EARLY YEARS 
OF THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST 1850 - 1864



The voyagers from the Old Northwest are trading into B.C.


03/12/2013

  B.C. HISTORY 1865 - 1899

B.C. HISTORY Return to MAIN B.C. index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index



All hell broke loose in British Columbia with the discovery of gold.

With the influx of population came economic growth


 


1850  

The settler population of the new Oregon Territory is estimated at 1,049 people mostly Metis but this might only include future Washington as the Willamette Valley likely contained thousands of Metis?.

(I)-Charles Bond HBC (1850-1854).   In the early 1850’s, he took as his wife Elizabeth  Saanich, and together they had     
    (II)-Mary Ellen Louisa Bond Metis b-1854
    (II)-Elizabeth Teresa Bond Metis b-1861

(I)-William Brotche of Scotland (1799-1859) is in the spar industry near Fort Rupert, ending in complete failure (1850-1855)

William Brown of Orkney worked west of Rocky Mountains for H.B.C. (1850-1852) as a gardener, discharged.

William Brown of Orkney, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1853) as boat builder.

(I)-Henry Buxton, (1794-1870) employed HBC (1821-1825) and wife Sarah Munger, d-1890, moved from Tualitin Plains, Oregon Territory to Forest Grove where they purchased 300 acres.

(I)-Robert Clouston (1821-1858) an Orkney joined HBC (1838-1858), York Factory (1839-1839); Fort Edmonton (1839-1841); Oxford House (1841-1842); Red River (1842-1848) ; York Factory (1848-1849): Fort Vancouver (1850-1851); Honolulu 1851-1858)
Married Adelaide Lapierre Metis d-1849, recorded children 
    (II)-Elizabeth Clouston Metis
   
(II)-James Stewart Clouston Metis
   
(II)-Anne Rose Clouston Metis (married. Edward Pelly, in Hamilton in 1857, then to U.S.)
   
(II)-Margaret Clouston Metis (who had a son Edward Robert)
Married 1848 Jessy Ross (1825-1849) daughter of Donald Ross 
Married Marie of Hawaii, one child recorded
    (II)-Annie Cloustan

Henry W. Corbett b-1827, a merchant arrived 1850 Portland Oregon that had a population of 400 inhabitants.  He married 1853 Caroline E. Jagger of N.Y. d-1864; a second marriage 1866 Emma L. Ruggles of Massachusetts.

William Corzey of Orkney died 1863 Victoria, B,C., worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1860) as blacksmith

Napoleon Dease Metis (1827-1861) son  John Warren Dease (1783-1830) and Flathead woman at Fort Colvile, joined HBC (1846-1861) Columbia District He married Marguerite, Saanich and together they had; 
    Elise Dease Metis b-1849    
    Johnny Dease Metis b-1853 
    Marie Dease Metis b-1855

B.F. Dowell, b-1826 arrived Astoria, Oregon Territory in 1850 and engaged in trade in southern Oregon.  

(I)-Christopher Finlay (1833-1879) son Christopher Finlay and Margaret Sinclair joined HBC (1850-1879).  Christopher Finlay married a Haida native and had a daughter, 
    (II)-Mary Finlay Metis b-1854. 
In the 1860s Christopher’s Haida wife returned to the Queen Charlotte Islands, while he retained the child. In 1869, Mary went on to marry William Cartwright.

Thomas Foubister of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1853) as labourer, likely retired in B.C.

Jean Baptiste Gagnier (1802-1890), employed HBC (1830-1851) posted to Fort Vancouver, Columbia District, 1850-1851).

(I)-Richard Golledge (1832-1887) joined HBC (1850-1860) Columbia District, he was well educated but died in abject poverty a alcoholic vagrant.  He married September 26, 1871 Julia a widow of Joseph Charbonneau Metis b-1850.

William Guthrie of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1855) as laborer and likely settled Vancouver Island. 

William Harkness Metis (1835-1857) joined HBC (1850-1857) Columbia District married a unnamed woman of Quyslen (Kwantlen) tribe, one child is recorded:
    Rosaline Harkness Metis b-1856 Langley.

Thomas Howse b-1852 Red River married about 1881 likely Assiniboia Susan b-1851 Alberta, living Calgary in 1901 but was in B.C. 1893.  Assiniboia could refer to southern Alberta, Saskatchewan or Manitoba at this time.

(I)-Edward Huggins (1832-1907) employed HBC (1850-1870) Nisqually, ColumbiaDistrict and retired Nisqually after refusing a transfer to Kamloops.  Married (II)-Letitia Work, Metis b-1831 daughter (I)-John Work (1792-1861) and Josette Legace Spokane Metis.

(I)-Robert Hunt (1827-1893) employed HBC (1849-1882) arrived Victoria 1850.  His wife, Mary Ebbets/Ansnaq/Anislaga b-1823, a Tlingit native, bore him eleven children. They were 
    (II)-Emily Hunt Metis 
    (II)-George Hunt Metis b-1854
    (II)-Annie Hunt Metis b-1856
    (II)-Mary Hunt Metis likely died young? 
    (II)-Mary Hunt Metis 
    (II)-Eli/Elias Hunt Metis b-1867
    (II)-William Hunt Metis b-1858
    (II)-Elizabeth Hunt Metis b-1870
    (II)-Sarah Hunt Metis b-1871
    (II)-Jane Hunt Metis b-1873 
    (II)-Robert Hunt Metis (1876-1896).

John Irvine of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1856) as labourer in 1862 was still living in North Saanich, Vancouver Island.

Henry Leask of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1851) as labourer deserted December 28, 1851 from Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).

Aime Leclaire (1829-1886) son Hyacinthe Leclairie and Angelique Corbeil, joined HBC (1850-1856) Columbia District, settled Victoria 1854. On January 9, 1855 in the Victoria area, Aimé Leclaire took as a wife Marie (Mary/Maria) Grant Metis daughter of Peter Grant and a woman from the Fort Colvile area. Together they had eight recorded children plus 5 more added by Erick Nelson a decedent of Elizabeth.: 
    Joseph Aimé Angelique Leclaire Metis -bap.1855
    Elizabeth  Leclaire Metis -bap.1857 
    Caroline  Leclaire Metis -bap.1859 
    Adolphe  Leclaire Metis -bap.1860
    Peter William  Leclaire Metis -bap.1863, 
    Eli (Levi) Leclaire Metis b-1864 source Erick Nelson, 
    Claire  Leclaire Metis -bap.1865 
    David Leclaire Metis b-1866 source Erick Nelson 
    Maximillian Leclaire Metis (1869-1906) source Erick Nelson
    Wilfrid Leclaire Metis b-1871 source Erick Nelson
    Alfred  Leclaire Metis -bap.1871
    Charles K. (Charlie) Leclaire Metis b-1873 source Erick Nelson
    Charles William Leclaire Metis -bap.1875

 James Linklater of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1856) as labourer likely settled in Victoria.

Daniel Harvey d-1868 who ran the McLoughlin flour and sawmill married (IV)-Eloisa McLoughlin, Metis (1817-1884) , they had two sons and one daughter.  They moved to Portland, Oregon in 1867 

(I)-James McFaddin (1824-1902) an Irishman joined HBC (1850-1856) Columbia District.  James McFaddin may have had two wives. One wife was Mary Moody from the Bella Bella area. McFaddin Metis? children were 
    (II)-Mary Ann McFaddin Metis (1853-1936), 
    (II)-Susan McFaddin Metis (1856-1940), 
    (II)-John McFaddin Metis -bap.1865
    (II)-William McFaddin Metis (1861-1919)
    (II)-Elizabeth McFaddin Metis (1863-1930).

