genevieve St. Martins Metis, widow of Pierre Bellique (1797-1849). Along with the children he inherited from the Bellique marriage, the Casimir and Genevieve St. Martins Metis  went on together to have five more children, four of whom are known: 
    Edouard Gariepy Metis b-1851    
    Luce Gariepy Metis (1853-1856),     
    CarolineGariepy Metis  (1855-1857) 
    Hilaire Gariepy Metis (1860-1861).

(II)-Richard Grant (1793/94-1862)  son (I)- William Grant in Michilimackinac 1761 went from Detroit to Red River 1790's and Margaret Laframboise; employed HBC (1816-1850) is assigned Rocky Mountain House (1816-1821) , Fort Edmonton (1822-1823)  (1823-1827) York Factory, Saskatchewan District to 1836 back to York (1837-1840) and  (1841-1850) Columbia District.  Richard Grant had two successive wives and eight children. Retired Fort Hall then moved to Hellgate, Idaho where he died
Married 1st. 1824 York Factory Mary Anne Berland aka Breland, Burleigh Metis (c. 1824?-1835) daughter Breland aka Berland (1760-1829) and Louise Belly Indian and together they had at least three boys, 
    (III)-Richard Grant Metis Jr. b-1825 York Factory 
    (III)-Charles William Grant Metis b-1826 York Factory
    (III)-John Francis Grant Metis b-1833 Edmonton House
    (III)-daughter Grant Metis d-1846 after she married in Montreal and shortly after his mother died
Mary Anne Berland died in 1834 or 1835. and he took his children to Montreal to be raised by his mother and sister
Marriage (affair?) 2nd (1827-1828) Oxford House local woman
    (III)-an unnamed son Grant Metis b-1827/28 Oxford House he tried to bring this son to Fort Hall    
Married 3rd March 29, 1845, Fort Hall Helen Kittson McDonald Metis (1810-1863) daughter Finan McDonald and Charlotte Pend'oreille a Spokane, and the widow of William Kittson. Three of their children were     
    (III)-Hélène Wilhelmine Grant Metis (1846-1862), 
    (III)-Julia Priscilla Grant Metis  b-1848
    (III)-Adelina Grant Metis  b-1850.

(II)-Marie Louis Haquet (1817-1860) son Louis Haquet and Jeanne Lemeoine (not know if parents migrated with son to Quebec?), joined HBC in Montreal for Colunbia Distict (1841-1849), married Helen Celiast Clatop daughter Indian and Louise Moatwas, was wife Basile Poirier (1851-1852) who was a bigamist and she left him when she found out'
    Xavier Poirier Metis b-1823
    Francois Poirier Metis b-1825
    Alexander Poirier Metis b-1831
Married 1844 Helen Celiast Clatop Indian
    (III)-Louis Mari Hasquet Metis b-1845
    (III)-Jeanne Hasquet Metis (1846-1847)
    (III)-Jeanne Cecile HasquetMetis b-1847 bapt 1848 married 1st. 1870 James Johnson, 2nd married William Howard
    (III)-Pierre Etienne Hasquet Metis b-1850 bapt 1851
    (III)-Julie Hasquet Metis b-1855
Widow Helen Celiast Clatop married Ramsey a Metis son Jack Ramsey a Metis

(I)-Edward Martin Hobkins (1820-1893) son Martin Edward Hopkins and Anne Manley joined HBC and was personal secretary (1841-1842) to George Simpson and was at Fort Vancouver August 25, 1841. On September 8, 1841, Hopkins took charge of Fort Nisqually while Simpson went north to Sitka.  Edward Martin Hopkins had six children by his two successive wives. 
In 1847, he married Anne Ogden Metis d-1854 niece of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854). Together they had 
    (II)-Edward Gouveror Ogden Hobkins Metis b-1850
    (II)-Peter Ogden Hobkins Metis b-1852
    (II)-Manley Ogden Hobkins Metis (1853-1918). 
In 1854, Anne died of cholera. After marrying Frances Anne Beechey Metis? (1836-1919) in August, 1858 the three additional Hopkins children were 
   (II)-Raymond Beechey Hobkins Metis ? 
    (II)-Wilfred Hobkins Metis ? (1861-1910)
    (II)-Olive Beechey Hobkins Metis ?(1863-1917).

Joachim Hubert Metis? (1795-1873) son Ignace Hubert and Marguerite Charlot Charles of Sault Louis joined NWC 1814 at Michillimacinac.  Then HBC (1821-1842) Columbia District then settled Willamette 1842.  While in Fort Colvile Joachim Hubert married Josephte Kanhopitsa (des Chaudieres) (1797-1848), who had born one child, 
    Josephte Clark Metis? b-1813 to John Clark  
    Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis b-1819 to Jean Boucher.  Jean Baptiste Boucher took Josephte Kanhopitsa (des Chaudières) for his wife after her abandonment by John Clarke (1781-1858). After Jean Baptiste died, Josephte country married Joachim Hubert. (Josephete’s daughter Josephte, who married John McKay, went by the name of her step-father, Boucher

The Hubert marriage was formalized on August 2, 1842 and together they had nine more children. Recorded Hubert children were 
    Lisette Hubert Metis b-1826
    André Hubert Metis b-1828, 
    Joseph Hubert Metis b-1831 
    Isabelle Elizabeth II Hubert Metis b-1833 
    Marie Archange Hubert Metis b-1835 
    Rosalie Hubert Metis b-1839
    Adele Hubert Metis b-1841
    Joseph (Hubert Metis b-1842
    Louis Hubert Metis b-1844
Josephte was buried at St. Louis, Oregon under the name Adelaide Hubert on January 8, 1848.

Louise Humperville, Metis, b-1831 likely Red River, daughter, French Metis and Swamp Cree father and Marguerite Michina, family moved to French Prairie, Ogden Territory this year, Louise later married Adolphe Chamberland (1819-1888).  See next and 1837

Canote Humpherville. Metis, d-1841 a canoeman, married, Marie Marguerite (1798-1868) a Coeur d'Alene Salishan.  They had eight children some baptized Colvile, Oregon Territory in 1839.  Marie retired to French Prairie, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1841. 

(I)-James Johnston (1805-1855) employed HBC (1839-1850) seaman in Columbia District.married about 1841 Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk a Chinook, died before 1855, daughter of Comita Koholwish and Chief Hoqueem of the Quinaults

Isaac Labelle joined HBC (1841-1848), likely settled north of Vancouver.  On April 21, 1845, he married Louise Moatwas (Watelchie), widow of bigamist Basil Poirier (1774-1844). The Labelle son was 
    Isaac II Labelle Metis b-1848

Joachim Laferte b-1813 likely Yamaska, Quebec working HBC (1841-1846) Columbia District and settled Willamette 1845.   By 1850, at Willamette, Joachim Laferte had one wife Sophie Aubichon (1828-1905) and several children but all died before Sophie 
    Joachim Laferte Metis Jr. b-1849.

(II)-Robert Logan Sr. Metis b-1819 Lac La Pluie son (I)-Robert Logan (1773-1866) and Mary Saulteaux d-1838; joined HBC (1841-1848) Columbia District, (1842-1848) Cowlitz farm retired Red River.
    (III)-Robert Logan Jr. Metis joined HBC 1849-1852) Columbia District, (1850-1851) Fort Vancouver .

Charles McKay married 1841 Columbia District (Oregon), (II)-Letitia Bird, Metis (1810-1897) born Fort Edmonton daughter (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) HBC (1788-1824) and Mary Kelly Swampy Cree Indian; 

Patrick McKenzie Metis joined HBC (1835-1841) working the Saskatchewan District and (1841-1852) Columbia District

(I)-Archibald McKinlay (1816-1891) joined HBC (1841-1854) Columbia District.  On June 15, 1840, he married (IV)-Sarah Julia Ogden Metis (1826-1886), daughter of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Julia Rivet Flathead (1788/1800-1886). Their children were 
    (II)-Eleanora J. McKinlay Metis  
    (II)-Peter McKinlay Metis  d-1850 
    (II)-James McKinlay Metis  (1846-1889), 
    (II)-Janette McKinlay Metis  (1847-1859), 
    (II)-Sarah Ellen McKinlay Metis  (1851-1898), 
    (II)-Ogden Allen McKinlay Metis  (1852-1908), 
    (II)-Catherine Ann McKinlay Metis  (1856-1894), 
    (II)-Archibald I. (c.McKinlay Metis  b-1858
    (II)-Ewan Duncan McKinlay Metis  b-1864 
Sarah Julia Ogden McKinlay died c. August 4, 1892 after an accident in a carriage.

(I)-Donald McLeod (1815/21-1903) he went to sea age 12 yrs, joined HBC (1841-1853) Columbia Department and Montana.  Donald McLeod had two successive wives and ten children. Probably in the late 1840s, he took as his wife, Thérèse, a woman from the Nez Perce or Spokane nations. They had two children, 
    (II)-Pierre Paul McLeod Metis b-1849
    (II)-Martine Marceal McLeod Metis 
Around 1850, Thérèse, fate unknown, was replaced by Rosalie Morigeau (1833-84), of mixed descent. Their children were
    (II)-Elizabeth McLeod Metis (1851-1891), 
    (II)-Alexander McLeod Metis (1854-1938), 
    (II)-Margaret McLeod Metis (1855-1936), 
    (II)-Frank McLeod Metis (1859-1921), 
    (II)-Celeste McLeod Metis b-1860
    (II)-Daniel McLeod Metis (1867-1937), 
    (II)-Malcolm McLeod Metis (1870-1944) and 
    (II)-Richard McLeod Metis (1874-1945).

(I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) is Chief Trader at Bona Venture, Columbia (1841-1842)

Pierre Cyrysologue Pambrun (1792-1841) employed HBC (1815-1841) is posted Fort Walla Walla, Columbia District (1840-1841).  He was Chief Trader who fell from a horse May 15, 1841 and died. Leaving 9 Metis children and his wife.  See Alberta 1823.

Charles Parisien Metis b-1823 joined HBC (1841-1844) Columbia District, in Red River 1845

William Glen Rae, d-1846 was sent from Fort Vancouver to San Francisco to establish a new post (Yerba Buena). 

(I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) employed HBC (1818-1844) and is working Columbia District (1841-1844), Fort McLoughlin (1842-1843), Straits of De Fuca (1843-1844) as Chief Trader in charge, Fort Victoria (1844) as Chief Trader in charge.

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) visited Radium Hot Springs, B.C.

(II)-James Sinclair Metis (1806/11-1856) born Oxford House son (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Nahovway Cree, worked for HBC (1841-1856) and likely earlier led a party of 23 Metis families representing 120 people from Red River to Columbia District'  Some members were 
    Julian Berner Metis (1794-1849) NWC (1813-1821) Columbia District, HBC (1821-1823) Columbia and New Caledonia
    Joseph Klyne Metis (1816-1849) son Michel Klyne; HBC (1829-1843) Columbia District
    Pierre St Germain Metis (1790-1870) NWC (1810-1819) HBC (1819-1822) Frankinlin Expedition, HBC (1822-1834) 
    John V. Campbell
They traveled to Fort Edmonton, up the Bow River, ascended the Spray River, crossed White Man Pass, descended the Cross River to the Kootney Calley, and then ascended Sinclair creek the narrow Stanford Range to descend Sinclair Canyon, (Radium Hot Springs.  They passed by Lake Pend d'Oreille and reached Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia River, October 4.  That night the fort burned down and the settlers saved the stock and effects and most of the property was saved.  They continued to Fort Vancouver, arriving October 12, 1841.  Some contend the party was deserted by their Metis guide but were guided by a Cree Indian, Mackipitoon or Crooked Arm, this is highly unlikely as these men were season fur traders but it is likely they hired him for safe passage through Cree Country.    

(I)-Archibald Stewart Spence joined HBC (1812-1823) Churchill, Severn River District, Red River.  Listed 1841 with wife and 7 children on list to Whidbey Island, south shore of Pugets Sound, married (1820-1823) churched 1828 Peggy Margaret Cree Indian of Severn Factory
    (II)-Jacobina Spence Metis bapt 1824
    (II)-Margaret Spence Metis bapt 1825
    (II)-Archibald Spence Metis bapt 1830
    (II)-James Stewart Spence bapt 1838

(II)-John Swanson Metis (1827-1872) Moose Factory son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and  (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) joined HBC (1842-1872) Pacific Coast.  Swanson had at least two wives and four children. The first wife was a mixed descent person d-1852 probably from the Fort Simpson area. On November 27, they had twin Metis boys, one of whom died immediately. The mother died one month later. On December 20, 1860, a license was issued for the marriage of John Swanson and Catherine Harris (1847-1937). They had at least four Metis children, 
    (III)-Charles L. Swanson Metis (1860-1886).


(II)-Joseph Swanson Metis b-1821 Moose Factory son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and  (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818) joined HBC (1835-1846); assigned Pacific Northwest (1840-1846) assigned 1841 California, 1843 Vancouver discharged 1846 California.
      


(II)-William Swanson Metis (1819-1843) Moose Factory son (I)-William Swanson (1794-1865) and  (II)-Anne (Nancy) Brown Metis daughter (I)-Joseph Brown (1772-1818); joined HBC (1835-1843) assigned Columbia District (1841-1843)  William’s old girlfriend was living in London with a policeman by the name of William Tulloch.

Alexander Tappage aka Regnier Metis (1841/48-1875) likely New Caledonia son Iean Baptiste Tappage dit Regnier Metis (1799-1849) and Onteloy a fort George native woman; joined HBC (1857-1861) & 1868 New Caledonia then became a farmer
1st married Maria
    Baptiste Tappage aka Regnier Metis b-1864
2rd marriage Matilda
    Elizabeth Tappage aka Regnier bapt 1867
3rd marriage Julien Batisan
    Rosalie Tappage aka Regnier bapt 1874
4th Rosie

Louis Tarantanta b-1804 Quebec, an Iroquois joined HBC (1841-1844) New Caledonia.

George Thibeault b-1820 L'Assumption, Quebec son Etienne Thibeault and Ronette Richard.  Joined HBC (1841-1856) Columbia District.

(II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) employed HBC (1841-1864) Columbia District,

Joseph Thibeault Jr. b-1824 son Joseph Thibeault Sr and Archange Belanger from Montreal joined HBC (1841-1851), On September 15, 1845, he married fifteen year old Henriette, Snohomish b-1830, probably at Fort Vancouver, and they had a daughter 
    Marie Idelle  Thibeault Metis (1851-1851). 
No other children were recorded.

William Todd Metis Jr. (1842-1866) from Red River joined HBC (1841-1866) Columbia and New Caledonia Departments married Marie
    Donald Todd Metis b-1866 Bear Lake.