Captain William McNeil of the H.B.C. Ship, Beaver, married a Haida woman at an unknown date, but it would be post 1787.  Upon her death he said she was a good and faithful partner to me for 20 years and we had 12 children together. She was a most kind mother to her children and no woman could have done her duty better; although an Indian.

Henry Mardell employed HBC 1850 Fort Vancouver with wife b-1828 Lake superior.  One child is recorded, 
    Henery Mardell Metis? b-1848

Octave Martel b-1818 joined HBC (1839-1847) New Caledonia District, a freeman at Willamette 1848.  By 1850, Octave Martel had one wife, Marie likely Metis from (Oregon Territory), and two children, 
    Joseph Martel Metis b-1847
    Marie Martel Metis b-1848.

(II)-Jonathan Moar (1829/30-1925), from Orkney son (I)-Jonathan Moor Joined HBC (1845-1850) York Factory, worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1851) as blacksmith, deserted in 1851.  Jonathan Moar had two wives and eight children. He married Isabella Metis of Logie on November 1, 1854 in Clatsop, Oregon and together they had five children,
    (III)-James Watt Moar Metis (1855-1896), 
    (III)-Thomas Traill Watt Moar Metis (1857-1916), 
    (III)-Margaret Ann Moar Metis (1858-1954), 
    (III)-Jonathan “Don” Jr. Moar Metis (1859-1938) 
    (III)-Isabelle “Belle” Moar Metis (1861-1908). 
Isabella died April 29, 1872. On March 22, 1878 in Clark County, Washington he married New Yorker, Mary Ann Fox (c.1862-1883), widow of Andrew O’Donnell. Together they had two daughters.

Etienne Pepin alias Maille and Magice, (1799-1874) is still recorded at Fort Langly.

Auuie Rivere b-1850 B.C. living Vancouver, B.C. in 1901 census

James Stove b-1828 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1856) settled B.C.

(I)-John Tod (1794-1882), Scotland purchased property at Victoria, B.C.

Connollys Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth  (III)-Samuel Todd, Metis son (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

Rosalie Vautrin, Metis (1850-1854), B.C. daughter Francois Xavier Ventrin, born May 10, 1815, Quebec, died Vancouver Island 1st married Emily Kwoithe, 2nd married December 11, 1852, Victoria Marie of the Quytten (Kwantlen) tribe.

John Work of Orkney, died 1857 from injuries in Nanaimo Mine, B.C., worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1857) as miner

William Work of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1850-1854) as labourer settled Victoria.

(I)-John McAdoo Wark (1829-1909) joined HBC (1850-1869) Columbia District.  John M. Wark married Amelia Birnie Metis (1836-1918) the daughter of (I)-James Birnie (1799-1864) and Charlotte Beauleau.Metis (1805-1978) Their children were an 
    unnamed Wark Metis son d-1860
    Jane Wark Metis b-1861
    John Henry Wark Metis (1863-1943) 
    Charlotte Wark Metis (1864-1949), 
    Mary Amelia Wark Metis (1866-1887)
    Charles Lowe Wark Metis (1867-1953). 
    Amelia died October 17, 1918 in Victoria, B. C.

News of gold on the Fraser River of New Caledonia (B.C.) reaches California.  It is noteworthy that only a few hundred settlers reside at Fort Victoria (Vancouver Island, B.C.) who are mainly H.B.C. people.

Thousands of Hawaiians (Kanakas) are in British Columbia, married to Indian women and many of their Metis daughters are married to Anglus.

This year the United States Congress provided for land grants in the Oregon Territory to "every white male settler or occupant of the public lands, American half breeds included."  The Oregon territorial delegation opposed giving "land to every servant of the Hudson Bay Company, including some hundreds of Canakers, or Sandwich Islanders, who are a race of men as black as Negroes of the South, and a race, too, that we do not desire to settle in Oregon."    HBC were not welcome in Oregon Territory and many were driven out.

By this year 12,000 European settlers had streamed into the Oregon Territory, mostly settling in the Willamette Valley.  The British were not prepared to go to war to protect this Canadian territory so they relinquished their claim to Oregon and Washington.  In so doing they had also relinquished claim to Idaho, Montana and the Dakotas, which were still considered Indian Territory.  The British commitment to protect the rights of the natives of America was also relinquished.  It is noteworthy that Oregon immediately passed their Donation Land Act, granting every white settler and American half-breed Indian above age 18 who was already living in Oregon, a free half-section of land if single, or a full section if married, with half the land in the wife's name.  Those arriving after 1850 received 1/2 of these amounts.  A total of 7,437 patents were issued under this law.  After 1854, land was no longer free, being set at $1.25/acre with a 320 acre limit.  It is noteworthy that the Dominion of Canada would not allow Metis land rights until after armed conflict broke out in 1885. 

News of gold on the Fraser River of New Caledonia (B.C.) reaches California.  It is noteworthy that only a few hundred settlers reside at Fort Victoria (Vancouver Island, B.C.) who are mainly H.B.C. people.

March 11:  (I)-Richard Blanshard (1786-1877) became Governor of the Vancouver Island Colony.

April 26:  The first Vancouver Island coal miners strike started this date.  

1851 

James Baikie of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1852) as a labourer and was dismissed July 10, 1852, Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon).

(II)-John Ballenden, b-1810/12 Orkney d-1856, worked H.B.C. (1850-53) as Chief Factor west of Rockies in 1851 appointed Fort Vancouver and he died December 6, 1856 likely Red River son (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and Elizabeth Gray of Orkney; married (II)- Sarah McLeod Metis daughter (I)- Alexander Roderick McLeod (1782-1840).  They had 3 Metis sons and 3 Metis daughters

Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, died January 5, 1842; married 2nd February 7, 1842 Susanne Kohoss died January 8, 1843: married 4th December 18, 1843, Pelagie Tchinook died September 22, 1851: married 5th December 17, 1851, Uculet Margeurite Youngoulhta aka Yougteta widow of Jean Baptiste Dubreuille (1791-pre1851).

Noel Falardeuil, Metis, b-1851, son Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married Anne (Angelique) Kwaelna,   Their children are Louisa Falardeuil, Metis who married Thomas Downey, Frank Falardeuil, Metis who married Elizabeth Charley; and George Falardeuil, Metis who married Theresat Sialia aka Theresa Thompson 

(II)-Charles Monaghan Brown, b-1851, New York, d-1900 son (I)-Charles B. Brown, b-1818 England and Jemina, b-1825, Canada.  It is not known when the family moved to B.C.

Philip F. Castleman, b-1827 arrived Eugene, Oregon 1851 after trying his hand a gold field mining and married 1856 I.J. Evans.

John Clouston of Orkney, died 1854, Fort Vancouver (Portland Oregon), worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1854) as labourer. 

John Coles, who first came to BC in 1851 as a midshipman on "HMS Thetis".

William Craigie of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1853) as labourer at Fort Colvile, Washington.

(I)-Alexander Davis b-1821 joined HBC (1851-1853) Columbia District.   On August 1 or 25, 1853, he married Ellen St. André Metis b-1840, daughter of Pierre St. André b-1811 and Marie Mathloment Metis or Indian, in Clark Co., Washington Territory. His thirteen year old wife, who had been a boarding pupil at the sisters’ School at St. Paul in 1850, lived with him until June, 1857 at which point she left and would not return.  Their child, 
    (II)-Peter Davis Metis (1856-1856) lived only one week.

(II)-James Williams Douglas, Metis, b-1851 Fort Victoria d-1883 son (I)-James Souglas, Metis (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): married 1877, Mary Elliott 

Amos Emerson b-1857 Denmark married Janett b-1851 B.C. living Skeena 1901 census

(I)-William Henry Emptage b-1829 son William Emptage of Kent, Emgland, retired Langley Prairie.  He took as a wife Louisa Pokia b-1840, daughter of Moosum Pokia, Musqueum. Their children were 
    William Emptage  Metis Jr. (c.1864-1944), 
    Edwin Emptage  Metis b-1869
    Stephen Emptage  Metis b-1872
After they had begun to raise a family, they formalized their marriage on May 27, 1875.

William (Harvey) Harry of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1856) as carpenter likely settled in Victoria

Adam Grant Horn, b-1831 Orkney?, died 1903 Nanaimo, Vancouver Island,  worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1868) as clerk 

(I)-John Humphreys (1810/21-1905) joined HBC (1850-1853) sailed with 120 passangers, many coal miners for Vancouver Island arrivinf 1851.  He settled in Cowichan area on Quamichan Lake (his native wifes birth place) Amelia (.1833-1876), Cowichan, daughter of the Quamichan’s chief, and seven recorded children. Their children were 
    (II)-Anne Humphreys Metis (c.1852-?), 
    (II)-Elizabeth Humphreys Metis b-1856
    (II)-Caroline Humphreys Metis (1864-1870), 
    (II)-John  Humphreys Metis Jr. b-1866
    (II)-Lucy Humphreys Metis (1868-1870), 
    (II)-Thomas William Humphreys Metis  b-1871
    (II)-Esther Humphreys Metis b-1874 
Amelia Quamichan died January 31, 1876, aged forty-one.

Peter Irvine of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1861) as labourer settled in Vancouver Island.

Robert Irvine of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1858) as labourer settled in Vancouver Island.

Oxford House birth (II)-John Isbister Metis Jr. (1832-1864) son (I)-John Isbister Sr. (1796-1883+) and (II)-Francis (Fanny) Sinclair Metis b-1813/18; joined HBC (1849-1864) Norway House, Columbia District (1851-1853) but deserted 1852, was an Interpreter at Fort Ellice, Swan River (1861-1864) 

James Johnstone of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1857) as labourer in 1858 was at Fort Victoria. 

Etienne Lambert joined HBC (1851-1858) New Caldonia and Fort Langley.  Probably around 1857, he chose as a wife Margarite Fraser, perhaps a Kwantlen native. Their children were 
    Marie Emilie Lambert Metis (1858-1862), 
    Sara Lambert Metis bap. 1860 
    Jean Étienne Lambert Metis b-1862 
    Louisa Lambert Metis (1864-1865).

Captain E.E. Langford arrived from England to manage the Esquimalt farm of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, a subsidiary of the H.B.C., he named the farmhouse Colwood, after his home in Sussex.

(I)-James Lesk joined HBC (1851-1858) Columbia District, a British man who was listed as lazy and who abandoned his wife and child.  James Leask appears to have had two wives. The first wife was an unnamed native woman, one child being:
     David Lesk Metis b-1853. 
On April 26, 1860, James Leask married Jane Stockand in Victoria. No further family has been traced.

John Linklater of Orkney worked west of the Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1867) as post master likely settled Victoria

John McKay of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1852) as labourer, deserted in 1852

(II)-William Manson Metis b-1829 Fort George son (I)-Donald Manson (1798-1880) and Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867), joined HBC (1848-1851) Red River and Lac La Pluie, HBC (1851-1869) New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.  William Manson had possibly two wives and seven children. One wife was Elizabeth McLean married 1856 Aselaid (Oregon) with whom he had 
    (III)-Donald Manson Metis (1857-1930)
On May 29, 1861, Manson married (V)-Adelaide Ogden Metis b-1847 daughter of (IV)-Peter Ogden Jr. (1817-1870) and Phrisine. Their children were 
    (III)-Lizzie Manson Metis 
    (III)-William Manson Metis 
    (III)-Martha Manson Metis  
    (III)-Peter O. Manson Metis  
    (III)-Sarah Manson Metis 
    (III)-Margaret Manson Metis 

David Marwick of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C, (1851-1854) as farmer, likely settled Victoria. 

James Marwick of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C, (1851-1862) as labourer, likely settled Victoria. 

Hugh Mowatt of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C, (1851-1851) as steward, settled in Fort Vancouver area.

(III)-Andrew Dominique Pambrun Metis (1821/22-1895) son (II)-Pierre Chrysologue Pambrun and Catherine (Kitty) Umpernille Metis from Cumberland House and was sent 1831 to Red River for an education.  He was baptized 1838.   Joined HBC (1851-1855) Columbia District.  Andrew Pambrun had one wife and apparently thirteen children. In 1843 he married Maria (Mary) Cook (1824-1912) and later the married couple moved west to live. Twelve of their recorded children were:
    (IV)-Thomas Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-John Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Alexander Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Pierre Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Ada Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Harriet Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Sarah Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Catherine Pambrun Metis b-1855, 
    (IV)-Jeremiah Pambrun Metis b-1860
    (IV)-James Pambrun Metis 
    (IV)-Mary Angelique Pambrun Metis b-1867
    (IV)-Julius Washington Pambrun Metis b-1869

(I)-Alexander Papley (1837-1884) an Orkney joined HBC (1851-1884) Columbia District, married an unnamed Indian girl and had one child:
    (II)-Mary Anne Papley Metis b-1860

Alexis Pelland b-1829 Quebec, joined HBC (1848-1851) Columbia District, settled Chiniikville (Washington coast).  On January 27, 1851, he married "neophyte" Emilie, Wasco of the Fort Vancouver mission. Their recorded child was 
    Sophie Pelland b-1853

(I)-Robert Robinson, born Yell, Shetland, d-1912, employed HBC (1851-1859), Northern Department 1851 and New Caledonia (1852-1859), retired to Frazer River, Whonnock.     He took as a wife, Jane [Chenassenat/S-lastena] b-1841, Nicomen/Stalo. Their children were 
    (II)-Andrew Robinson Metis (1861-1888), 
    (II)-William Robinson Metis b-1863
    (II)-Robert Robinson Metis b-1864
    (II)-Charlotte Robinson Metis (c.1867/70-1940 married Frank Elmont Owens and 8 Metis children 
    (II)-Mary Robinson Metis (1878-1906), married Joseph Garner, 6 Metis children
    (II)-Barbara Robinson Metis (1869/72-1943) married Henry Garner and 3 Metis children 
    (II)-Andrina Robinson Metis b-1871/74-), married Charles Garner and 1 Metis child 
    (II)-Jane (Marie Jenny Elizabeth?) Robinson Metis b-1875

(I)-James Sabiston b-1829 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1869) as post master, settled B.C.

(I)-Joseph Sabiston of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1858) as laborer 

(I)-Peter Sabiston (1833-1892) of Orkney worked Columbia District  H.B.C. (1851-1858) as laborer at Fort Simpson with James Leask and William Garrioch who like Peter didn't like to work.  Peter abandon his native wife and two Metis children and headed south.  Peter Sabiston had two or more wives and at least two children. At Fort Simpson, he had an unnamed native wife and two children, one living to 1853 and another, 1857. 
On February 16, 1863, a licence was issued for the marriage of Peter Sabiston and Lucy Bate, whom he married on April 19, 1863 in Nanaimo.  He and his second wife visited San Francisco in 1881, and Orkney in 1886. 

James Stockand b-1821 Orkney worked west Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1856) as carpenter retired Victoria

(II)-John Tait Metis b-1831 son (I)-William Tait and Maria Indian, joined HBC (1851-1884) Columbia District.

Michel Tayarouyokarari Iroguois HBC (1851-1855) Columbia District. 