John Umpreville (Ampreville) Metis born Columbia District son Canote Umpreville aka Canotte Umfreville, Humpherville Athabasca Metis (1788-1842) and Pauline Sinpoil or Marguerite Michina; joined HBC (1841-1842)  On August 15, 1842, he settled in the Willamette Valley (Oregon). He appeared on the Muster Rolls as having served in 1848 (a private in D, I, J, 7th Company) in the Cayuse War under the name John Ampreville. His brother Gregoire likely served in the same war (a private in D, I, J, 9th Company).

John Wapping Metis b-1823 joined HBC (1841-1848) Columbia District then became a freeman.


Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth, about 1841, (II)-Catherine Work, Metis, daughter (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married February 5, 1861, C. Wentworth

The great lone land (Prairies) named by the Government, Canada West, was not a popular name, and the name North West or Indian Territories still held popular support.  By this time, five hundred and sixty thousand English had immigrated to Canada.

Most settlers to the Columbia District (Oregon Territory) to this time were Canadian Metis families using Red River carts, mostly settling in the Willamette Valley (Oregon).  (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) (an imposing 6' 4") was at complete odds with (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) (a small man 5' 6') an illegitimate Scot, on how the Columbia District should be run.  John went against HBC policy and was sympathetic to the plight of the settlers and offered them aid.  Often arriving sick, hungry, and without provisions, his kindly heart extended them credit, fed and clothed them, care for the sick, and supplied them with seed for farming.  The size difference likely fueled their dislike for each other, as well as John being a 3rd generation Canadian while George was 1st generation.

James Sinclair (1805-1856) of HBC departed Red River leading a Metis group of 23 families numbering 120 people across the Bow River (Alberta) and up the gap between Ha Ling Peak (previously Chinaman's Peak) and Mount Rundle to White Man's Pass on his way to Columbia District (Oregon/Washington territory).  Simpson wrote in his diary, "Each family had two or three carts, together with bands of horses, cattle and dogs. As they marched in single file their cavalcade extended above a mile long. The emigrants were all healthy and happy; living with the greatest abundance and enjoying the journey with great relish.".

The first wagon train of American settlers arrived in the Columbia District and were welcomed by (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857)  employed by HBC and is Chief Factor of the Columbia District

By this year the United States, by their scores, are entering the Hudson Bay Company region of Columbia District (Oregon Territory).

In the Wallamette Valley aka The French Prairie Handsaker wrote Our neighbours were not very numerous and there being only a few white people.  (Meaning not being Indian)  Farther up Calapooia Creek were a number of mixed breeds, the old man. a Frenchman named Louis Coutrell who had a Siwash Kloochman.  He had not only a numerous family of his own but a generous number of grand children as well. 

Governor  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot,  reports 120 farms are located along the Willamette River  which flows into the Columbia River in the Canadian Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  He reports that these include 55 Canadians and 65 United States farms which produced 35,000 bushels of wheat and equal quantities of oats, peas, barley and potatoes.  He also noted the presence of 3,000 cattle, 2,500 horses and a multitude of hogs.  Their only customer was the Hudson Bay Company.  Fort Vancouver (across the river from Portland Oregon) had 1,200 acres under cultivation and produced 4,000 bushels of wheat.  Other farming communities included Cowlitz River and  Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound at the mouth of the Nisqually River.

U.S.S. Peacock was wrecked in 1841 at the mouth of the Columbia River.

1841 Governor (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, is claimed to be the first to record a visit to Radium Hot Springs, followed a few weeks later by James Sinclair on his way to Columbia District (Oregon Territory).  The Indians, Metis and French voyagers had been using the gravel pool for many years.

Until his death in February 1841, Ewing Young was the most prosperous homesteader in Oregon; his land claim, brickyard, and mills were near Chehalem Creek and the site of present day Newburg, Oregon. Except for Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) , mill at the Willamette Falls, the Clackamas (Kalapuya) County (Willamette Valley, Oregon) area was without white settlements.  I guess the French, Irish, Scotch and Metis are not considered white.

May 11:  The U.S. ship Porpoise under lieutenant Charles Wilkes (1798-1877) anchored near Fort Nisqually, Puget Sound and was visited by (I)-Alecander Caulfield Anderson of India (1814-1884), chief trader and William Henry McNeill (1803-1875) captain of the beaver.  Wilkes was sent to chart the west coast and like the English renamed everything to his liking.  Upon his return he was nearly court-martialed for his brutal treatment of his crew.

August:   Father Modeste Demers reached the Hudson's Bay Company farm via the portage crossed by the fort's discoverers in 1824.  James Murry Yale (1776-1871) immediately sent for the priest to come to Fort Langley.  Six hundred Indians greeted the 'man dressed in black women's clothing' at the fort.  On one occasion the priest preached to 1,500 - 1,600 Indians just outside the gates of the fort. The visit from the Catholic missionary boosted the company's trading with the Indians.  This was the opposite opinion of Fort Edmonton's commanders. 

September 3:  Peeohpeeoh (Pionpion) and Kwoithe woman of Sandwich Isles had a daughter baptized this day.

 

1842  

Birth Leon Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort George (Astoria), Columbia District (1842-1845) 

Father J. B. Z. Bolduc in Honolulu reported that more than 500 Sandwich Islanders were in service of the Company (HBC).  Almost 1/4 of employees at Fort Vancouver (Washington) were Kanakas.  Most Kanakas stayed on in the Pacific Northwest because they had families by local women.  Growing discrimination in the Columbia District (Oregon Territory) would drive most north into British Columbia.

Louison Bouche (Boucher) Metis (1822-1842) HBC (1837-1842) New Caledonia drown with Canote Umphreville, Pierre Martineau, David Flett and Andrew Arenhoniante in Okanagan Falls.

Silvan (Sylvania) Bourgeau (1807/11-1871) son Joseph Bourgeau and Angelique Henry of Montreal employed HBC (1829-1842) Columbia District, retired Willamette 1842.  February 11, 1839, he married a Chinook native woman, Josephte/Josette Sok (1815-1857) who died on May 8, 1857 or  Josephte died on December 28, 1857 and was buried in the St. Paul cemetery. 
1st married  Josephte Tchinouk 
(1815-1857) baptised 1837);
    Betsy/Elizabeth Bourgeau Metis b-1833    
   
Jean Baptiste Bourgeau Metis b-1837/38
2nd married 1839 Marie Mathlomat;
    Josephte
Bourgeau Metis 
    Pierre
Bourgeau Metis b-1838
3rd married Angele Chehalis, widow of Jean Baptiste Perrault
until 1857 and appeared to have no more children.
Don't know which wife these children belong to:
    
    Helene Bourgeau Metis m-1856
    Marie Bourgeau Metis 
    Madelaine Bourgeau Metis b-1845
    unnamed son Bourgeau Metis d-1849), 
    Louis Bourgeau Metis b-1850. ,

Mary Brosseau, Metis b-1842 Fort Langley, daughter Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) and Rose Kwantlen (Quytlan) d-1856; married Peter Baker.

John H. Couch, b-1811 made his second trip to Oregon this year and opened a merchandise store in Oregon City.  

Jean Baptiste Desjardine Metis (1825-1856) of Red River joined HBC (1842-1856) Columbia District. 

Goddy (Baptiste) Desmarais Metis joined HBC (1842-1861) Fort Vancouver and New Caledonia, in Red River 1845, on North Saskatchewan (1849-1850), had twins 1857 from unknown woman.  One twin died 1858 the other 1859.

Pierre Desrivieres, Metis or Indian b-1797, employed HBC (1839-1841) assigned out of Fort Vancouver, Columbia (1841-1843) to Southern Party, Columbia

Chief Factor James Douglas, Mulatto Metis (1803-1877), of the Hudson Bay Company and five men, in the schooner from Fort Nisqually selected Port Camosack to build Fort Victoria aka Fort Albert aka Fort Adelaide in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.  The intended to trade with the Lekwammen Villages along the shores of the Juan de Fuca Strait.

James Douglas (1803-1877) a mixed blood (Scottish and a colored Creole Woman) accompanied  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, to Alaska to negotiate with the Russian American Company.

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, died January 5, 1842; married 2nd February 7, 1842 Susanne Kohoss died January 8, 1843:.

(III)-Charles Favel Metis b-1826 son  (II)-Thomas Favel (Favell) (1780/81-1848), Metis; joined HBC (1842-1866) Fort Vancouver, Thompson River, New Caledonia, married Nellie Boucher
    (IV)-William Favel Metis b-1853/54 joined HBC (1875-1876) New Caledonia, deserted 
    

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Fort Simpson, Columbia District (1842-1843)

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Umpqua, Columbia District as Interpreter. (1842-1844).

Simon Guile (Guille) b-1821/22, likely son Thomas Gill and Catherine Basin of St. Francois, Montreal, employed HBC (1842-1849) Columbia District.  
He married 1845 Mary Ayhaelis of Tsegalis nation (1822-1846), bapt 1845 born in the Columbia District and had one child, 
    Simon Guile Metis b-1844/45, bapt 1845 the day of his birth.
He married 1849 Marie Pepin Metis daughter Etienne Pepin of Masca, Montreal and woman of the tribe of Mascoyennes 
All the above ceremonies were performed in Fort Vancouver

Cowlitz, Columbia District, birth/death (II)-un-named Johnstone drowned beside the Columbia river child of (I)-James Johnson (1805-1855) and Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk a Chinook, died before 1855

(I)-Malcolm McKay (1821/23-1908) joined HBC 1841 York Factory likely wintered on the Saskatchewan River, assigned (1842-1849) Fort Vancouver; married Lucinda Lamberson (1837-1885) born Iowa

(I)-Angus McLeon joined HBC (1842-1849) Columbia District, a freeman living among the Flathead and likely married.

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) changed the name of Willamette Falls to Oregon City.

(I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) is Chief Trader at Thompson River, Columbia (1842-1843)

Oliver Martineau b-1819 Yamaskai, Quebec of HBC was flogged by William Glen Rae, d-1846 at Fort Stikane (Alaska) for giving his blanket to a native woman. 

Francois Xavier Mattheau (1818-1914) son Francois Matthieu and Louis Daufin of Terrebonne, Quebec joined American Fur Company (1832-1842) traveled to Columbia District 1842.  Married Rosalie Aussant daughter Louis Aussant and had 15 children.

(I)-David Munro b-1799 Scotland joined HBC (1818-1842) York Factory, assigned (1842-1844) Columbia District and settled Willamette.   By 1850, David Munro had one wife Betsy native b-1798-?), of unknown origin, and children 
    (II)-Finlay Munro Metis b-1824 York Factory joined HBC York Factory (1839-1865),  d-1901
    (II)-Alexander Munro Metis b-1826 York Factory
    (II)-Christian Munro Metis b-1834 York Factory
    (II)-Ellen Munro Metis b-1836 York Factory
    (II)-Catherine Munro Metis b-1837 York factory
    (II)-David Munro Metis b-1839 York Factory.

Louis Montret (Montrel & Montre) Metis born Red River area likely son Joseph Montre and a Dakota woman, joined HBC (1839-1850) assigned Fort Simpson and in 1842 assigned Fort Stikine Columbia District.  He was in Fort Victoria (1853-1854) listed as Montrel.

Jean Baptiste Ouvre aka Ouvrie (1790-1849) is at Fort Vancouver, Columbia District until 1843/47.

Louis Proveau (1805-1846) Yamaska, married Julie a woman of the Lakes; joined HBC (1828-1846 Columbia District, on child recorded:
    Victoire Proveau Metis b-1840 Fort Covile, Columbia District. 

William Glen Rae, d-1846 was sent from Fort Vancouver to San Francisco to establish a new post (Yerba Buena) in 1841 and his wife (IV)-Eloisa McLoughlin, Metis (1817-1884) joined him, she gave birth to two sons and two daughters, one son died shortly after birth.
William Glen Rae committed suicide under mysterious circumstances, and Eloisa and their children returned to Fort Vancouver. 

John Simpson d-1842 Fort Vancouver possible son (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860)

(II)-William Spencer Metis b-1822 Hudson Bay likely son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1838-1874) assigned Columbia District (1841-1844) Saskatchewan District (1846-1856); married (III)-Caroline Small b-1827 Metis daughter (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) and Nancy Hughs
    (III)-Arthur Spencer bapt 1860 

(I)-John Tod b-1794, Scotland is posted Fort Kamploops, Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound.  He took Sophia Lolo, Metis (1826-1883) while still married to Elizabeth Waugh.  Their daughter 
    (II)-Mary Tod, Metis was born 1843 and they had 6 other Metis children.  He formally married her in 1863.  It is noteworthy that Todd believed the Metis could not be made into gentlemen, due to their mental inferiority.  On the plus side he disapproved of the H.B.C. executing people without a fair trial.    

(II)-William Todd Metis Jr. bapt-1823 Pembina or York Factory, d-1871, son (I)-Dr. Eilliam Todd (1784-1851) and Marianne Ballentyne Metis; joined HBC (1841-1864) 1841-Swan river else Columbia and New Caledonia District.  
1st married 1849 Sarah Jane Johnstone:
     (III)-Albert Todd Metis b-1846
     (III)-Samuel Todd Metis b-1850
    (III)-Isabelle Todd Metis b-1852
    (III)-William J. Todd Metis b-1853 married Marie Dufresne
    (III)-Donald Todd Metis b-1855
    (III)-Fanny Todd Metis b-1857
2nd marriage 1868 Fanny Anne Hourie Todd Metis b-1842 
    (III)-Mary Ann Todd Metis b-1846

William Wentzel Metis b-1819 joined HBC (1842-1852) Columbia District.

Augustin Willing Jr. b-1819 son Augustin Willing Sr. and Mary Piquette from Montreal joined HBC (1842-1858) Columbia District.  Augustin Willing had one wife and two recorded children. On July 21, 1856 at Fort Langley, he married Julie Saanich or Cowichan. Their children were 
    George Willing Metis b-1853
    Elisabeth Willing Metis bap.1858

HBC built Champoeg Post (1842-1861) on the Willamette River on what was called French Prairies aka Willamette Valley.

The Ashburton Treaty settled the Canadian United States boundary from the headwaters of the Ste Croix River to the Lake of the Woods.

The United States consider this the end of a permanent Indian Country, as one hundred settlers in eighteen covered wagons took off across the "The Great American Desert" (Plains), marking out a road that would become known as the Oregon Trail.

Kit Carson ( Christopher Houston) (1809-1868) joined the Fremont expedition as guide/hunter up the Platte River to the Wind River Range in Wyoming.  He also signed on with Fremont expedition to Oregon and a 3rd trip to California.

There are over 310 Kanakas (Hawaiian) on the Hudson's Bay Company's payroll.