(I)-James Taylor (1830-1907) Orkney joined HBC (1851-1862) Columbia District.  James Taylor had two successive wives and seven recorded children. Around 1861 he married Catherine Fallardeau Metis (1841-1874), daughter of Narcisse Fallardeau, Metis (1818-1888) and Helene Tiheparteroape Kwantlin. Their children were 
    Ann Taylor Metis b-1861-?), 
    George Taylor Metis (1863-1941), 
    Catherine Taylor Metis (1865-1943), 
    John James Taylor Metis (1868-1931), 
    Mary Taylor Metis (1870-1910), 
    Margaret Taylor Metis (1871-1966) and 
    Peter Taylor Metis (1874-1965). 
After wife Catherine’s death on December 30, 1874, James married Barbara Jamieson (c.1839-1909) of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Barbara died on June 23, 1909 and was also buried in the Taylor plot at the old Fort Langley cemetery.


James Thompson of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1851-1859) as labourer

(I)-John Tod (1794-1882), Scotland is appointed to the Vancouver Island colony's new executive council. There were only two other members: James Cooper and James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877). a mixed blood, Tod, in effect, became one of the four most powerful men on Vancouver Island. With its loyalties to the Hudson's Bay Company rather than the Crown,

(I)-John Work, b-Orkney, d-1857, arrived 1851, Fort Langley, married Margaret Pearson, kids John Baikie Work, unknown son and Margaret Work.

(I)-William Yates b-1833 joined HBC (1851-1891) Columbia and New Caledonia Departments.  William Yates had one wife, Mary Yiamtenal b-1846, a native, and four children. His children were 
    William Yates Metis b-1863
    Christina Yates Metis b-1870 
    Louisa Yates Metis b-1873
    James Yates Metis (1879-1927?).

The Fort Laramie Treaty of this year is to assure safe passage for white U.S.A. settlers along the Oregon Trail and to secure that Territory.  The Hudson Bay Company still considered the Oregon Territory as Canadian Territory. They would not give up on the area until paid compensation.

Free gold was found by natives in the Queen Charlotte Island and Governor James Douglas kept the news secret and persuaded the Colonial Office in London to give him control of the Charlottes

February 23:  Wallamett, Columbia, birth, Sophie Chalifoux, Metis ,daughter Andre Chalifoux (1789-11851) and, Catherine Russie, Metis 

July 20:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-Ann Cromarty, Metis, born, 1851,  daughter (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui;

December 17: Columbia District, 5th, marriage Charles Plante (1790-1854) and Margeurite Youngoulhta (Yougteta) Uculet, widow of Jean Baptiste Dubreuil.

 

1852 

The Hudson Bay Company established Nanaimo (1852-1861) this year.

John Baikie of Orkney, died February 16, 1866, Victoria, B.C., worked west of Rockies (1856-1866) for H.B.C. as a labourer

Magnus Edgar (1826-1894) Fort Victoria, settled Gabriola Island.  One wife, Susan Moody, may have been a Kitka’ka or Kitasu native, their child being 
    George (1854-1931), born at Fort Simpson. 
Another wife was Ann (1844-1882) who was born in British Columbia apparently of native origin. Their recorded children were: 
    John Edgar Metis (1864-1885), 
    Mark Edgar Metis (1866-1928), 
    Magnus Edgar Metis b-1869 
    Ann Edgar Metis b-1869
    William Edgar Metis b-1871
    Catherine Edgar Metis (1873-1874), 
    Jane Edgar Metis (1876-1894), 
    Margaret Edgar Metis b-1878 
    Agnes Edgar Metis  (1880-1897). 
Ann died, and on October 8, 1891, he married the second time to Ann Swanson of the Shetland Islands. She may have brought some children into the marriage for at his death in 1894, he left a widow, one girl and four boys.

Joseph Flett Metis b-1825 joined HBC (1852-1876) Columbia District.

(I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and his wife from the village of Schwenetekoo [“Keep Sounding Water” or Kettle Falls] visited their daughter (II)-Sarah Goudie, Metis and son-in-law, George McKenzie, a millwright by trade at Fort Victoria.  Goudie decided to move his family to Fort Victoria.  The journey, according to son-in-law McKenzie, was of epic proportions and took a year. Forty packhorses carried their goods south to Walla Walla and then to Vancouver where they picked up goods they had ordered from England a year earlier. They then followed the Cowlitz route to Fort Nisqually and finally crossed the strait in three canoes to Fort Victoria. 

Peter Gorazales b-1855 Chili married Eruua b-1852 living Vancouver, B.C. in 1901 census

Gilbert Spence Hackland b-1828 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1854) as ship's master, worked and lived in Red River where he died in 1901.

Gavin Hamilton b-1835 Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1878) as clerk 

Thomas Harvey of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1857) as labourer.

Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken, (1824-1920) a surgeon for the Hudson Bay Company, arrived Victoria, B.C. in 1850, married 1852 Cecila Douglas (1834-1865) the daughter of Governor James Douglas(1803-1877) and built Helmcken House in Victoria, which stand today on its original site.

John Horie of Orkney worked west of Rocky Mountains for H.B.C. (1852-1858) as blacksmith at Victoria.

John Hunter aka the Bully a Metis d-1866 worked HBC (1852-1866) in Columbia and New Caledonia districts.  He married an unnamed woman from Bear Lake. Their children were 
    Charles Hunter Metis b-1863
    Margaret Hunter Metis b-1865
    Anne Hunter Metis b-1867

Gregoirie Kante (Kanta) Metis born Columbia District joined HBC (1852-1855)

Pierre Ladebouche joined HBC (1851-1852) Fort Simpson but he was likely in the Region earlier.  He married Marie Nass, probably in the Fort Simpson area as early as 1850 when his oldest daughter was born. Their children were 
    Marie Ladebouche Metis b-1850
    Joseph Ladebouche Metis b-1856, 
    Isabella Ladebouche Metis b-1859 
    Baptist (Ladebouche Metis b-1862

Van B. de Lashmutt, b-1842, a journalist, is in Oregon by 1852 and  returned in 1865, he married 1868 Miss Kelly of Kentucky daughter of Albert Kelly.

John Linklater, a.k.a. Little White Man, an Orkney man, is in charge of the Kootenay Post, a.k.a. Tobacco House.

Alexander McKenzie Metis joined HBC (1846-1868) Mackenzie River, Youcan (Yukon), Francois Lake, Yukon, Big Island, Fort Halkett, (B.C.) (1852-1853), Peers River, Yukon, Fort Auxliards, NWT, Fort Resolution, NWT, Green Lake of English River, married 
Christina Peers Bell Metis daughter John Bell epouse (I)-Angustus Richard Peers b-1853   

(I)-Phineas Manson joined HBC (1852-1857) Fort Langley.  He was married  a Kwantlen native from the Bellingham Bay area. Their children were 
    (II)-Isabelle Manson bap.1856 Fort Langley
    (II)-John Manson bap.1856 on July 13, 1856 at Fort Langley.

William Norquay of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1856) as labourer, was in Victoria

John Spence of Orkney worked west of the Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1860) as labourer settled Victoria

William Spence of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1859) as labourer 

James Taylor of Orkney worked west of Rockies for H.B.C. (1852-1862) as blacksmith, settled B.C.

Connollys Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth (III)-Isabella Todd, Metis daughter (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

Pierre Versialles Metis (1838-1860) joined HBC (1852-1859) Columbia District.  He appears to have had one wife, a person of unknown origin, possibly from Nanaimo. Their daughter 
    Emilie Versialles Metis was baptised on August 26, 1856 in Nanaimo.

Murdock Wapastoothen (White Hat) Metis or Cree joined HBC (1852-1853) Columbia District.

Murdock Wassantoolin Metis joined HBC (1852-1888) Columbia & New Caledonia Districts

The town site of Fort Victoria is laid out in streets this year and the Name was changed to Victoria..

A French Canadian discovers gold on the Pend Oreille River, Oregon starting a gold rush.

Ferndale, California is settled by Vermonteas Seth and Stephen Shaw.