Hudson Bay built Champoeg post (1842-1861) in Willamette Valley.

January 9:  Birth,  Angeligue Marguerite Bonanfant, Metis daughter Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin Metis b-1835 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.  Living Oregon 1842

February 7: Columbia District, 2nd, marriage Charles Plante (1790-1854) and Susanne Kohoss, died January 8, 1843

April 21: Fort Vancouver a drunken Dr. John McLoughlin (1812-1842) a surgeon son Dr. John McLoughlin and Marguerite Wadin McKay was shot dead by Urban Heroux b-1812, William Lassert and others.  Dr. John would pummel his associates with fist and whip them until the blood flowed.  In 1841 his associated signed a pact if Dr John was not removed they would kill him.  In April 21 Dr John with riffle in hand was hunting for William Lassert and Urbain Heroux to kill them or punish them when they shot him.

August 4:  (III)-Francis (Frank) Ermatinger (1798-1858) employed HBC (1818-1853) assigned Flat Head Post, Columbia.(1834-1842) married wife #4 Catherine Sinclair daughter of Chief Factor William Sinclair; he abandoned his wife #3 married 1834, Mary Three Dresses, a Flathead Woman; With wife #3 he had an un-named son b-1836, daughter Mary (1838-1940) married Peter Ashley on Montana, he had also abandoned wife  #2 Cleopatra an Okanagan Woman and his son (IV)-Lawrence Ermatinger, Metis b-1828.  (III)-Francis also had abandoned wife #1 and child in Severn.  He would abandon wife #4 in 1849 when he filed for divorce, as well as their child, (II)-Frances (Fanny) Maria Ermatinger, Metis b-1843, married John Crawford of St. Thomas.  He was a most despicable man and a bigamist.  The English called these marriages Alliance (concubines), The French, Metis and Indians called them Country Marriages.

September:  Two catholic priests, A. Langlois and J.B. Bolduc, arrived Fort Vancouver, Oregon Territory 

November 22:  Mt. St. Helens (a volcano in Washington just across the Columbia River but visible in the Willamette Valley) erupted   spewing a large amount of ash. Members of the Methodist Mission witnessed the event namely Rev. Jason Lee, Dr Badcock and Rev. Gustavis.  Rev. Josiah l. Parrish south of Gervais also witnessed the event.  Intermittent, small eruptions continued through 1857.

 

1843  

HBC built Fort Victoria (1843-1864)

Birth, Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Michael Arquoitte, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) b- 1797 and Marguerite Waponte d- 1870.  Others suggest Birth Michel Arquette, Metis (1834-1915) son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Birth Isaac Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Joseph Ovide Beauchamp (1821-1873) a French Canadian employed HBC (1843-1852).   He had two wives and possibly three daughters. While he was at Fort Vancouver on May 12, 1845, he married Margherita/Marguerite a Shasta (1827-1847),  Marguerite Beauchamp Metis died December 17, 1847 and was buried at Fort Vancouver.  Their daughter, 
    CarolineBeauchamp Metis  (d-1850), was christened in the Victoria area on August 10, 1850 and buried two weeks later on August 23. Shortly after that Beauchamp must have married Marie Clallams, and they had a daughter 
    Caroline Beauchamp Metis d-1853, who was buried on December 29, 1853. 
    Margaret Beauchamp Metis b-1883 may have been another daughter.

Tualitin Plains, District of Columbia (Oregon) marriage (I)-Henry Buxton, (1794-1870) employed HBC (1821-1825) to Sarah Munger, d-1890 a second marriage? 1st married 1828 to (II)-Francois Thomas b-1795;  Maybe this is marriage of son (II)-Henry bapt 1829??

Joseph Charbonneau Metis (1820-1856) son Joseph Charbonneau and Sussana Saulteaux employed HBC (1843-1854) working on the steamer Beaver or at coastal forts.  On December 4, 1852, he married Genevieve d-1868?, Tongass. The Catherine baptised on the day of the wedding may have been wife Catherine, Tongass or a daughter, a 4th child?  
Three of their short-lived children were 
    Pierre Charbonneau Metis (1852-1857), 
    Joseph Charbonneau Metis Jr. b-1869, 
    Julie Charbonneau Metis (1856-1858). 
The Catherine baptised on the day of the wedding may have been wife Catherine, Tongass or a daughter, a 4th child. Genevieve died on May 28, 1868 in the Royal Hospital in Victoria.

(I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) came to the Fort Langley as Chief Cooper, HBC (1843-1872) Columbia District.  William Cromarty married Salum’mia [aka Jane, Elizabeth and Jenny] (1830-1869) and had seven children: 
    (II)-Elizabeth Cromarty Metis (1847-1883), 
    (II)-William Cromarty Metis (1848-1881), 
    (II)-Ann Cromarty Metis b-1850
    (II)-James Cromarty Metis (1853-1936), 
    (II)-David Cromarty Metis (1855-1884), 
    (II)-Mary Cromarty Metis (1858-1889)
    (II)-Samuel Cromarty Metis (1869-1923).

Joseph DeSautel aka DeGaspar b-1824/27 son Joseph DeGasper and Janette DeChalin of Montreal.  Employed HBC (1843-1852) west of the Rockies, retired (1852-1854) (Pinkney City Washington).   On May 4, 1851, he married Julia Lafleur b-1836, daughter of Joachim Lafleur,b-1895 of Fort Colvile, Walla Walla Co.since 1828 and native woman.  Their children were 
     Maxine DeSautel Metis 
     John  DeSautel Metis b-1857, 
     Adolphe DeSautel Metis  
     May DeSautel Metis     
     Frank DeSautel Metis 
     Rose DeSautel Metis 
     Olive DeSautel Metis  
     Felix DeSautel Metis 

William Felix Metis joined HBC (1843-1846) Thompson River.

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Straits of de Fuca, Columbia District (1843-1844)

David Finlay Metis d-1849 killed by the Blackfoot out of Fort Coville, joined HBC (1843-1849) Columbia District.

(I)-James Allen Grahame (1825-1905) joined HBC (1843-1874) Fort Vancouver.  James Allen Grahame had two successive wives and possibly seven children. On September 5, 1848, he married Susanne Birnie (.1819/1828-1854), daughter of James Birnie (1799-1864). Their children were 
     (II)-James Ogden Grahame (1850-?), quite likely 
     (II)-William Grahame 
     (II)-Alexander Lowe Grahame b-1851
In Victoria on September 5, 1860, he married Mary Work Metis (1837-1919), a daughter of John Work about a week after the issuance of their marriage licence on August 31, 1860. Another possible son, according to Helmcken, was 
     (II)-Harry Grahame Metis?
The Grahame/Work children were 
     (II)-Lilian Grahame Metis b-1869
     (II)-Margaret Grahame Metis b-1877?
     (II)-Montrose Grahame Metis b-1859

Etienne Gregoire (1793-1867 of Maskinonge employed NWC (1813-1815) posted to Columbia (1814-1815) and HBC (1821-1843) to Columbia. retired 1843 Willamette Valley with his wife and family.
  Married likely about 1828 Marguerite Souchenabe aka (Kamloops, Porter, Porteuse) b-1790, died October 7, 1860.

        RECORDED CHILDREN

        .Julie Gregoire, Metis, b-about 1829, married Luc Gagnon
        Sophie Gregoire, Metis, b-about 1830, married William Porteus and Firman La Brun
        Antoine Gregoire, Metis, b-about 1831, married September 17, 1849, Therese Ouvre
        Simon Etienne Gregoire, Metis, b-1832, baptized August 29, 1839, age 7 years, married Victoire McMillan
        Felix Gregoire, Metis, b-1833, baptized September 5, 1839, age 6, married Genevieve Beleque and August 15, 1894 Mary Wilquet  

George Hawaiian joined HBC (1843-1845) Fort Vancouver.  He and an unnamed Chehalis woman had 
    Louis Mari George Metis (1844-1844).

Felix Lambert b-1824 son Souverain Lambert and Claire Lebrun of  Quebec, joined HBC (1843-1849) Columbia District, On January 4, 1849 at Fort Vancouver, he married Marie Sophie, Grande Dalles b-1834. They had no recorded children. After the apparent death of Marie Sophie, 
He married Veronica Sanders Metis (daughter of Jean Pierre Sanders and Susanne native or Metis of Yamhill, of area of Willamette )  on May 21, 1855. Their children were 
    Felix II Lambert Metis (1856-1856)
    André Lambert Metis (1858-1861), 
    Luce Lambert Metis b-1859
    Marie Lambert Metis b-1861
    Ursule Lambert Metis b-1864.

Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) the 'Father of Oregon' and First Governor of the Pacific Northwest was disillusioned with the settlers who were constantly lying and discriminating against his person.

James Newbred (Newbird) Metis d-1856 Fort Victoria.  Joined HBC (1843-1855) Columbia Fistrict.  He was murdered by Hargo Yest.

(I)-Henry Newsham Peers (1821-1864) joined HBC (1841-1854) assigned 1843 Columbia District.  On July 13, 1851 in Victoria, Vancouver Island, Peers married Eliza Yale Metis (1829-1865), one of James Murray Yale (1798-1871) and native wife's daughters. Two daughters were: 
     (II)-Mary Peers Metis b-1861
     (II)-Elizabeth Peers Metis bap.1865 and possibly; 
     (II)-Flora Peers Metis. 
Elizabeth Peers died on October 25, 1865 at the Colquitz farm.

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, died January 5, 1842; married 2nd February 7, 1842 Susanne Kohoss died January 8, 1843: married 3rd April 24, 1843, Elizabeth Chinook, died October 21, 1843:.

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, died January 5, 1842; married 2nd February 7, 1842 Susanne Kohoss died January 8, 1843: married 4th December 18, 1843, Pelagie Tchinook died September 22, 1851.

(I)-Samuel Robertson (1819-1897), of Orkney, come to Fort Langley as a cabinet maker and boat builder in 1843. He had come out directly from Scotland in the employ of the company to Fort Victoria where he met Julia Sanich, (1834-1884), the daughter of a Cowichan Chief. She had accompanied him to Fort Langley.  He became the first white settler on the north side of the Fraser River settling in Maple Ridge (Albion)   His older brother in the fur trade David returned to take over the family farm.  Younger brother James came to Canada and the fur trade in 1846.  His second wife was Harriet Mighton.
Around 1853, he took as a wife, Julia Casimir (1834-1884), daughter of Stolo Chief Skah. Til. Their marriage was formalized on June 2, 1876. Their children were 
    (II)-Mary Robertson Metis b-1853
    (II)-Donald Robertson Metis (1857-1887) 
    (II)-James Lewis Robertson Metis (1860-1945). 
Julia died on July 22, 1884. Samuel later married the English widow of William Edge, killed in a slide in 1880.

(III)-William Sinclair Jr. Metis (1827-1899) son (II)-C.F. William Sinclair Sr. and Mary Wadin McKay Metis (1795-1860) cast off by her 1st husband (I)-Donald McKenzie (1773-1851) from Lac La Pluie, Ontario, joined HBC (1843-1899) California, Columbia District.   Sinclair’s wife, Eloisa Jemina Kittson (July 25, 1836-1927), daughter of William Kittson and Helene McDonald and step daughter of Richard Grant, was living in Victoria at the time of his death. It is difficult to ascertain when his wife travelled with him. One son 
    (IV)-James William Sinclair Metis (July 27, 1858-June 21, 1861) was born at Cowlitz and died in New Westminster. One daughter was probably 
    (IV)-Julia Jessie Sinclair b-1864, at Victoria.

Mary Tod born 1843 in B.C. died Abt. 1914 in California daughter John Tod and Sophia Lolo: married John Sylvester Bowker May 24, 1864 in Oak Bay, B.C., Canada

Fort Victoria. birth, (II)-Josette Work, Metis, daughter (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married January 30, 1878, E. Prior

Fort Nisqually (Tacoma, Washington) began construction.

HBC built Willamette Falls sawmill (1842-1861) on the Willamette River on what was called French Prairies aka Willamette Valley.

Nine hundred United States settlers arrived Fort Vancouver (Washington/Oregon), bringing the population to 1,200 people.  They brought their prejudice fostered by the Manifest Destiny by threatening to drive out any white man with an Indian or half-breed (Metis) wife.  The settlers talked of attacking Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) and driving out Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) an Irish Canadian, who married 2nd Marguerite Wadin an Ojibwa Metis.  She was a widow of Alexander McKay d-1811 with 2 children and they had 4 more kids.  John had a son Joseph previously by another country girl.   This man who was proclaimed the 'Father of Oregon' was persecuted by the settlers until his death, despite the fact he had bent over backwards to help their emigration, supplying food and shelter, against the orders of the H.B.C.

Attempts to establish a provisional government before 1843 were thwarted by intense factionalism among the settlers. The largest of these divisions was that which existed between the Methodist Mission, led by Jason Lee, and the Catholic Church, headed by Father Francis Blanchet. The religious underpinnings ensured that the settlers would be divided along cultural lines as well, with most Americans supporting the Methodist faction and the majority of the region’s French-Canadian Metis population supporting that of the Catholics. It is noteworthy that most of the population was Catholic and Metis

Mt. Baker in northern Washington, named "White Steep Mountain" by the natives erupted. They said it killed many salmon.  It continued to erupt (1845-1847).

The evil Provisional Government of Oregon (1843-1849) elected its first Governor George Abernethy b-1807 a Scottish Methodist Missionary until 1849.

Hudson Bat built Willamette Falls sawmills (1843-1854)

March 13: James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877), Chief Factor of the Hudson Bay Company in the Beaver anchored off clover point and selected the site for Fort Albert (Victoria), Vancouver Island.  Father J.B.Z. Bolduc was with James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877).  Old Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) was dismantled and moved to this site that the Indians called Camosack meaning 'Rush of Water'.

March 14:  Father Baptiste Bolduc, a Catholic priest said the first mass at Fort Victoria.  He arrived with James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877).  

April 24: Columbia District, 3rd, marriage Charles Plante (1790-1854) and Elizabeth Chinook, died October 21, 1843

James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877) wrote: Put six men to dig a well, and six others to square building timber. Spoke to the Samose today, and informed them of our intention of building in this place, which appeared to please them very much, and they immediately offered their services in procuring pickets for the establishment, an offer which I gladly accepted, and promised to pay them a blanket for every 40 pickets which they bring. Five days later, more than 1,200 aboriginal people showed up at the site.

James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877) begins construction of Fort Camosun (Victoria, B.C.).

March 13: Chief Factor James Douglas (1803-1877) a mixed blood (Scottish and a colored Creole Woman) arrived Clover Point and he and Father J.B.Z. Bolduc selected the next day the site of Fort Albert (Fort Victoria) on the southern tip of Vancouver Island.