June 1:  (I)-John Tod (1794-1882), Scotland retired from H.B.C., to outnumber the independence of councilor James Cooper, James Douglas, Creole Metis (1803-1877) a mixed blood, added two HBC toadies, Roderick Finlayson and John Work, to support Tod's HBC bias. Tod served as a Justice of the Peace, resolving disputes for one pound per day, and helped pass the first liquor tax in B.C.

July:  Hamilton Moffatt is believed to be the first European-HBC employee to cross Vancouver Island, a trip via the Nimpkish River to Nootka Sound and return.  The HBC who arrived 1843 and the settlers who arrived 1849 held the interior in contempt.

September:  Joseph Buchtel b-1830 arrived the Dalles, Oregon Territory and by September 5 arrived Portland, Oregon.  He married 1855 Oregon City, Josephine L. LaTourette; they had 7 kids Albert, Joe, Lily, Addie, Frank, Archie and Fred.

November 1, 1852, along with fellow crew members Zachariah Cathrick, Edward James and Thomas Morrow, (I)-William Hudson  deserted.  He married, stayed in the area and settled on the north end of Saltspring Island, as a neighbor to former HBC employees, Henry Sampson and James McFadden. There Hudson raised a family had an unnamed Kwantlen wife and two recorded children, 
    Marianne Hudson Metis bap.1856, who was baptised at Fort Langley
    James Albert Hudson Metis b-1864

November 29: Volcano Lake, B.C. Latitude 32.30 N & longitude 115.0 W, earthquake, mag. 6.5

 

1853 

(I)-Hans Peter Berentzen aka Brentzen, Peterberntzen & Benej (1826-1870) of Norway joined HBC (1853-1870) and was one of 40 Norwegians hired to work the B.C. Coast.  They arrived Fort Victoria April 17, 1854.  (I)-Hans Peter Berentzen, according to census findings, appears to have had one wife, Sophie Catherine Ortesa b-1841 an Alaskan Haida; his native wife said of him, "my Hans, my nice pink man"; they had six children together. He was known for his great gardens.  Their children from both census and anecdotal records were:
    (II)-Emma Berentzen Metis, 
    (II)-Paul Berentzen Metis, b-1862
    (II) an unnamed daughter Berentzen Metis, d-1863
    (II)-an unnamed son Berentzen Metis, b-1865
    (II)-Fritz Berentzen Metis, b-1866
    (II)-Henry Berentzen Metis, b-1869
    (II)-Mary Berentzen Metis, b-1874

Louis Brosseau, Metis b-1853, Fort Langley son Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) and Rose Kwantlen (Quytlan), d-1856.

(II)-William Charles Metis bpt-1831, Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca,  d-1903 Victoria, B.C. son (I)-John Charles (1799-1843) and (II)-Jane Auld (1800-1841),sent to Edinburgh for education, joined HBC (1853-1885) Columbia District
    (III)-Metis daughter b-1860 Fort Hope
    (III)-Metis son b-1864 Fort Hope
    In 1875 two sons were sent to England for education

(II)-William Charles Metis b-1831 Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca son (I)-John Charles b-1784 and (II)-Jane Auld Metis bpt 1831, joined HBC (1853-1885) Columbia District.  Above is the same person

Francois Cire Metis stopped into Fort Victoria for supplies HBC (1853-1854).

J.B. Congle (1817-1887) marred 1844 Ellen H. Gray in 1853 he migrated to Corvallis alias Marysville, Oregon then moved to Portland, Oregon in 1861.

Narcisse Falardeuil, Metis, b-1853, son Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: 

(I)-Gavin Hamilton b-1835 joined HBC (1853-1878) Langley then New Caledonia;
Gavin Hamilton had one wife and eighteen children. At Fort St. James, he married (IV)-Margaret Juliana Ogden Metis (1844-1918), daughter of (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Julie (1788-1886), Flathead. Together, they had: 
    (II)-Peter Ogden Hamilton Metis b-1863
    (II)-John Rae Hamilton Metis b-1864 
    (II)-Thomas McAulay Hamilton  Metis (1865-1955), 
    (II)-Colin Alexander Hamilton  Metis b-1866
    (II)-Charlie Ogden Hamilton (1868-1954), 
    (II)-Richard Rae Hamilton Metis b-1870
    (II)-Gavin James Hamilton  Metis b-1873
    (II)-Moffat Hamilton  Metis (1873-1971), 
    (II)-Margaret Jessie Hamilton  Metis (.1874-1958), 
    (II)-John Alexander Hamilton  Metis bap.1877
    (II)-Robert Tibbet Hamilton  Metis bap.1877 
    (II)-William Rae Hamilton  (1875-1953), 
    (II)-Rae  Metis Hamilton (1877-1953), 
    Christine M. Hamilton  Metis b-1879
    (II)-Isaac Ogden Hamilton  Metis (1881-1963), 
    (II)-Ellen/Helen Kate Rae Hamilton  Metis b-1883, 
    (II)-Mary S. R. Hamilton Metis 
    (II)-Theodore Henry  Metis (1892-1967). 
After the death of Gavin, Margaret [Ogden] Hamilton married Ewen Duncan McKinlay, son of Archibald McKinlay and Sarah Jane Ogden, in Kamloops, B.C. on November 6, 1917

 

(I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) married a girl from the village of Schwenetekoo [“Keep Sounding Water” or Kettle Falls]. who died this year. 

John Johstone believed a Metis? likely from Red River joined HBC(1853-1861) New Caledonia and Western Department.

(I)-Kenneth Morrison (1831-1900) was an early cooper at Fort Langley after he conspired with (I)-John McIver (1831-1913) to breach a four year contract with the company and escape to greener pastures, they were caught, imprisioned and forced to work out their contracts as coopers.

(II)-Mary McFadden, born September 22, 1853, Fort Langley, B.C., died April 10, 1936, daughter (I)-James McFadden, b-1824, Ireland, died October 28, 1902, Kamloops, B.C. and unknown mother. 

(I)-John McIver (1831-1913) was an early cooper at Fort Langley after conspired with (I)-Kenneth Morrison (1831-1900) to breach a four year contract with the company and escape to greener pastures

Jean Baptiste Morand (Morin) Metis b-1833/35 likely Red River joined HBC (1853-1857/59) assigned New Caledonia

Captain James Murry Reid (1803-1868) Orkney died Victoria,  working the coast for H.B.C. (1853-1854), as ships master when he ran the ship aground on Queen Charlotte Islands and the Haidas claimed salvage rights and the Reid was fired and returned to Victoria

(IV)-Charles Ogden Metis (1819-1890) son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1852) and Indian woman joined HBC (1853-1890) Columbia District and New Caledonia.

(II)-Mary Robertson, Metis daughter (I)-Samuel Robertson (1819-1897) and Julia Sanich (1834-1884); married Thomas Shannon

(I)-John Sabiston of Orkney joined HBC York Factory, worked  H.B.C. (1853-1856/58) as labourer.Columbia District

(I)-Henry Hardinge Digby Shuttleworth (1834-1900) born Shattuck, Sylhet, Bengal, India, joined HBC (1853-1860) Columbia District.  Henry Shuttleworth appears to have had two or three wives and seven children. His first marriage was apparently at Colvile [Colville] to Isabel, the daughter of chief See-whelh-ken, Colvile. They had a son, 
    (II)-William Shuttleworth Metis b-1860
A second wife was also called Isabel  and possibly the same person. Isabel died shortly after they moved to Keremos. They had four children: 
    (II)-Henry/Harry Shuttleworth Metis (1860-1950), 
    (II)-Charles Edward Shuttleworth Metis (1872-1896), 
    (II)-George Shuttleworth Metis (1866-1959)
    (II)-Lillian (cShuttleworth Metis b-1873
Shuttleworth was a widower by September 15, 1889, when he married Celestine Guteirez b-1854 herself a widow and the daughter of Antoine and Lucy Chis-kilo-to. Children were 
    (II)-Harold P. Shuttleworth Metis b-1881 
    (II)-Gerald P. Shuttleworth Metis (1891-1962).