June:  Chief Factor (I)-Charles Ross (1794-1844) and 15 men began construction of Fort Albert aka Fort Camosun (Victoria), Vancouver Island.  Camosack meaning 'Rush of Water' was the Indian name for Fort Victoria, B.C.  Some suggest that Chief Factor James Douglas and Father J.B. Bolduc a Romam Catholic missionary selected March 14, 1843 the site of Fort Victoria..

June Willamette River birth Luce Longctain, Metis daughter Andre Lonctain aka (Lonctin and Longtin) (1793-1879) and Nancy Okanagan: married 1858 Joseph Osburn, one child born December 8, 1859 Andrew Allen Metis

June 10:  Fort Albert is renamed Fort Victory by edict from Fort Gary, Red River.

July The Hudson's Bay Company establishes Fort Camosun at the southern end of Vancouver Island. By December it will be known as Fort Victoria.

December 18: Columbia District, 4th, marriage Charles Plante (1790-1854) and Pelagie Tchinook, died September 22, 1851

 

1844  

Adam Beinston o-1820/24 Orkney died March 26, 1912 Washington, worked west of Rockies (1844-1852) as labourer.

James Bichan of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1849) as a cooper, left for California gold rush September 1, 1849.

Jean Baptiste Bolne aka  Bone son Christophe Bone and Marie Aimable Lariviere, employed HBC (1844-1849)  On May 21, 1855, he married Marie, in Nanaimo. Their adopted daughter, Catherine b-1849 was baptised on May 20, 1855, one day before the wedding.

Basil (Brazil) Bottineau (Battineau) Metis b-1819 Red River Joined HBC (1839-1852)  HBC Middleman on Athabasca River, Fort Simpson general charges (1839 - 1840); Middleman, Fort McLoughlin (1840 - 1841); Woodcutter, Beaver (steamer) (1841 - 1844); Middleman, Fort Stikine (1844 - 1849); Middleman, Fort Rupert (1849 - 1850); Middleman, Fort Rupert (1850 - 1851); Woodcutter, Beaver (steamer) (1851); Untraced vocation, Fort Victoria (1851 - 1852).  Bottineau had a family but the names of his Stikine native wife and children are not recorded. In July 1850, he fetched them from Stikine and brought them to Fort Rupert.

Jean Marie Boucher Metis b-1826 HBC (1844-1852) New Caledonia son Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1850) and (II)-Nancy McDougal Metis: HBC (1844-1878) New Caldeonia 
    Married 1850 Caroline Tatatz
    Married 1870 Julie Hinnatchu b-1845 daughter Castay of Fort George
    Married 1874 Sophie Nata born Stella, B.C. 
        Jean Boucher Metis

Burney is superintendent of Fort Astoria, Oregon Territory.

(II)-Thomas Charles, Metis, (1823-1885) son (I)-John Charles,(1799-1843) and (II)-Jane Auld, Metis (1800-1841) schooled in England joined HBC (1844-1872) New Caledonia, married Anastasia Carrier from Fort Babine
    (III)-Christine Charles Metis b-1853
    (III)-William Charles Metis b-1858
    (III)-Jennie Charles Metis b-1865.

Antoine Colin Metis b-1824 joined HBC (1844-1853) Columbia District.

(I)-Thomas Jonathan Cotsford (1808-1865) joined HBC (1844-1862), settled Fort Victoria 1854.  Cotsford married Elizabeth [Betsy] Dunn Metis b-1833, daughter of John Thompson Dunn and Russian Metis woman, in Victoria on August 11, 1859. The children with the Cotsford name were 
    (II)-Harriet Cotsford Metis b-1854 
    (II)-Thomas Jonathan Cotsford Metis Jr. b-1856
    (II)-William Thomas  Cotsford Metis b-1861
    (II)-Catherine Elizabeth Cotsford Metis (1863-1864). 
After the death of Thomas Cotsford, Betsy married Thomas Pamphlet.

Bazil Courville Metis b-1822 Montreal or NY, joined HBC 1839, deserted 1844-1845 to Willamette, settled South Impqua River, Douglas Co, Oregon On June 16, 1851 when he was living in St. Louis, he married Marianne King, Klickatat in St. Paul, the widow of Honore King. Their recorded children were: 
    Louis Courville Metis b-1853
    Edward Courville Metis b-1857 
    Gilbert Courville Metis b-1861

Joseph Couture b-1825 son Louis Couture amd Marie Dagenas, joined HBC (1844-1849) Columbia District, deserted, settled Willamette Valley.  On April 13, 1846, he married Marie Josephine, Cayuse b-1831. Their children were: 
    Marie Couture Metis (1847-1847), 
    Joseph Couture Metis b-1848
    Pierre Couture Metis b-1851

William Craigie of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1860) as labourer was at Fort Colvile, Washington.

(I)-William Cromartie (Cromarty) b-1814 Orkney, died 1875/76 Fort Langley, B.C.,  joined HBC (1843-1844) York, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1872) Columbia District as cooper.  William Cromarty married Salum’mia [aka Jane, Elizabeth and Jenny] (1830-1869) and had seven children:     
    Elizabeth Cromarty Metis (1847-1883), 
    William Cromarty Metis (1848-1881), 
    Ann Cromarty Metis b-1850 
    James Cromarty Metis  (1853-1936), 
    David Cromarty Metis (1855-1884), 
    Mary Cromarty Metis (1858-1889)
    Samuel Cremarty Metis (1869-1923).

Edouard Daigneau b-1825 son Basile Daignon and Marguerite Mittel of Montreal, joined HBC (1844-1849) Fort Vancouver.  On December 21, 1846, he married Rosalie, Keneheno b-1848. Their single child, 
    Basile Daigneau Metis (1847-1847) died at the age of two months. 
On August 16, 1848, eight months after the death of their son, wife Rosalie died.
On December 30, 1852, he married Louise, Klitatat d-1853) a "neophyte" from the Fort Vancouver mission. They had one child, 
    Rosalie Daigneau Metis (1853-1853), who was born in the following year, on September 7, 1853. However, the following day, both wife Louise and daughter Rosalie succumbed to unknown causes. 
Two and a half years later, on January 5, 1856 at the St. Paul Mission, Daigneau married Marguerite (nee Marie Marguerite, Chinook), widow of Étienne Lussier. They then moved to the Lussier Claim on French Prairie but Marguerite soon divorced him. 
He may have had yet another wife for on July 14, 1878, a Philomena Daigneault Metis b-1878, daughter of an Edward Daigneault and Marie Boussiere, was baptised

Mickel Deschamps b-1826 son Bilane Deschamps and Marie Dalonde.  HBC (1844-1878) New Caladonia, retired Fort St. James area.  Michel Deschamps had one (possibly two wives) and five recorded children. Michel chose as his wife Maria Boucher/Cootchay of McLeod Lake. Their children were: 
    Michel Deschamps Metis b-1856
    Benjamin Deschamps Metis b-1856 
    Moses Deschamps Metis b-1859
    Mary/Maria Deschamps Metis b-1861
    Anthony Deschamps Metis b-1867
Maria Boucher must have died before 1874 as, on January 4, 1874 at Fort St. James, Michel married Maria Soltsis b-1824 from Grand Rapids, B.C.

(II)-Agnes Douglas, Metis, b-1844 Fort Vancouver d-1928 daughter (I)-James Souglas, Metis (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): married August 30, 1861, eloped from Fort Victoria to Port Townsend to marry A.G. Dallas. A second marriage was conducted August 31, 1861 Fort Victoria.  The later divorced and remarried others.

(I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), employed HBC (1838-1872) assigned Fort Victoria, Columbia District (1844-1872)

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Fort Vancouver, Columbia District, as Interpreter (1844-1849).

Alexis Gardupuis Metis joined HBC (1844-1847) Columbia District

(I)-John Goudie of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1849) as laborer, returned to British Isles

(II)-John Goudie, Metis, born July 25, 1844, Ft. Colvile, Oregon Territory ( b-1836, Round Butte, Oregon, Territory ?), d-1914, Victoria, B.C. son (I)-James Goudie (Gowdy), born September 10, 1808, Orkney, d-1887, Victoria, B.C. and Catherine Prevost Island aka Catherine Jane Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (1819-1853): married Mary Anne Vautrin , born March 16,1865, Sidney, B.C., died July 12, 1943, Victoria, B.C. daughter Jean Baptiste Vautrain (Voutra. Voutrin, Voutrain, Vautrin dit Bienvenue) born February 1, 1813 Quebec, died February 18, 1893 likely Grand Ronde Reservation and married 1860 Marie Anne (Ann) Maranda dit le Frise b-1832, died March 19, 1922, epouse Joseph Thomas Brule

Andrew Harvey b-1823 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1857) as shepherd and settled Victoria area.

George Harvey b-1822 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C, (1844-1869) as storekeeper

Simon Horie, b-1820 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B. C. (1844-1848) as labourer at Willamette Falls, Oregon. 

Vancouver Depot, Columbia District, birth (II)-Gregoire Johnstone, Metis, baptized March 6, 1844?, buried March 10, 1844, son of (I)-James Johnson (1805-1855) and Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk a Chinook, died before 1855

(I)-Kama Kamai aka Andrew Komai, Comat, Kami and Kanac (1844-1890) a Hawaiian joined HBC (1844-1890) Columbia District, settled San Juan Island and half of Coal Island off Vancouver Island.  Andrew Kamai, to use the name with which he was baptized in the Catholic church at the time of his marriage, had numerous children. The oldest was likely;
    Mary (c.1851-?). 
On December 20, 1870 in a Catholic ceremony, he formalized his marriage to Mary Ann b-1846 who was Songhees. The witnesses were his San Juan compatriots Joe Friday and Alexander Kâné, who was married the same day to Kamai’s daughter Mary Kamai Metis b-1859. The Kamais’ recorded children were 
    (II)-John Kamai Metis b-1856
    (II)-Joseph Kamai Metis b-1860 
    (II)-Mary Kamai Metis b-1861 
    (II)-Susan Kamai Metis b-1861
    (II)-Charles Kamai Metis b-1863
    (II)-Louis (Kamai Metis b-1866
    (II)-Moses Kamai Metis b-1871
    (II)-Catherine (Kamai Metis b-1872
    (II)-Agnes Kamai Metis b-1875
    (II)-Louisa Kamai Metis b-1878
Some members of the Kamai family opted for their maternal identity and identify themselves as Songhees.

(I)-Tom Keave d-1860 likely Hawaiian joined HBC (1844-1852) to work the Columbia District.  His first recorded wife was Emelie a Saanich woman, who he married in a Catholic ceremony, likely at Victoria. Their children were 
    (II)-Louis Keave Metis bap.1854
    (II)-Joseph Keave Metis -bap.1858
Emelie must have died, and Tom Keave’s next wife, who he also married in a Catholic ceremony, was Louise  a Cowichan woman, with whom he had 
    (II)-Helene Keave Metis b-1858
A third wife was Marie  another Native woman, with whom he had, 
    (II)-George Keave Metis -bap.1860 
    (II)-Charles Keave Metis b-1865

Joseph Lagarde Metis (1813-1913) likely from Athabasca and joined HBC (1844-1852) Columbia District settled Cowlitz Plain (Washington) married Mary February 25, 1825 Lewis Co., Washington Territory .

John Leask of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1848) as labourer

Jacques Lequechier this year built a house that was later called St. Ann's Schoolhouse in Victoria.  I was sold in 1853 to Roman Catholic Bishop Demers for a schoolhouse and residence.  It was relocated in 1974 behind Helmcken House.

January 31: Rupert House birth (III)-Joseph William McKay Metis (1829-1900) son (II)-William McKay Metis (1793-1887) and (II)-Mary (Nancy) Bunn Metis b-1796/1799 .  Joined HBC (1844-1869) Columbia District.  Joseph William McKay had one wife and six recorded children. On June 14, 1860, a license was issued for the marriage of Joseph William McKay and Helen Holmes (1840-1914). They were married two days later. Their children were 
    (IV)-William Drake McKay Metis (1861-1914), 
    (IV)-Agnes Mary McKay Metis (1863-1946), 
    (IV)-Kenneth Mouat McKay Metis (1864-1891). 
    (IV)-Lilias Mabel McKay Metis (1870-1951), 
    (IV)-Gertrude Helen McKay Metis (1873-1952) and 
    (IV)-Aline Catherine McKay Metis (1880-1952). 
Wife Helen [Holmes] McKay Metis died on February 19, 1914 in Victoria and was buried there.

James Polk, United States presidential candidate campaign slogan was "54° 40' or Fight" (WAR).  This is part of the "Manifest Destiny" of the United States that North America was theirs for the taking by right.  

Francois Proulx b-1821 son Raphael (Baptiste) Proulix and Madelaine Raimond, joined HBC (1844-1832) Columbia District.  On January 2, 1847, he married Catherine, Chinook, their daughter being 
    Louise Proulx Metis (1852-1852).

Samuel Robertson b-1824 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1858) as boat builder settled in B.C.

Palm Saunders Metis (1822-1856) son unknown Saunders and Mary Indian/Metis? from Moose River (Ontario) joined HBC (1836-1847) east of Rockies, settled Red River HBC (1856-1857)  In Columbia District 1844

Thomas Scott of Orkney worked west Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1847) as blacksmith returned to British Isles

James Sinclair of Orkney worked west of Rocikies for H.B.C. (1844-1846) as cooper returned to British Isles.

John J. Sinclair b-1830 Orkney worked west of the Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1855) as 1st mate.

Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth, about 1844/45, (II)-Henry Work, Metis, died young, son (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; 

The Songhees People built their village along the west shore of the Inner harbour, Victoria.

Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton noted that tens of thousands of settlers are meditating on claim jumping in the Canadian Oregon Territories when he said, Go on!  The Government will follow you and will give you protection and land.  It was very clear that the government would clear the land of Indian and Canadian domination, by force if necessary.  The British, not prepared to go to war, would leave the Indians on their own.  It mattered not that the Oregon Territory is dotted with Hudson Bay Company forts.

The belligerent cry of "Fifty four forty or fight" figured prominently in James K. Polk's successful presidential campaign of 1844.  This assured the hostile invasion of Mexico owned Texas, Mexico owned New Mexico and Texas owned California.  This would also lead to the Oregon Treaty of 1846 between the British and United States Governments to accept the 49th parallel as the international frontier.  Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857), who retired from the Hudson Bay Company Oregon branch in 1845, even though he helped the United States settlers and sympathized with United States republicanism, ended up a venerable but pathetic figure, as he had to endure considerable local opposition, lies and hostility.  Few would remember or care about the Metis discovery, exploration or establishment of the Oregon Territory.  This is one of the most pathetic pages of the colonization of the Pacific Northwest.

A group of Negro's and Mulatto's escaping persecution in the east were traveling to settle in Willamette Valley.  They were told they would be flogged with 40 lashings and every 6 months until they departed based on an ordinance of the Provisional Government of Oregon under Governor George Abernethy b-1807 a Scottish Methodist Missionary .  George Bush a mixed blood in the group expected the British and Canadians would provide projection against American color prejudice.  It is notewothy the the Willamette Valley is a mixed blood region of Oregon.  The group headed to Mexican Californis as the Mexicans were color tolerant.  This would change when the Americans with their Manifest Destine drove the Mexicans out.  Some claim the ordinance was not carried out because intimidation achieved the desired results.  

February 19: Cowlitz, Columbia, marriage Louis Delonie b-1800 Quebec, to Marie Indian (Cowlitz), 1st wife married 1831, Elizabeth Kwothe (1817-1843)

February 27,: Fort Langley, birth, Matilda Falardeuil, Metis, died December 10, 1826, Washington?,  daughter Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married May 19, 1863 New Westminister, B.C.,  George Rehberger, thet had 13 children.

April 13:  Wallamette, Columbia, birth, Catherine Chalifoux, Metis ,daughter Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

 

 

1845 

Birth, Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Lisette Arquoitte, Metis, daughter Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) b- 1797 and Marguerite Waponte d- 1870.  

(I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) is at Fort Vancouver, Columbia District (1845-1846), from which he retired to Cathlamet, (Washington) Columbia District.  He married likely (1824-1825) Charlot a French Metis daughter of a Frenchman and a Kootayae Indian Girl, they had 6 Metis daughters and boasted having 15 Indian slaves? 

Francois Xavier Cabana b-1845 joined HBC 1845 Montreal assigned Columbia District 1852 retired Victoria but relocated 1871.  On August 30, 1853, he formalized his country marriage to Catherine, variously described as Tlaganets/Nass/Haida. Their children were: 
    Marguerite Cabana Metis b-1849
    Maria  Cabana Metis b-1851
    Edouard  Cabana Metis (1854-1872)
    Charles  Cabana Metis bap.1856
    Angele  Cabana Metis bap.1859
    Joseph  Cabana Metis bap.1861
    Catherine  Cabana Metis bap.1863
    possibly Moise  Cabana Metis b-1864 and
    Francis Xavier  Cabana Metis (1867-1869).

George Chiffmanaplin aka Chiffman Aplin (1825-1889) employed HBC (1845-1849) settled St. Paul area of French Prairie, Williamette Valley, Oregon 
On December 26, 1850, he married Marie Wagner Metis (daughter of Fort Vancouver butcher Peter Wagner (1799-1865)  and wifeMarie Stens (Stomis) a Chinook (1805-1865)). Eleven of their fourteen children were: 
    Genevieve Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1853,     
    George Edward Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1854, 
    Elizabeth Chiffman Aplin Metis , 
    Genevieve Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1856
    unnamed child Chiffman Aplin Metis d-1859
    Marie Josephine Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1860, 
    James Stephen Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1867,     
    Theodore Chiffman Aplin Metis (1869-1869), 
    Gilbert Joseph Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1871 
    Wilfred Chiffman Aplin Metis (1876-1888)
    Alphonse Remy Chiffman Aplin Metis b-1878

Magnus Flett of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1845-1851) as labourer 

John Greig of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1845-1851) as labourer, retired to Fort Colvile area. 

Peter Huntow of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1845-1849) as carpenter departed for California gold rush.

(I)-William R. Kaulehelehe d-1874 a Hawaiian teacher in Columbia District with HBC (1845-1869) and wife Mary S. Kaai (Kaiapioop) entered the Hawaiian community.  The white repeatedly abused the Hawaiians for no just cause.  The Americans distained him because he advocated keeping the Sabbath holy thereby interfering with work and preached against excessive drinking, thereby hurting the American whiskey trade.  On March 12 1860, William watched the American army remove the fences from around the Company’s fields. On the 16th he saw the soldiers burn down a vacated house which had been used for store hay. On the 19th the soldiers destroyed the Company’s old hospital and another house, and then they turned their attention to Williams’ dwelling. When they removed the doors and the windows William finally left. This was all in the name of 'Manifest Destiny'.  The next day, March 20, the Hawaiian watched helplessly while soldiers set fire to the remains of his old home.  The incident provoked British protests to American President James Buchanan who issued an order to cease interference with the employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Kaulehelehe was then moved up to Fort Victoria where he was naturalized as a British subject on August 12, 1862.

(I)-Richard Lane (1816-1877) worked HBC (1837-1845) York Factory and Red River, then HBC (1845-1852) Columbia District.  He was a judge in Vancouver, was charged with mismanagement and suicides at the Dallas.  He married June 13, 1846 Red River, (II)-Mary McDermott Metis (1816/17-1851) daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) or more likely (1794-1881) and native woman who was baptised 1832.  Some claim Andrew was a descended from an Irish king?  Two children are recorded:
    (II)-Jean Andre Lane Metis b-1847
    (II)-Marie Lane Metis b-1849
December 6, 1858 in Olympia married Mrs. Anne Gardiner

John (Jean Baptiste) McDougall Metis (1827/29-1903) born Red River, his father had a Grist Mill, joined HBC (1845-1854) New Caledonia and Columbia District.   John McDougall had two successive wives and thirteen children. Together with his wife Emilie Okanogan  (1835-1890), they had  11 children, 2nd marriage Julie native had 2 girls;  
    Alexander McDougall Metis b-1851
    Eneas/Enneas McDougall Metis b-1853
    Joseph David McDougall Metis (1855-1936), 
    Jean Baptiste McDougall Metis (1857-1859), 
    Joseph Norbert McDougall Metis (1859-1864), 
    Henry McDougall Metis (1861-1950s), 
    Edward McDougall Metis (1864-1935) 
    John McDougall Metis b-1866
    John Amable  McDougall Metis (1869-1965), 
    Lesime McDougall Metis b-1871
    Urban McDougall Metis (1872-1949). 
After Emilie’s death, John had two daughters by his native wife Julie: 
    Martha/Martina  McDougall Metis 
    Agnus McDougall Metis .

Alexander McKay Metia b-1827 joined HBC (1845-1848) Columbia District.

Edward Oman, b-1826, Orkney working west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1845-1850) as labourer retired Fort Vancouver area. 

Louis Peltier b-1825 Montreal joined HBC (1845-1856) Columbia District, settled Victoria area.  He married Julie Saanich d-1858. Their two daughters were 
    Julie Peltier Metis bap.1850
    Suzanne Louise Peltier Metis (1854-1858). 
Wife Julie died in the Victoria region on March 15, 1858 and was buried the following day.

Father de Smet (Smef) (1801-1873), of the Oregon Mission, came over White Man's Pass this year on his way to Fort Augustus (Fort Edmonton).  When he passed through Jasper House (I)-Colin Fraser (1806-1867) was there to great him.

Fort Vancouver becomes the base for the Kanaka (Hawaiian) community in the New World. They eventually become the largest single ethnic group in the area. That year, a total of 207 Kanakas worked at the forts, farms and coastal ships of the Hudson's Bay Company from California to Alaska.

The first confirmed Europeans in Kananaskis Country, west of Calgary, Alberta, were James Sinclair and15 families with their livestock, whom he was leading over the mountains to settle in (Washington, U.S.A.)

About 70 Cree Metis resided near the St. Frances Mission (1845-1854), Colville Valley.

The St. Paul Mission (1845-1869) in the Colville Valley was built in the French Canadian style.

The Indians of the Columbia were more accepting of the Jesuits because the Jesuits were more accepting of Indian traditions that the American Protestants rejected outright.  It is little wonder that USA officials accused the Jesuits of turning the Indians against the USA Government.  How else could the Jesuits move so easily among the Indians and escape their warlike threats? 

Dr (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) resigned his post with Hudson Bay Company, after refusing to follow (I)-Sir George Simpson's (1787-1860) policy of letting American immigrants perish for lack of needed aid.  Simpson was a callus man who went down in history as a pathetic human being.

Jean Baptiste Paquet Jr b-1823 likely Montreal son Jean Baptiste Paquet Sr. and Marie.  joined HBC (1845-1860) Columbia District.  Jean Baptiste Paquet had one wife and six recorded children. On May 7, 1861 at Victoria, he married Marie/Mary Nass, Tsimshian. Their children were: 
    Louis Paquet Metis bap.1853
    Elizabeth/Isabel Paquet Metis b-1855
    unnamed Paquet Metis child (1857-1857), 
    Apoline/Aroline Paquet Metis bap.1859
    Adeline Paquet Metis bap.1861
    Teresa Paquet Metis bap.1864

(II)-John Simpson Metis b-1829 son (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) and Margaret Taylor Metis (1810-1860) whom he abandoned; joined HBC (1845-1856) Columbia District.

(II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) employed HBC (1841-1864), assigned Frasers Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia, son (I)-Dr William Todd (1784-1851) and Marianne Ballentyne, "a half-cast woman" (Metis); married about 1845 Sarah Jane Johnson

John Boardman wrote; "Well received by Dr. McLoughlin, who charged nothing for the boat sent up for us, nor for the provisions; but not satisfied with that, sent us plenty of salmon and potatoes, Furnished us house, room and wood free of charge, and was very anxious that all should get through safe".  

James Nesmith wrote; "Dr. John McLoughlin, from his own private resources, rendered the new settlers much valuable aid by furnishing the destitute with food, clothing and seed, waiting for his pay until they had a surplus to dispose of". 

The emigration of 1845 was the largest up to that point, doubling the population of the region. Over 3,000 emigrants arrived, most of them settling in the Willamette Valley

July:   Joseph Champagne Metis b-1821 son of Joseph Champagne and Marguerite Sauguinette deserted his Fort Victoria post temporarily for Langley as John Ross was making advances on his wife.  This appears to be the first of three wives.  2nd wife 1850 Catherine Sauve (1838-1852), 3rd wife Elizabeth Ridnawr. 

November 23: Vancouver Depot, Columbia District, birth (II)-George Johnstone, Metis, baptized baptized December 26, 1845, son of (I)-James Johnson (1805-1855) and Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk a Chinook, died before 1855

 

1846 

Birth Marguerite Arquette, Metis (1846-1933) daughter Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Louis Aruihunta Iroquois (Mohawks) b-1806 Sault St. Louis, (Cauchnawaga) Quebec joined HBC (1846-1849 Fort Vancouver, steamer service then returned east of the Rockies.

James Ballenden, b-1822 Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1846-1852) as farmer, discharged 1851, likely remained in Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) area.

William Eddy Banfield, who came to the Pacific coast on the H.M.S. Constance in 1846 and later became a trader and an Indian agent on the West Coast of Vancouver Island. In 1862 he was drowned in a canoe accident, which some suspected was murder.  The Town of Bamfield alias Keeshan on the south shore of Barkley Sound is named after him.

(I)-Owen Charles Beardmore d-1893 Australia, joined HBC (1846-1851) Columbia District married and Sahuila a Tshutshenne girl of the Stikine Nation Columbia District.  He retired to Australia.  One daughter recorded: 
    Mary Anne Frances Beardmore Metis b-1849 inherited her fathers estate.

Pierre Lapendoux Blanche b-1835 North West employed HBC (1848-1853) Columbia District son Jacques Lapendoux Blanche d-1846 employed HBC (1844-1846 Columbia District.

Joseph Edward Brazeau (1812-1871) from St. Louis, U.S.A. employed HBC 1846-1869) assigned Columbia District (1846-1847) with wife Marguerite Brabant (Brebant) dit Salois (1815-1885) daughter Augustin Brabant and Angelique (Lucier) and children George Washington Brazeau (1845-1880) born St. Louis and Mary Genevieve Brazeau (1846-1896) born Columbia District.  Family sent to Carllton House Saskatchewan District in 1847.

Jean Baptiste Chalifoux b-1812; HBC (1842-1859) assigned Athabasca (1842-1846) Columbia District (1846-1959)   He likely had had one or more successive wives, one being, Faland b-1825, a Native. One wife, possibly Faland, died on May 15, 1852. Children, possibly from Faland, were 
    Josette Chalifoux Metis b-1843
    Isabella Chalifoux Metis b-1844

(I)-George Chiffmanaplin (1825-1889_ joined HBC (1846-1848) Columbia Distyrict settled Willamette.  On December 26, 1850, he married Marie Wagner Metis (1829-1847) (daughter of Fort Vancouver butcher Peter Wagner (1799-1865) and wife Louise Chinook). Eleven of their fourteen children were 
    (II)-Genevieve Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1853
    (II)-George Edward Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1854
    (II)-Elizabeth Chiffmanaplin Metis
    (II)-Genevieve Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1856
    (II)-unnamed Chiffmanaplin Metis child d-1859
    (II)-Marie Josephine Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1860
    (II)-James Stephen Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1867
    (II)-Theodore Chiffmanaplin Metis (1869-1869), 
    (II)-Gilbert Joseph Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1871
    (II)-Wilfred Chiffmanaplin Metis (1876-1888) 
    A(II)-lphonse Remy Chiffmanaplin Metis b-1878

(I)-William Cromarty, born c.17 May 1814,  S. Ronaldsay, Orkney, Scotland died 1875, Ft.Langley, 
married about 1846 to country wife Salum'mia aka Jenny of Matsqui, 

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson of India (1814-1884) and charted 3 routes to the Cariboo from the B.C. coast in 1846/47.  Blackeye pointed out an easier trail and Blackeye's son-in-law a Native guide led the party to the top of the mountains and pointed the way to Fort Langley and this trail became the brigade trail of the future.

(II)-Mira Goudie, Metis b-1846, daughter (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53). 

 Leolo, an Indian chief died November 9, 1846, Fort Alexandria, leaving three daughters.. 

Jean Baptiste Paquet b-1830 Lachine joined HBC (1846-1853) New Caledonia, retired Fort Alexandria area.  Jean Baptiste Paquet  had one wife two recorded children. On May 5, 1872, at about the age of forty, he married Anne Yinsogh/Yinhotsagh (c.1849-?) at the St. Joseph’s Mission at Williams Lake. Their recorded children were 
    Charles Paquet Metis 
    Philomena Paquet Metis b-1865

Simon Plamondon (1792/1802-1900) is employed NWC (1820-1821) then HBC (1821-1823) in Athabasca District, assigned Western Caledonia (1823-1827) and Fort Colvile, Columbia District.  He retired 1835 Cowlitz.. He is elected this year as a representative of the Oregon Provisional Legislature.

Father Pierre Jean De Smet (1801-1873) this year visited Fort Colville, Fort Vancouver and the Metis settlement of Willamette.