(II)-John Sutherland Metis b-1836 son (I)-James Sutherland (1778-1844) and native woman; On September 20, 1870, he married Annie Ketlo b-1860 daughter of an Indian Chief, at St. Patrick’s Church, Langley, B. C. and may have stayed in the area.

Joseph Vallette Metis b-1831 Red River joined HBC (1853-1883)  In June, 1871, Joseph took as a wife, Atehiah hie, a native woman of Stuart Lake. Together, they had 
    François Vallette Metis b-1870
    Sophie Vallette Metis b-1871
    Christine Vallette Metis b-1873

B.F. Dowell, b-1826, was involved with a party of 20 soldiers led by Lieutenant Eli who were tracking down a group of Indians.  They found the Indians at Steward's Creek and withdrew to night in the morning.  The camped and failed to post guards.  The Indians attacked killing five solder out right and wounded another five.  The stole all the army's horses except one.  The army fled into the forest until reinforcements arrived. 

Connollys Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth (III)-William Todd, Metis son (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

Baptiste Versaillers Metis joined HBC (1853-1860) New Caledonia

The town of Fort Victoria numbered 450 people

Alarmed that an influx of Americans would result in a challenge to British sovereignty, James Douglas, the soon-to-be governor of the colony of Vancouver Island establishes the Belle Vue sheep farm on San Juan Island. In December, the farm's first foreman, Charles J. Griffin, and a band of Hawaiian shepherds arrived to care for a flock of 1,300 sheep. Despite this, in 1872 the disputed islands are ceded to the United States. Most of the Kanakas (Hawaiians) leave San Juan Island and settle across the border on the Gulf Islands, particularly Salt Spring Island. Friday Harbour on San Juan Island is named in memory of one of the Kanakas, Joe Poalie, better known as 'Joe Friday'.

Washington Territory is formed from part of the Oregon Territory aka Columbia Department.  Named in honor of George Washington.  The new territory proclaimed they forbade marriage between Whites and Indians.  This is very ironic because the majority of people are Metis and it is they who developed both territories for the past 40 years.

When Washington Territory was carved off from the unwieldy Oregon Territory in 1853, it remained subject to the law prohibiting slavery, but it did not copy Oregon's attempts to bar free blacks from settlement. In the years leading up to the Civil War, former slaves and free black men and women seeking new lives in the Northwest had little choice but to settle north of Oregon. This they did, albeit in small numbers -- the 1860 federal census counted only 30 African Americans living in Washington Territory, 26 men and just four women.

The Washington Territory had a population of 3,965 and 1/2 lived in Puget Sound.

March 14:  William Cook likely Metis b-1829 North West son Patrick Cook and ?, joined HBC (1847-1864) entered Columbia District 1853, and retired there.  Married March 14, 1853, Catherine Auger Metis b-1835 daughter Nicolas (Joseph) Auger Metis (1806-1995 and Amelie Metis)  
Their eleven children are: 
    William Cook Metis (1853-1888), 
    Alex Nicholas Cook Metis (1855-1855), 
    Catherine Cook Metis b-1856 
    Cecile Cook Metis b-1859 
    John Cook Metis b-1861 
    Frederick Cook Metis (1864-1886), 
    Catherine Cook Metis b-1867/8 
    Margaret Cook Metis b-1871 
    James Cook Metis b-1874
    Peter Cook Metis b-1875
    Blanche Cook Metis b-1879

April 23:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-James Cromarty, Metis, born, 1853, son (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui; married. 29 June 29, 1883 at Matsqui, Annie Cliton, died, 28 April 1936, buried Ft. Langley Cemetery.

September 11:  Fort Langley, baptism Robert Verkerin son Maillot Pionpion and Catherine Quyslen

November 19:  The Colony of Queen Charlotte Island is created.

December 4:  The 3 masted barque Lord Western was driven ashore in Sydney Inlet, Vancouver Island and fatalities are not known.

1854 

(II)-Mary Elizabeth Balls Metis b-1854 Columbia District daughter (I)-George Balls (1829-1889) and native girl.

Carlton House, birth (II)-Phillip Bird, Metis born 1818 Carlton House, North Saskatchewan River son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Elizabeth Oo-menahomiski; traveled to Oregon territory, 1854 married Mary Fidler

Edmonton House, birth (II)-Thomas Bird, Metis b-1815 son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Mary Kelly Swampy Cree Indian; traveled to Oregon Territory with step brother (II)-Philip Bird b-1818; married 1836 (II)-Ellen McDermot Metis of Red River, daughter (I)-Andrew McDermot (1783-1881) from Ireland and native girl.

(II)-Arthur Bird, Metis born 1811 Edmonton House or born 1822 Red River son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Mary Kelly Swampy Cree Indian or Elizabeth Oo-menahomiski; traveled to Oregon Territory with step brother/brother (1854)

Maria Catharina, born November 27, 1854 Germany, daughter Henry and Mary Brown hoteliers of Richfield: married a Fraser

Joseph Dauphin Metis (1835-1859) son Oliver Dauphine (1816-1852) and Catherine Indian b-1825 joined HBC (1854-1859) Columbia District.  He could read and write, suffered from veneral disease 1855-1857 and married a Nass woman.

(II)-Marthe Douglas, Metis, b-1854 Fort Victoria d-1933 daughter (I)-James Souglas, Metis (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): married 1878, Dennis Harris 

John G. MacDougall Metis (1854-1856) assigned Fort Colvile

John Desportes McKay Metis married Rosalie Plouffe Metis daughter Joseph Plouffe (1808/09-1849), Rosalie epouse P.O. Riley and Xavier Pelland.
    Antoine McKay Metis b-1856
    Felicite McKay b-1857 

George Edgan b-1854 B.C. married Mary Ann b-1875 B.C. living Skeena in 1901 census

Roderick Finlayson Metis Jr. joined HBC (1854-1856) New Caldonia.

(I)-George Kamano (1854-1918) son Okerry (Okeli) Cahoomana and Nainema Hawaiian associated HBC (1854-1869) family says shanghaied and jumped ship in Victoria, settled Harblesdown Island 60 km south Fort Rupert, his wife's home territory.  He was a recluse out of fear of being deported even though he was naturalized as a British subject.
On December 25, 1866 at Fort Rupert, George Kamano formalized his marriage to Pauline Clahoara (1845-1893) of the Tenaktak/Taneukteuch/Tanakteuk band (Knight Inlet/Harbledown Island) of the Kwakiutls. Their children were 
    (II)-George Kamano Metis (1864-1895), 
     (II)-Louis Kamano Metis b-1865, Charles or  Carey  Kamano Metis (1866-1904), 
     (II)-Mary Anne Kamano Metis (1867-1905), 
     (II)-William Kamano Metis b-1868
     (II)-Lillian Kamano Metis (1868-1955), 
     (II)-Michael Kamano Metis (1870-1956), 
     (II)-Joseph Kamano Metis (1872-1958), 
     (II)-Emma Kamano Metis (1874-1907), 
     (II)-Maria Kamano Metis (1876-1941), 
     (II)-Harriet Kamano Metis (1880-1904), 
     (II)-Maggie Kamano Metis (1882-1902). 
The children learned Kwagiult as their first language, but could also speak English. Kamano Island of the Karlukwees Indian Reserve, near Harbledown Island, is named after Kamano.