Charles Teonsarakonta b-1825 Sault St. Louis, Quebec Mohawk/Iroquois joined HBC (1846-1855)

Joachim Teyoharate (1815-1854) Mohawk/Iroquois from Sault St. Loueis, Quebec joined HBC (1846-1854) Columbia District.  Joachim Teyoharate took an unnamed Nass woman as his wife. Their children were 
    Rosalie Teyoharate (1853-1857) 
    Michel Teyoharate bap.1853

Frasers Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth  (III)-Albert Todd, Metis son (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

Helen Vautrin, Metis, b-1846, B.C. died 1864, B.C. daughter Francois Xavier Ventrin, born May 10, 1815, Quebec, died Vancouver Island 1st married Emily Kwoithe, 2nd married December 11, 1852, Victoria Marie of the Quytten (Kwantlen) tribe.

Oregon Territory is ceded to the United States.  

Britain and the US established the 49th parallel as the boundary between Canada and the US.

The Royal Regiment, a 500 man contingent, arrived at Red River to ensure the peace; as some would claim.  Or, as others claimed, to ensure the monopoly and authority of the English Hudson Bay Company because the Metis were beginning to challenge their authority.  

A sawmill is built at Millstream, north of Fort Victoria. 

Paul Kane departed Fort Edmonton to Fort Assiniboine with the Oregon bound brigade and (I)-Colin Fraser (1806-1867) of Jasper House accompanied the party.  Colin spoke of the days he piped Governor  (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, into innumerable posts.

The USS Shark sank off Cannon Beach , (Oregon) where one of its cannons washed ashore

May 9:  Wallamett, Columbia, birth, Louis Chalifoux, Metis,son Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

June: Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth,  (II)-David Work, Metis, son (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; 

On June 15, the Oregon Treaty cost the Hudson Bay Company and Canada its rights in the Oregon Boundary.    The Oregon Territory, previously jointly held by Great Britain, Canada and the United States.  Canada and the British, however, did not quit the Territory until 1871 when compensation is paid.

June 15:  The Oregon Boundary Treaty is established by President James Polk (1795-1849) and Queen Victoria under threat of war by the United States.  The 1844 Democratic Party's election slogan was "Fifty-four-forty, or fight" (54° 40' north parallel).  The territory claimed by the USA was from the California northern border to the southern border of Russian Territory (Alaska)  It is noteworthy that the Oregon Territory, that included Washington, Oregon and Idaho was a Canadian Territory, managed by the Hudson Bay Company.  This was part of the USA 'Manifest Destiny' policy to take by force all of North America.  This was the start of ethnic cleansing in the Northwest Pacific.   Indians and Metis were not tolerated very well even though they open this area to settlement and constituted the majority of the population..

July:  Reverend J.B. Z. Bolduc a catholic priest is assigned to Vancouver, Island. 

September 21:  Gervais, Oregon, birth Pasile Plourde, Metis, son Francois Plourde, b-1793 Red River des Metis and Suzanne Dubois, Metis, b-1803; Married May 18, 1868 Elizabeth Barker, epouse William Smith..

1847  

Edouard Belanger (1826-1858) son Ambroise Belanger and Esther Charboneau from Quebec; joined HBC (1847-1849) Columbia District, settled Willamette Valley 1852.  October 11, 1851 at St Louis, married Angelique Marcellar most likely a Metis widow Francois Gagnon who died in California, they had one recorded son
    Francois Gagnon Metis b-1799 Maskinonge, Quebec NWC 1817 who migrated with wife and 5 kids to Coweitz
Belanger children are:
    Edouard Belanger Metis b-1853
    Ester Belanger Metis b-1855

(II)-John Charles Metis bpt 1831 died 1849 son (I)-John Charles b-1784 and Jane Auld Metis bpt 1831, joined HBC 1846 Norway House, HBC (1847-1849) Fort Vancouver

Robert Harvey of Orkney worked west of the Rockies for H.B.C. (1847-1850) as boat builder in Victoria.

(II)-Jane Goudie, Metis b-1847, daughter (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53). 

Father Pandosy b-1824, and Father Richard arrived Coville, Oregon Territory (Washington) to start a mission. 

Cornelious Gilliam a fundamentalist clergyman raised a volunteer militia to move against the Oregon Cayuse.  Gilliam had fought the Indians in eastern United States and believed in the the Unites States of extermination of all Indians  Men like Joel Palmer and (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) attempted to defuse the situation towards peace but Gilliam was determined to kill some Indians.  Gilliams vigilante army attacked an innocent encampment of Cayuses slaughtering at least 30 Indians.  Gilliam died in the battle by his own gun.  All the tribes on the Pacific Northwest threatened a general uprising and the Federal Army withdrew to keep the peace.  Congress established a territorial government for Oregon and built more military posts rather than attempt to resolve issues.

(II)-Joseph Wordsworth Hardisty Metis (1623-1906) or (1828-1908) of Fort Albany son of (I)-Richard Hardisty Sr. and Margaret Sutherland Metis b-1802, employed HBC (1847-1872) Columbia District, retired 1884.   On November 4, 1873, he married Elizabeth Kate Dance (1846-1896). Their children were 
    (III)-Alfred Charles Wordworth Hardisty Metis (1876-1956), 
    (III)-Richard Henry Moore Hardisty Metis (1877-1946) 
    (III)-James Hardisty Metis (1890-1896).

Narcisse Kanatasse Iroquis b-1828 Lac Des Deux Montagues, Quebec joined HBC (1847-1856) Columbia District.

Alexander Latrielle son Antoine Latreille and Marguerite Gauthier of Trois Rivers joined HBC (1844-1847) working Lachine and Trois Riviers, HBC (1847-1858) Columbia District.  Alexander had one, possibly two, recorded wives and possibly two children. 
    Marguerite Latrielle Kwantlan Metis was baptized on July 21, 1856 and married the same day to Alexander. 
Their recorded son was     
    Alexandre Latrielle Metis b-1856. 
    Emilia Latrielle Metis bap.1853 the mother was a native of the "Masquillon" tribe.

Ferdinand McKenzie Metis joined HBC (1847-1886) New Caledonia District.

February 26:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-Elizabeth Cromarty, Metis, born, 1847, died February 25, 1883, Maple Ridge. daughter (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui; married. May 26, 1866, Fort Langley, Henry Dawson. 

April 30:  birth, Charles Bonanfant, Metis died May 1, 1850 son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin Metis b-1835 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.  Living Oregon 1842

November 29:   The Cayuses 120 miles from the Nez Perce at the Cayuse Mission in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, reached a breaking point with the outbreak of measles believed to be spread by the missionaries.  The United States are relentlessly, fraudulently and treacherously dispossessed the People of their hunting, fishing and grazing grounds to satisfy their greed.  In final frustration the Cayuses rebelled killing Dr. Marcus Whitman (1802-1847) his wife Narcissa and fourteen other whites including Mrs. Whitman.  Those spared, 53 women and children were taken prisoner.  Fear swept the Columbia District assuming this was the start of a major uprising.  The Cayuse War as it was called lasted until 1850.  (II)-John Donald Duncan Manson Metis b-1840 escaped by hiding in a loft.  Mary Anne Bridger, Metis daughter of Jim Bridger witnessed what some called the Whitman Massacre.

November 29:  Dr Marcus Whitman (1802-1847), a Presbyterian missionary of the Dalles, (Oregon) on the Columbia River.  The Dalles was named by a French Canadian Voyager, the Indians called it Winquatt.  Whitman is considered by the natives to be a white doctor of bad medicine.  They blamed him of bringing sickness to the People.  When he brought in more settlers to their region, that was the last straw.  They attacked the Waiilatpu mission killing Whitman, his wife Naricissa (Prentiss) and 12 others.  They took 53 women and children as captives.  

1848  

Jason Ovide Allard Metis (1848-1931) son Ovid Allard dit Chatelin (1817-1874) and Justine Cowichans (1823-1907); joined HBC 1860-1867) Columbia District.  He married Seraphine Indian and had 12 children.  One child was Matilda Allard Metis

Firmin Ayotte (Ayott) Metis, born-1825 Trois Rivieres, Quebec a freeman, son Joseph de Pelagie Velmore, joined HBC (1848-1849) reported at Lachine, New Caledonia and Columbia District.  On July 21, 1856, he married Susanne Keitse or Keltse at Fort Langley. No children were recorded and the fate of Susanne is unknown. By 1872, he appears to have had another wife, Louise , possibly from the San Juan Islands. Their children were 
    James Ayotte Metis b-1872 
    Joseph Ayotte Metis b-1876
    Narcissus Ayotte Metis b-1877 

Death unnamed  Arquette, Metis daughter Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) ( 1797-1880) and Marguerite Waponte (Clacalam) (Chinook), (1820-1870).

Jacob Ballenden of Orkney from Fort Colvile, possible suicide August 7, 1848 on Fraser River, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1844-1848) as a farmer.

(I)-Owen Charles Beardmore joined HBC (1846-1851) first assigned Fort Temiscamingue (established 1685) then Columbia District in 1848, married Sahulla a Temiscamingue woman of the Stikine Nation
    (II)-Mary Ann Frances M. Beardmore Metis b-1849 

John Bird Metis b-1829 Red River joined HBC (1848-1849) Fort Vancouver.

(I)-William Brotche of Scotland (1799-1859) is cutting spars on Vancouver Island

Joseph Brule, b-1831 Oregon Territory, died 1858, Sookie, B.C. son Jacques Iroquois (Mohawks) and Marguerite Sook Brule (2nd marriage February 11, 1838, Fort Vancouver Joseph Baptiste Brule): married August 7, 1848, Willamette, Oregon Mary Ann Maranda dit le Frise, b-1832, died March 19, 1922, Yamhill, Oregon daughter Louis Shsegoskatsta, b-1796, Sault St. Louis (Caughnawaga, Kahnawake) Quebec and (married July 12, 1834) Louise Kalapuya (Churathea) b-1814  

John Catlin b-1832 migrated to Portland, Oregon in 1848 then moved to Cowlitz, Washingon then back to Portland, married 1866 daughter Robert Henderson.

(I)-Alexander Caulfield Anderson of India (1814-1884) is Chief Factor Fort Thompson (Kamloops).

William Cook likely Metis b-1829 North West son Patrick Cook and ?, joined HBC (1847-1864) entered Columbia District 1853, and retired there.  Married March 14, 1853, Catherine Auger Metis daughter Nicolas (Joseph) Auger Metis (1806-1995 and Amelie Metis

Pierre Couturier b-1831 son Pierre Couturier and Lucie Fortier of Yamaska, Quebec, joined HBC 1848-1860) Columbia District. Pierre Couturier had one wife, Louise Cowichan, whom he married on April 18, 1853 in Victoria.  

George Creol an Afro-Hawaiian pilot married 1848 Lahwatkin's sister Mary (1828-1877) of the Quinault tribe (Salishan).  Mary was at Chinook Point in 1850 and Astoria in 1853.

Doroshin discovered gold near Fort Kenai, along the Kakni River, on the Kenai Peninsula, far to the westward of Juneau, Alaska.

Louisa Falardeuil, Metis, b-1848, died April 6, 1902 Fort Langley, B.C.,  daughter Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married 1866 Fort Langley, B.C.,  Henery West.  The move to US with Rehburger and Kilcup but returned.  They had 13 choldren.

John Flett b-1827 Orkney, died February 5, 1886, Victoria, B.C., worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1848-1860) as cooper

Jean Baptiste Fortier son Antoine Fortier and Marguerite Vivier of Riviere du Loup, Quebec, joined HBC (1848-1854) Columbia District.  In Nanaimo on August 5, 1856 he married Marie Kwagiulth. His two children were 
    Julie Fortier Metis bap.1853
    Marguerite Fortier b-1855

John Fraser Metis (1835-1863) son Paul Fraser and Angelique Harmois of McLeod Lake New Caledonia worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1848-1852) as laborer, deserted 1852 from Fort Umpqua.

(II)-Marie Goudie, Metis b-1848, daughter (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53). 

John Inkster of Orkney worked west Rockies for H.B.C. (1848-1853) as laborer then retired.

(I)-G. Keea d-1858 likely Hawaiian joined HBC (1848-1858).   Keea/Kia had an unnamed Kwantlen wife and two recorded children, 
    (II)-Basile Keea Metis -bap. 1856
    (II)-Jean Keea Metis -bap.1856.  
Both children were baptised Catholic on June 29, 1856 at Fort Langley

William Lawrenson of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1848-1849) as laborer deserted March 1849 for California gold fields.

Joseph Maayo metis (1826-1915) son Peeopeeoh a Hawaiian Metis? and Catherine Kwantlen of Fort Langley, joined HBC (1847-1915).  Joseph’s wife was Mary Nevnartnart b- 1843, a Native woman from the Fort Langley area. Two children were 
    François Maayo metis b-1867 
    Stephen Maayo metis b-1872
Other children may have been 
    Nancy Maayo metis b-1865, 
    Matilda Maayo metis b-1870
    Sophia Maayo metis b-1878 
    Mary  Maayo metis b-1881.

Peeopeeoh Hawaiian Metis? and Catherine Kwantlen of Fort Langley, Peeopeeoh was a long time employee of  HBC, This family settled near Kanaka Creek on the Frazer River, their kids were"
    Joseph Maayo Metis b-1826 Fort Langley
    Algace Paiwa Metis born Fort Langley
    Sophie Metis born Fort Langley
    Henry Peeopeeoh Metis born Fort Langley

Benjamin Raine (1830-1874) from Soral, Quebec joined HBC (1848-1859) Columbia District.  On January 23, 1860 in Victoria, he confirmed his marriage to Agnes, likely a native from the north coast. Their five recorded children were 
    Sophie Raine Metis b-1855
    Lucie (Raine Metis b-1858 
    George Raine Metis b-1860
    Paul Raine Metis (1866-1870) 
    Matilda Raine Metis b-1869

Joseph Robillard b-1832 son Antoine Robillard and Rose Gadoury (Gabourey) joined HBC (1848-1859) Columbia District, settled San Juan Island.  On May 28, 1856 in the Victoria area, Joseph married Rose Kwakiutl. Their children appear to have been 
    Joseph Robillard Metis bap-1853
    Pierre Robillard Metis b-1855 
    Joseph Robillard Metis bap-1857
    Pierre Robillard Metis d-1861
Another wife appears to have been Louise Tsutsalia, with whom he had 
    Louisa Robillard Metis bap-1866

Jeremie Sereurier b-1831 son Pierre Sereurier and Francoise LaSalle, of Lachine Quebec,  joined HBC (1848-1869) Columbia District.  Jeremie Sereurier appears to have had two wives and four recorded children. At Fort Simpson his wife delivered a 
    baby girl Sereurier Metis (1852-1852)
     male twin Sereurier Metis b-1853
     male twin  Sereurier Metis (1853-1853). 
On January 3, 1854, while on a visit to Fort Victoria, he married Lucie Nass. On April 21, 1863, while on another visit to Victoria, a daughter, 
    Lucie Sereurier Metis bapt 1863 was baptised. There may have been other children. 
By 1872, he was a widower and married Betsey (Wesquatahs), Gitlan on February 12, 1872 at Metlakatla, B. C. No further children have been traced.

(I)-Thomas Timms (Jacques) Redsull (1827-1913) joined HBC (1848-1852) Columbia District, in later life he was the teller of tall tales.  By 1850 Thomas T. Redsull had two wives and two recorded children. On February 2, 1852, Thomas married Helene Shtelleman b-1830, at Stellamaris Mission at Chinook Point. (She was probably the same as wife "Mary" listed in the 1850 Lewis Co. Census.) This was a second ceremony for, in 1851, he had married the same Helen on Clatsop Plains in Oregon at the Presbyterian mission of Lewis Thompson. Together they had 
    (II)-Henry Redsull Metis b-1844
    (II)-Emma Marie Redsull Metis b-1850 
Two years later, on May 5, 1854 he married Amelia, of unknown origin, in Washington County, Oregon Territory.

Onesemie Vaureur b-1830 St. Aime, Quebec, joined HBC (1847-1854).  Onesemie Vaureur had one wife and three recorded children. Possibly in the early 1860s he married Catherine Deluna variously described as a person of mixed descent or a "Sitkum Indian." Their children were 
    Elizabeth Paulina Vaureur Metis bap.1866 
    Lizzy Vaureur Metis bap.1868
    Marie Magdalen Vaureur Metis b-1871

Some time in the late 1840's, Robert Campbell of the Hudson Bay Company reported the presence of gold on the Yukon River.

Fort Hope, B.C.(1848-1860)  is established by the Hudson Bay Company.  It is the critical junction of traffic from the East to the West.

The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Yale, B.C. (1848-1849)  The post was named after James Murry Yale aka Little Yale (1776-1871).  This post was abandoned in 1849. 

James Robertson of Orkney, died February 24, 1852 Flatheads. worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1848-1852) as laborer

(IV)-John McLoughlin Jr. (1809-1848), Metis son of Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) and Chippewa Woman , the patriarch of 'Old Oregon' refused to allow his men to make evening visits to the neighboring Indian camps for romantic encounters.  In the ensuing encounter the Iroquois (Mohawks) and Metis shot (IV)- John McLoughlin Jr. (1809-1848) Metis, dead.   (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787-1860) an illegitimate Scot, refused to investigate the matter causing a riff with Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857).  

The California Gold rush brought devastation upon the Indians due to the United States policy of Indian extermination.  Many white gold miners went on hunting sprees shooting Indians on sight.  The population in a few short years decreased by 2/3 or more.  The generally peaceful nature of the California Indians hastened their attrition since most hostilities were one-sided against them. 

The creation of Oregan Territory this year saw the start of the Cayuse War which spread with the creation of the Washington Territory of 1853.  The Yakima and Sahaptain wars of 1855-1858 was a continuation.  It concluded with the Coeur d'Alene or Palouse war of 1858.  The American Army massacred the Indian chiefs even those who surrendered.  The conflicts was over the style of settlement, the Indians were used to dealing with the HBC and the NWC before them with little trouble.  The Americans were another matter and many Indians fled to Canada.  

Henry Angel established a trading post at Angels Camp, California

Metis families occupied the buildings of the abandoned Tshimakain Mission (1838-1848).  The mission was moved to Willamette due to fear of the Indians especially the Cayuse Indians only 80 miles away.

February 23:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-William Cromarty, Metis, born, 1848, son (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui; married. Lucie of Cheam, Mission City buried, Popcum Cem.

April 2: Vancouver Depot, Columbia District, birth (II)-James Johnstone, Metis, baptized May 2, 1848, son of (I)-James Johnson (1805-1855) and Jane (Jeny) Tchinouk a Chinook, died before 1855

May 16:  Wallamett, Columbia, birth, Marie Philomene Chalifoux, Metis ,daughter Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

July 20:  Gervais, Oregon, birth Ambrose Elmore Plourde, son Francois Plourde, born August, 1793 Red River des Metis and Suzanne Dubois, b-1803; married Katherine Boucher.

August 14:  USA Congress creates the Oregon Territory including present Oregon and Washington.

 

1849  

Coastal Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island (1849-1883) was built this year.

(I)-George Balls (1829-1889) Vancouver Island employed HBC (1849-1857) then went into private business and had one known child (II)-Elizabeth Balls, Metis b-1854 Victoria with an Indian girl 

(II)-Mary Ann Francis Beardmore Metis b-1849 daughter (I)-Owen Charles Beardmore d-1893 Australia, and Sahuila a Tshutshenne girl of the Stikine Nation Columbia District.  Mary inherited her fathers estate.

Joseph Bourke joined HBC (1849-1862) Columbia District, he maaried and had two children:
    An unnamed Bourke Metis son b-1850
    An unnamed Bourke Metis daughter b-1857

Pierre Boucher Metis son Jean Baptiste Boucher, joined HBC (1849-1860) New Caledonia.

Captain William Brotchie (1799-1859), was in command of the barque "Albion" when she struck Brotchie's Ledge (off Victoria) this ledge in 1849, previously known as Buoy Rock.

birth (II)-Jean Clark Metis, baptised January 25, 1850, Fort Vancouver, son (I)-Francois Clark d-1849 and Marie Chinook. 

Antoine Danneau (Denneau) joined HBC (1849-1856) Columbia District and New Caledonia.  He married Josephine Kwakiutl and together they had:         
    Louis Danneau Metis bap.1856 
    Caroline Danneau Metis (1857-1857) 
    Marie Danneau Metis b-1858

Matthew P. Deady, b-1824 arrived Oregon this year, he married June 1852, Lucy A. Henderson daughter Robert Henderson and by 1860 are in Portland, Oregon  

Cyprien Dionne (Dion) joined HBC (1849-1859) Columbia District.  His native wife, a "Skames" , bore him 
    Ada Dionne Metis bap.1856 at Fort Langley

Joseph Dusseau aka Dussault (1825-1905) son Nicholas Dussaux of Trois Rivieres, joined HBC (1849-1863).  On November 17, 1869, he formalized his marriage to Aline/Hellen/Helene (.1843-1944), Shuswap, daughter of N Si-Ken of Canoe Creek at St. Paul’s Church, Dog Creek. His children were 
    David (1861-?), 
    Angelica/Angelique  Dusseau Metis b-1867 
    Joseph Dusseau Metis (1870-1938), 
    Rosalie/Rosa Dusseau Metis b-1872 
    Louis Dusseau Metis b-1875
    Ellen Dusseau Metis b-1878 
    Peter Dusseau Metis b-1880
    Julia Dusseau Metis (1882-1923), 
    Felix Dusseau Metis (1886-1925) and 
    Gertrude Dusseau Metis (1890-1964). 
Ellen Dusseau died on January 14, 1944 (1941?) at Squawk Lake, Cariboo, where she had lived since 1914.

Adolphus Ferron joined HBC (1849-1856) Columbia District.  Adolphus Ferron, who also went by the name Jean Ferron, married Suzanne Grant, Metis daughter of Peter Grant and Anne of the Chaudières [Kettle Falls] tribe, on September 19, 1853 possibly in the Fort Victoria area. Together they had a daughter 
    Helene Marie Ferron Metis bap.1855. 
Suzanne brought a son, Frederic Griffin Metis bap.1853, son of Suzanne and Frederic Griffin Sr., into the marriage
    Frederic Griffin Metis bap 1853

Jean Baptiste Fortier joined HBC (1849-1854) Columbia District.  In Nanaimo on August 5, 1856 he married Marie , Kwagiulth. There two children were :    
    Julie Fortier Metis bap.1853
    Marguerite Fortier Metis b-1855

Joseph Gabourie (1836-1893) son Jean Baptiste Gabourie and Genevieve Las from Trois Rivieres, joined HBC (1849-1854) settled Victoria.  Joseph Gabourie had two successive wives and eight or more children. 
On April 18, 1853, he married Marguerite Cowichan, likely in the Victoria area. Together they had one son, 
    Louis Gabourie Metis (1853-1936). 
On December 8, 1876, Joseph Gabourie was listed as being the father to 
    Clare Gabourie Metis  by a native, Melanie Kimpale b-1861 
Other children by either wife were: 
    Joseph Gabourie Metis b-1874 
    Albert Gabourie Metis b-1880 
    Agatha Gabourie Metis b-1882, 
    AgnesGabourie Metis b-1885
    Marion Gabourie Metis b-1886
    Lucille Gabourie Metis b-1888
    Paul Gaborey Metis d-1894) may also have been a son.

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Umpqua, Columbia District (1849-1850).

Cornelious Gilliam (1798-1848) arrived Oregon  

(II)-Charles John Griffin (1827-1874) born Ireland, died Ottawa, son (I)-George Griffin, joined Montreal HBC (1846-1873) Fort Coulonge, Montreal, Fort Edmonton (1847-1848), York Factory (1847-1849, Columbia-New Caledonia (1849-1862), Red River, Oxford House, Churchill, married 1840 churched 1863, Red River, (II)-Elizabeth Margaret Bird Metis b-1840 daughter (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and (II)-Mary Kelly Lowman Metis (1801-1873/74), children not recorded but one possible son is Charles Griffin Metis b-1865 N.W.T. married Red River, settled Fort Edmonton
    

(I)-George Harvey (1822-1879) son Christopher Harvey and Catherine Johnson of Orkney joined HBC 1843-1877) arrived Columbia District 1849, retied 1877.   George Harvey had two successive wives and five recorded children. 
On December 30, 1852, he married Sophie Jollibois Metis b-1840 daughter Jean Baptiste Jollibois and Susan Tse-ka-ost-aka Josette, and they together had an 
    (II)-unnamed Metis infant (c.1858-1858). The fate of Sophie is unknown. 
On March 5, 1867, he married Mary Gravelle Metis Metis, daughter of Francois Gravelle  and Henriette, native. Their children were 
    (II)-George Jr. Harvey Metis b-1869
    (II)-Charles Edward Harvey Metis bap.1871
    (II)-Edward Harvey Metis bap.1872
    (II)-Alexander Harvey Metis bap.1874

(I)-John Sebastian Helmckin (1824-1920) son Claus Helmcken and Catherine Mittler, joined HBC (1849-1869) Fort Victoria.  John Sebastian Helmcken had one wife and seven children. 
On December 27, 1852, he married Cecilia Douglas Metis (1835-1865) daughter of James Douglas (1803-1877) and Amelie Connolly Metis (1812-1895). Their children were 
    (II)-Claude Douglas Helmckin Metis (1853-1854), 
    (II)-Catherine Amelia Helmckin Metis (1855-1922), 
    (II)-Margaret Jane Helmckin Metis (1856-1858), 
    (II)-James Douglas Helmckin Metis (1858-1919), 
    (II)-Henry [Harry] Dallas Helmckin Metis (1859-1912), 
    (II)-Edith Louisa [Dolly] Helmckin Metis (1862-1939), 
    (II)-Cecil Roderick Helmckin Metis (1865-65). 
Cecilia died a few short weeks after the birth of their last child. J. S. Helmcken never remarried.

(I)-John Huggins (1832-1907) came to Vancouver Island as a settler.  But on March 25, 1850, and because a large number of personnel had deserted from Columbia forts, Huggins was engaged as a clerk at Fort Nisqually, arriving April 13, 1850, and retiring 1870.  On October 21, 1857, he married Letitia Work Metis (1831-1910), daughter of John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legrace Metis (1812-1896). Their children were 
    (II)-William Huggins Metis (1858-1918), 
    (II)-Edward Huggins Metis Jr. (1860-1886), 
    (II)-John Work Huggins Metis (1862-1929) 
    (II)-Thomas, Huggins Metis (1863-1933), 
    (II)-Helen/Ellen Suzette Huggins Metis (1865-1868), 
    (II)-David Work Huggins Metis (1868-1931), 
    (II)-Henry Ellsworth Huggins Metis (1871-?), 
    (II)-Joseph Huggins Metis 
    (II)-Katherine Huggins Metis 

(I)-Robert Hunt (1828-1893) joined HBC (1849-1882) Columbia District
Married 1st unknown wife who died two years after marriage, unknown if Orkney or Indian/Metis?
    (II)-George Hunt employed HBC 1864
Married 2nd Mary Ebbets/Ansnaq/Anislaga a Klingat Indian, b-1823, a Tlingit native, bore him eleven children. They were:
    (II)-Emily Hunt Metis
    (II)-George Hunt Metis b-1854
    (II)-Annie Hunt Metis b-1856
    (II)-Mary Hunt Metis
    (II0-Mary Hunt Metis 
    (II)-Eli/Elias Hunt Metis b-1867
    (II)-William Hunt Metis b-1858
    (II)-Elizabeth Hunt Metis b-1870, married 1899 Daniel Wilson
    (II)-Sarah Hunt Metis b-1871
    (II)-Jane Hunt Metis b-1873
    (II0-Robert Hunt Metis (1876-1896).

Jean Baptiste Jolibois born 1795 LaPrairie, likely Metis employed HBC (1822-1851) assigned (1822-1824) Athabasca, posted Nisqually, Columbia District as a shepherd

Michel Lafleur joined HBC (1849-1856) Fort Victoria, was a peace officer and wife beater.  On February 15, 1850, when he married his wife Marie Songhees or Samish ("Tsamus") b-1829 in the Victoria area, he was described as a "garcon majeur" (an old man). When Marie was baptised on February 10, 1849, it was noted that she was already Michel Lafleur’s wife. Their children were 
    Marie Lafleur Metis bap.1850
    Mathilde Lafleur Metis bap.1853
    Olive Lafleur Metis bap.1856

(I)-Donald McAulay (1829-1912) joined HBC (1849-1861) Columbia District.  Donald McAulay had one native wife, Mary Ann (1830-1922), whom he married on December 28, 1868, and had seven children. Mary Ann was from Deadman’s Creek, British Columbia. Their recorded children by family recollection and records were; 
    (II)-unnamed McAulay Metis daughter d-1859
    (II)- John McAulay Metis (1859-1934), 
    (II)-Nancy McAulay Metis b-1862
    (II)-Donald McAulay Metis (1864-1932), 
    (II)-Malcolm McAulay Metis (1870-1929), 
    (II)-Kitty McAulay Metis d-1878
    (II)-Margaret McAulay Metis d-1934.