(II)-John Donald Duncan Manson (B-1840 Fort Vancouver son (I)-David Manson (1798-1880) and Felicite Lucier Metis (1814-1867), joined HBC (1854-1865) Columbia and New Caledonia Districts, settled Victoria 1863.    John Duncan Manson married Aurelia (1839-1931) the daughter of James Murray Yale. Their children were 
    (III)-Isabella Manson Metis b-1863
    (III)-Annie Manson Metis b-1867
    (III)-John Manson Metis b-1868
Aurelia [Yale] Manson died January, 1931.

(III)-Peter Skene Ogden, (1790/94-1854), of Oregon City with companion (wife?) Julia Flathead (1800-1886) a Spokane Salishan, she move to Lac La Hache, B.C. to live with her daughter Julia and her husband Archibald McKinlay

William Smith joined HBC (1854-1864) Columbia District.  His wife would have been a native, Anna d-1865), from San Juan Island. Their children were 
    William Smith Metis b-1864
    Thomas Joseph Smith Metis (1865-1866). 
When Anna died around 1865, Thomas Joseph and William were adopted by Dutchman John Gerrison and his native wife.

There were only 250 people living in the farms around Victoria.

Factor Joseph McKay and Surgeon Alfred Benson are at Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B.C.

Simon Plamondon (1792/1802-1900) is employed NWC (1820-1821) then HBC (1821-1823) in Athabasca District, assigned Western Caledonia (1823-1827) and Fort Colvile, Columbia District.  He retired 1835 Cowlitz..  He was elected to Oregon Provisional government in 1846.  He was credited with providing supplies and protection of the Cowlitz Indians during a period (1854-1855) of strained relations with the settlers.

Jean Baptiste Rhene (Selahony) Metis son Rhene Selahony and Carrier woman worked on and off (1854-1856) Columbia and New Caledonia Departments.

April 25:  The people of Victoria came out of church to find the paddle steamer Commodore had just docked from San Francisco with 450 miners eager to start looking for gold.

May 25: (II)-William Tod, Metis born May 12, 1854 in Fort Victoria, Vancouver's Island, died April 27, 1881 in Oak Bay, B.C., Canada, son (I)-John Todd (1794-1882) and Sophia Lolo Metis (1826-1883) daughter Jean Baptiste Leolo Metis (1798-1868)

June 3: London the Princess Royal departed London for Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B.C.  The ship's master was Captain David Wishart, and her first mate was Charles Gale.  Some of the miners are George Baker, John Baker, Matthew Miller, John Meaking, William Incher, Joseph Webb, Richard Turner, Richard Richardson, John Richardson, Thomas Jones, Elijah Ganner, John Thompson, Thomas Lownds, Thomas Hawks, Joseph Bevilockway, John Biggs and Edwin Gough, others included Thomas York and John Malpass who served out stores with the third officer, William Harrison and Daniel Dunn who assisted the cook, George Bull who assisted the steward and Jesse Sage who attended the stock.  (the ship contained 110 emigrants for Vancouver's Island, including men, women and children).   Mrs Bull, Mrs. John Baker and Mrs. Jesse Sage are passangers.  Thomas Lowands and Mrs Incher died on trip over.  On the 23rd of November, they arrived at Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, B.C.  The Beaver will be employed to transport the miners to Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B.C.

August 15:  Home of Charles Rondeau, St. Louis (Southern French Prairie, Oregon) death Charles Plante (1790-1854) employed NWC (1811-1814) Athabasca District, then Columbia District in 1821; with HBC 1821-1842 in Columbia. married 1st, January 21, 1829 Agathe Kaousse, died January 5, 1842; married 2nd February 7, 1842 Susanne Kohoss died January 8, 1843: married 4th December 18, 1843, Pelagie Tchinook died September 22, 1851: married 5th December 17, 1851, Uculet Margeurite Youngoulhta aka Yougteta widow of Jean Baptiste Dubreuille (1791-pre1851).

 

1855 


Celeste Auger Metis b-1837 Fort Simpson son Nicolas or Joseph Auger Metis (1806-1885) and Amelie Ness, joined HBC (1855-1865) Columbia District

(II)-Charles Bird, Metis from Red River is employed HBC (1855-1857) at Nez Perce (1855-1856) and Vancouver Farm (1856-1857) yet listed retired 1856.

(II)-William Charles Metis bapt-1831 son (I)-John Charles (1799-1843) and (II)-Jane Auld Metis (1800-1841) joined HBC (1853-1885) assigned Snake Country (1853-1855), Columbia District (1855-1885)

Simon Magice (Pepen), Metis, b-1835 Fort Langley son Etienne Pepen alias Maille and Magice (1799-1874) and Quyslen, the son of Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec; married Country style Indian woman..  He was likely born before 1827 or assigned to the wrong wife.

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877) opened a School House on the Craigflower Farm.

Charles Gadona Metis b-1836 New Caledomia son Jean Baptiste Gadoua b-1790 and Marguarite Deachamps, joined HBC (1855-1856) Fort Colvile.

Peter Lagace Jr. Metis (1840-1887) son Poerre Lagacr Sr. Metis (1815-1882) and Lisette Tsimshian Nass, he joined HBC (1855-1858) Columbia District.  In Victoria, he chose Emelia Vautrin b-1841 as a wife and together they had 
    Rosalie Lagace Metis b-1858
    Susan/Susette Lagace Metis Catherine (1859-1916), 
    Emelia Ellen Lagace Metis (1863-1937) 
    unnamed Lagace Metis son .

Thomas Laughton joined HBC (1855-1857) Fort Victoria was settled Victoria in 1860.  His wife, an unnamed native, perhaps a Songhees, bore him 
    James Alda Laughton Metis bap.1858

Joseph William McKay left the Nanaimo post, and his place was taken by another Hudson's Bay Company servant, Captain Charles Edward Stuart

(IV)-Isaac Ogden Metis (1839-1869) born Fort Saint James New Caledonia son (III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Julie Rivet joined HBC (1855-1855) Columbia District.  Isaac Ogden married Anna Manson, daughter of Donald Manson and Felicite Lucier. Their children were 
    (V)-Emma Julia Ogden Metis (1864-1894) 
    (V)-Sara May Ogden Metis b-1866 
    (V)-unnamed Ogden Metis son.

Connollys Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth (III)-Donald Todd, Metis son (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

The Battle of Hungry Hill during the Roque River Wars of 1855-1856, was a conflict between Oregon Settlers and Native Americans.  The U.S. Army and local militia were defeated but the Native Americans population were eventually evicted from their property in the Oregon's Rogue and Umpqua Valleys. 

February 8:  The propekker-driven steamer Major Tomkins floundered in a storm and wrecked at Macauley Point, 200 yards west of Victoria harbor, Vancouver Island and no deaths reported.

May 14:  Six Kygarrnie canoes start for Fort Victoria and Nisqually (Near Tacoma, Washington) with 60 women for prostitution.

September 6:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-David Cromarty, Metis, born, 1855, died January 1884 son (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui;

October:  American troops told the Klickitat people at Louis River to come to Fort Vancouver for surveillance and for protection from hothead whites.  The same summons was served to the Titon-nap-pams, a Klickitat subgroop living in the foothills at the head of the Cowlitz River.  As a result 300 mounted Titon-nap-pams joined the resistance movement to the east.  They realized they were no longer under the projection of the English and Canadians.

1856  

Rose Brosseau, Metis b-1856, Fort Langley daughter Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) and Rose Kwantlen (Quytlan), d-1856.

Adam Horne of the HBC is reported to have crossed Vancouver Island twice this year.  Over the next four years a number of men crossed the Island using the route from Nanaimo to the Alberni Inlet.