Louis Leandre Parente son Charles Parent and Rosaline Rousseau; joined HBC (1849-1860).    Louis Parent had one wife and three recorded children. Louis likely married his wife Catherine Tongas on May 16,1853 although he was listed as "Charles" in the church records. Their children were 
    Louis Parente Metis b-1853
    François Parente Metis b-1858
    Charles Parente Metis bap.1860

Joseph Plouf a HBC blacksmith at Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon) d-1849, married to Therese Makaina b-1815 daughter Owyhee a Hawaiian, they had seven children.

Hamilton Moffatt of Orkney, died April 13, 1894 in Victoria,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1849-1872) as Chief Trader

(I)-William Ross of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1849-1850) as overseer and settled in B.C.

John Sabiston b-1828 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1849-1859) as labourer settled in B.C.

Donald McLean of the Hudson Bay Company led a 16 man posse after a Chilcotin Indian named Tlel, suspected of killing a company servant Alexis Belanger.  The posse surrounded Tlels cabin, near the future city Quesnel, B.C.  McLean burst through the door and found Tliels uncle, stepdaughter and her baby.  The Uncle swore he didn't know where Tliel was hiding.  McLean shouted, then for today you shall be Tliel and he shot the uncle dead.  Tlel charged from another room and was shot dead.  Another member of the posse leaped through the door and shot the step daughter wounding her and killing the baby.  The Chilcotin swore to avenge the massacre but it would take 14 years because McLean wore a bulletproof vest and avoided death until he was finally shot in the back. 

Dr. (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin (1784-1857) built a beautiful home near Willamette Falls, Oregon on the property he purchased from the HBC for his wife Marguerite Warin, Metis (1775-1860), son (IV)-David McLoughlin, Metis and daughter (IV)-Eloisa McLoughlin, Metis and her three Metis children, only to be met with hostility from his neighbors. A conspiracy to strip him of his land claim began as soon as Oregon became part of the United States in 1849.  They claimed he was a British subject, although he was a 3rd generation Canadian, and was not entitled to a land claim.  John immediately applied for U.S.A. citizenship, but the dispute continued and he eventually lost his land.    This evil folks however, did allow him and his family to continue living in their home.  Samuel Thurston, the Oregon Territory's delegate to Congress, and Jackon Lee wrote into the Domation Act a section which gave most of (III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) land claim to the legislature.  They also made false statements to the Supreme Court in an attempt to discredit Dr. John McLoughlin.

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) continued to provide aid to the needy immigrants by providing them with employment.  He built houses, sawmills, gistmills, and even a canal around the falls all at his own expense.  He gave away 300 lots of private and public use, including land given to a Catholic School, and Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Congregational churches, and land for a city jail.  

(III)-Jean Baptiste (John) McLoughlin's (1784-1857) died a heart-broken man, September 3, 1857, before the dispute and legal action could ever be rectified.  Such was the treatment given to the FATHER OF OREGON.

Louis Oteakirie a Mohawk/Iroquois or Metis from Sault St. Louis, Quebec, joined HBC (1849-1867) Columbia District retired Vancouver.  Louis Oteakorie had one recorded wife, a Fort Rupert Kwakiutl native, M-las/M-lus/Mellas/ Moulas and had six, possibly seven children, 
    Kitty Oteakirie an Indian or Metis
    Alexis [Currie] Oteakirie an Indian or Metis (1865-1940), 
    Emma [Oteokorie] Oteakirie an Indian or Metis b-1866
    Catherine [Currie] Oteakirie an Indian or Metis (1871-1931), 
    Mary [Currie] Oteakirie an Indian or Metis
    Louis Oteakirie an Indian or Metis and Louis also worked for the HBC in Fort Rupert in 1866-1867.
    Jane Oteakirie an Indian or Metis b-1876

Joseph Poirier b-1830 out of Quebec joined HBC (1849-1850) Columbia District, settled at mouth Sooki River.  Joseph Poirier family life is unclear for he apparently had two wives and children by both of them; his second wife already had children by her first husband. 
On March 30, 1865 he married Helena/Ellen [Brulez] Thomas Metis (1856-1925), daughter of Joseph and Marie Anne (of mixed Iroquois descent) Brule. They are said to have had fifteen children. Those recorded were 
    Joseph Poirier Metis (1868-1948), 
    Marion/Maria Anna Poirier Metis b-1870
    Adolphus Poirier Metis b-1871
    William Poirier Metis b-1874
    Louisa Poirier Metis b-1876
    Ellen Poirier Metis b-1877
    Jacob Poirier Metis b-1878, 
    Maria Isabella Poirier Metis (1880-1939), 
    James Poirier Metis b-1883 
    Peter Poirier Metis b-1885
    Adele Poirier Metis b-1889
    Sarah Poirier Metis (1890-c.1928) and 
    Cecile Poirier Metis b-1893
Ellen Sr. died in 1925 and was buried in Milnes Landing cemetery in the Indian Graveyard. In 1901, a Maryan Poirier was listed as being the mother of the Poirier children.

In 1907 the Oregon Historical Society President Frederick V. Holman said:
"I shall merely mention that conspirators against Dr. McLoughlin took for themselves parts of his land claim and, by means of malicious misstatements, cause Congress unjustly to deprive him of all the rest of his land claim, and thus humbled and humiliated and impoverished the grand, the noble, the generous Father of Oregon".      

Samuel Robertson Metis (1831-1853) son C.F. Colin Robertson and Theresa Chalifoux, of Fort Pelly, Saskatchewan River, joined HBC (1849-1850) Fort Victoria, deserted  

(I)-William Rudland b-1815 joined HBC (1819-1867) Columbia District, settler Fort Simpson.  William Rudland had one wife, Mary Native b-1826 at least one child, 
    (II)-James Rudland b-1854  
    (II)-Sarah Rudland b-1858 may have been a daughter or a step-daughter.

(I)-John Sabiston (1828-1902) joined HBC (1849-1858)  Columbia District,  John Sabiston’s family life is complex for he appears to have had more than one wife and an untraceable number of children. On February 14, 1858, with an unnamed native wife at Fort Simpson he appears to have had 
     (II)-Isabella Sabiston Metis b-1858
     (II)-unnamed Sabiston Metis child. 
     (II)-John Sabiston Jr. Metis b-1853
On March 6, 1859 in Nanaimo, he married Jane Taylor b-1836, who was born in Canada. 
    William Thomas b-1874 was the adopted son of John Sabiston and Margaret. 
     (II)-John Sabiston Metis (2) who predeceased his father.

Alexis Tasitayerie joined HBC (1849-1862) Columbia District.

John Tod, Metis, born Abt. 1849, B.C., died September 05, 1889, son John Todd and Sophia Lolo:.

Alexander Tod, Metis born Abt. 1849, died September 05, 1889 in Victoria, B.C., Canada,  son John Todd and Sophia Lolo:

Isaac Tod, Metis born Abt. 1849 died March 28, 1892 in Plumper Passage, B.C., Canada, son John Todd and Sophia Lolo:

Francois Thibault Metis b-1831 English River or Sorel, Quebec son Francois Thibault b-1802 and Native woman, Joined HBC (1849-1850) Columbia District; (1850-1856) McKenzie River and Northern District, retired to Red River.

Catherine Vautrin, Metis b-1849, B.C. daughter Francois Xavier Ventrin, born May 10, 1815, Quebec, died Vancouver Island 1st married Emily Kwoithe, 2nd married December 11, 1852, Victoria Marie of the Quytten (Kwantlen) tribe.

(I)-Donald Walker (1829-1912) joined HBC (1849-1859) New Caledomia and Columbia Fistricts.  Donald Walker appears to have had two wives and eleven children. While he was working at Hope, he chose as a wife an unknown, native woman "Teitel". Their children likely were 
    Angus David Walker Metis bap.1856-?), 
    Allan Walker Metis b-1862
    James (cWalker Metis b-1865
    Jennie Walker Metis b-1868. 
    Mary J. Walker Metis b-1869 may also have come from this union. 
Walker’s first wife appears to have died around 1868 or 1869. 
He next took Cathy/Catherine/Kate or Skral-kat Yale. Their children were 
    Angus Donald Walker Metis b-1870
    Annie Marguerite Walker Metis b-1872
    Catherine Walker Metis b-1874
    Marion Walker Metis b-1877 
    Jessie Juliana Walker Metis b-1878
    Isabella Flora Walker Metis b-1880

John H. Couch, b-1811 returned to Oregon City with more merchandise and a few passengers: Ben Stark, W.H. Bennet, (IV)-W.S. Ogden son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Chas M'Kay.  Couch moved to Portland where he eventually retired.

Only 304 United States citizens lived north of the Columbia River and most of these are likely H.B.C. Canadian personnel.

The 1849 Oregon census, entitled "an enumeration of the inhabitants and qualified voters" excluded the Hawaiians even if born in the Oregon Territory.

A smell of gold saw 30,000 would be miners set out overland from Missouri for California, and another 25,000 are said to have made it to San Francisco by sea.   The sea trip around Cape Horn took anywhere from a few months to a year.   Hundreds of thousands would follow.   The Oregon and Mormon Trails are filled with covered wagons.  This effectively wrestled California and the Southwest from Mexico and crowded the Canadians out of Oregon and Washington in the Northwest.  

January 2: Fort Langley Marriage Simon Gills son Thomas Gill and Catherine Basin of Montreal, a widower married Marie Aghelis of the Tcheghelis tribe and Marie Pepin, Metis b-1835 daughter Etienne Pepin (1799-1874) and Mascoyennes tribe (Maskagonne.

January 13: Britain made Vancouver Island a crown colony and leased the whole island to the HBC for seven schillings a year.  It was called the Colony of Vancouver (officially known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies) but more commonly Vancouver Island or part of the Columbia Department.

January 13:  The Hudson Bay Company leased Vancouver Island from the British for 7 shillings a year.  They established a colony under Chief Factor James Douglas (1803-1877) a mixed blood (Scottish and a colored Creole Woman) and is considered 'The Father of B.C.'  He married Amelia Connolly, Metis daughter Chief Factor William Connolly and native woman.  Royal Charter specified that the Company must form a colony of British subjects, who should be encouraged to immigrate by the sale of land at reasonable prices.  Democratic government had no part in their experience, and mass immigration had no part in their policies. The only sort of settlement they would welcome would be that of large-scale farms owned by men of means and worked by hired help. Only the squirearchy would be allowed any say in government.  To ensure the land was used only for farming, the Company reserved all mineral rights. Additionally, all choice land near the Fort was set aside for Company use.  W. Colquhoun Grant, late Captain in the Scots Guards, who bought land at Sooke and tried farming for three years before selling out to former Hudson's Bay Company coal miner John Muir.

March 14:  Southern Colorado, death William Sherley Williams, mountain man, hunter, scout, Baptist minister son Joseph Williams (1757-1820) and Sarah Musick (1756-1820); married 1st Wind Blossom (Achinga) an Osage Indian and had two daughters Mary Anne (1814-1845) and Sarah, 2nd marriage Antonia? a Mexican woman and had one son.  Old Bill williams was killed by the Indians while crossing the Rocky Mountains.   Source Dylan Hayden

March 17:  Fort Victoria, (I)-Robert John Staines (1820-1854) an English preacher arrived to establish a school with his wife Emma Tahourdin who was described as shrewish and snobbish.  They later acquired a 400 acre farm at Metchosin.  Early boarders at the school were children of James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877), (I)-John Tod (1794-1882), and (I)-Alexander Caufield Anderson (1814-1884).  Eden Colville called Staines a prig, Roderick Finlayson said he was a man of frills, James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877) says he is a rather lazy man at times.  The consensus was that Staines was an unsuccessful teacher.

June: Fort Simpson aka Port Simpson,  B.C. birth,  (II)-Cecilia Work, Metis, daughter (I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861), and Josette Legace, Spokane Metis; married October 12, 1870, Charles Jones

June 1:  Some Hawaiians presented themselves to become United States citizens, and be allowed to vote in the elections.  These Kanakas were excluded from becoming citizens because they were not White.  It is noteworthy these Kanakas were early pioneers to Oregon Territory long before most Whites.

June:   Captain W. Colquhon Grant, with eight engages, arrived at Fort Victoria with coaches and carriages for nonexistent roads, with a set of cricket equipment for a nonexistent playing field and finally settled at Sooke, Vancouver Island.  He did not last due to his lack of true grit and sold his property to the Muirs coal miners, returning to England

June:  Scottish miner John McGregor had been one of the original miners at Fort Rupert, arriving in the brig Harpooner in June, 1849.

June 6:  Father Honore Timothy Lempfrit a Roman Catholic priest at Fort Victoria (1849-1851) established a school of 20-25 Metis students.  Reverend Robert Staines (1820-1854) a Anglican chaplin was at the fort in the same time and received £340 per year salary and £100 for his school.  Father Lempfrit had to rely on the generosity of his parishioners.  This discrimination would continue into the 21st century.

August 31:  Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, Joseph Cedrass HBC (1845-1849) died from eating toxic mussels and quickly turned black.  Interesting as very few folks have died from eating toxic sea food in B.C.

October 25:  Vancouver Island, (I)-Andrew Muir of Scotland recorded that the H.B.C. hired him to work coal not to find coal.  Andrew, his father, three brothers, and two cousins were the first group of coal miners to be hired to work coal for the H.B.C.  John Muir, wife Anne, daughter Marian Muir and her two children Andrew, John, Robert and Michael; their nephews Archibald Muir and John McGregor, wife Mary, his sister and his three children; and the John Smith family were included in this contingent.  The H.B.C. had no experience in mining and failed to manage these miners.

December 14: Victoria, marriage (I)-Roderick Finlayson (1818-1892), to (II)-Sarah Work. Metis b-1829 daughter (I)-John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legace Spokane Metis.  Roderick joined HBC (1839-1872) Columbia District.  Roderick Finlayson had one wife and eleven children. On December 14, 1849, he married Sarah Work Metis (1829-1906), daughter of John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legace a Spokane Metis.. Together they had 
    (II)-Mary Finlayson Metis (1850-1894), 
    (II)-Sarah Jane Finlayson Metis (1852-1853), 
    (II)-Catherine Finlayson Metis (1854-1855), 
    (II)-Ann Jane Finlayson Metis (1856-1937), 
    (II)-John Work Finlayson Metis (1858-1895), 
    (II)-Sarah Susette Finlayson Metis (1860-1935), 
    (II)-Duncan Nicol Finlayson Metis (1862-1910), 
    (II)-Letitia Agnes Finlayson Metis (1864-1945), 
    (II)-Roderick David Finlayson Metis (1867-1916), 
    (II)-Cecilia Margaret Finlayson Metis (1870-1955) 
    (II)-William Henry Finlayson Metis (1873-1908).

 

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