Jack Kaia b-1856 B.C.  living Skeena, B.C. in 1901 census

(II)-Susan McFadden, born May 17, 1856, Victoria, B.C., died November 11, 1940, Becher Bay, B.C. daughter (I)-James McFadden, b-1824, Ireland, died October 28, 1902, Kamloops, B.C. and unknown mother: married Robert Hughes. 

William Henry Newton married 1856 Fort Victoria, Emmeline Jane Tod, Metis the daughter of Chief Trader (I)-John Tod (1794-1882) of Fort Kamloops. He was transferred to Fort Langley shortly after the marriage.

Etienne Pepin alias Maille and Magice, (1799-1874) the son of Michel May and Marguerite Pepin of Yamaska, Quebec; married Isabelle, a Kwantlen woman in a Catholic ceremony.  He previously married Uiskiwin in Fort Langley and Quyslen in Fort Vancouver. 

Leschi died February 19, 1857 chief of the Nisqualli and Yakima led an army of 1,000 men against Seattle, Washington.  They were driven off by a warship in the harbor.  Leschi was captured and hanged. 

Victoria learned that natives, using spoons and pieces of pottery, were scooping gold from rivers in the Interior of B.C..

March 26:  James Sinclair along with eighteen others was killed by a party of Indians at the Cascades of the Columbia River whilst on his way from Fort Vancouver to the Dalles.

July:  Fort Langley, marriage Maillot dit Pionpion (Peeohpeeoh) son Kanichoo and Klegina Wahan of Sandwich Isle; married Catherine Kwantlen woman.  They had three known children born before 1856; Aglae who married Nahu a Sandwich Islander, Maillot, and Sophie who married Ohule Kanaka, 

July 21:  Fort Langley, 4th marriage Bazil Brosseau dit LaFleur (1796-1858) to Marianne Nanaimok.

 

 

1857  

John Herrial b-1857 B.C. is living Skeena in 1901 census

(I)-James Houston (1823-1902) of Scotland is credited with making the first gold discoveries in British Columbia at Tranquille Creek and later a Fort Langley pioneer 

Peter Baker alias Ferdinand Boulanger b-1827, Quebec, d-1901was an early gold discoverer and afterwards pioneer settler at Albion.  

Joseph Bouche (Boucher) Metis b-1833 Fort St James son Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis and Nancy McDougal Metis joined HBC (1857-1865) New Caledonia and Columbia District.  Joseph Bouche appears to have had two successive wives and one recorded child. His first wife was Mary b-.1849 of French descent. Their child was 
    William Bouche Metis b-1872. 
On June 12, 1879, he married Marguerite Joyal-Lapratte b-1839

(I)-Alexander Grant Dallas (1816-1882) assigned HBC (1857-1861) Columbia District.  On March 9, 1858, he married (II)-Jane Douglas Metis (1839-1909) daughter (I)-James Douglas Metis(1803-1877) . Two children were 
    (II)-Helena Amelia Dallas Metis d-1860
    (II)-Alister Dallas Metis

(II)-John Flewin born December 8, 1857 Fort Victoria, died August 29, 1942, Victoria, B.C. son (I)-Thomas Flewin: marrued May 12, 1881, Victoria, B.C. Helen Copeland.

Cyprian Laurence was trapping and trading Kelowna where he took a native wife Teress, niece of Chief White Hat, before moving on to Coville, Oregon Territory (Washington).  He likely led Father Pandosey and party of settlers back to Kelowna.  Chief White Hat was the most feared of the Okanogan Indians who promised to kill any white settlers.  He did not mind the trapper or fur traders, whose nomadic life as ok.

(II)-Donald Robertson, Metis son (I)-Samuel Robertson (1819-1897) and Julia Sanich (1834-1884); married 1885 Mina Rehberger (1864-1939)

About 800 ounces of gold from the Fraser River (B.C.) reached California this year, despite the efforts of the Hudson Bay Company to control the trade in gold.

William T. (Billy) Ballou, born in the deep south of French heritage was in Olympia, Washington when McDonald arrived with tales of gold in the north.  McDonald had murdered his partner Adams at the mouth of the Frazer River for his gold poke.  A party of prospectors rushed up the Fraser River and discovered a rich bar near Yale, B.C.   W.T. Moore one of this party noted that a man named Taylor brought in a shipment of whiskey.   William T. (Billy) Ballou, the express-man was the next to arrive at Yale.

James Douglas Creole, Metis (1803-1877), proclaimed that people could only claim mines if they took out licenses under his control, as the representative of British authority. He hired policemen, drew up mining regulations, and visited the diggings himself. Imagine James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877) appearing in a formerly lawless mining camp, with fewer than 40 men as back-up, announcing that this was British territory and that "no abuses would be tolerated, and that the Laws would protect the rights of the Indians no less than those of the white men." Douglas was certainly brave! He wrote to a friend that he had never before seen "a crowd of more ruffianly looking men." But he won those men's respect and they even obeyed his command to give three cheers for the queen.

Connollys Lake, New Caledonia, Columbia District, birth (III)-Fanny Todd, Metis daughter (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) and Sarah Jane Johnson

Nine slaves who had purchased their freedom are believed to be the first American settlers on Salt Spring Island.

The New Dungeness Light House is built near the tip of the spit in Washington that extends 7 miles into the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

In 1857 the U.S. Supreme Court, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, ruled that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories.  In an odd anomaly, although slavery was forbidden in Washington Territory before 1857, slaves were not, providing they had not originally been enslaved or bought and sold within its boundaries. Shortly before the Civil War began, there was known to be one slave in the territory and reports of a second. The latter was a woman, rumored to reside with her "owner" at Fort Steilacoom; little information about her has survived. But the existence of the other, a young boy named Charles Mitchell (1847-1876?), is well documented.  See 1860.

May: Fort Victoria, (I)-Alexander Grant Dallas (1816-1882) born Berbice, Guyana, South America son Murdoch Dallas and Helena Grant arrived from London, he married March  9, 1858, Fort Victoria  (II)-Jane Douglas, Metis, b-1839 Fort Vancouver d-1909 daughter Governor (I)-James Douglas, (1803-1877) and Amelia Connolly, Metis, (1812-1890): Alexander Grant Dallas had one wife and nine children.  Two children were:
     Helena Amelia Dallas Metis b-1860
     Alister Dallas Metis.

September 30:  Victoria, marriage (I)-William Henry Newton (1833-1875) married Emmaline Tod (1835-1928) daughter John Tod and Elizabeth Waugh; Emmaline 2nd marriage November 22, 1878, Edward Mohun

October 15:  Victoria, marriage James Tod, Metis, born 1818 in Island Lake, York Factory District, died January 27, 1904 in Cedar Hill, Victoria, B.C., Canada, son John Tod and Catherine Birston
daughter of Magnus Birston, assistant trader at Island Lake, and Nancy Indian:  married Flora MacAulay October 15, 1857 in Victoria, B.C., Canada

November:  birth Francois Xavier Vautrin, Metis b-1857, B.C. son Francois Xavier Ventrin, born May 10, 1815, Quebec, died Vancouver Island 1st married Emily Kwoithe, 2nd married December 11, 1852, Victoria Marie of the Quytten (Kwantlen) tribe.

December 28:  James Douglas Creole, Metis (1803-1877) issued a proclamation stating that all gold mines on the Fraser River and Thompson Rivers belong to the British Crown  This effectively created a Hudson Bay Company gold monopoly.

 

1858  

Billy Barker (1820-1894) a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

Judge (I)-Matthew Baillie Begbie (1819-1894) an Englishman arrived Cariboo about this time.  He was not interested in the written law only in justice.  Sometimes he was prosecution, defense and judge all in one.  He some times quarreled with the jury's verdict but never over ruled a jury decision.  He was unjustly called a hanging judge but he sometimes tried to get a death sentence commuted.  He had ordered a simple cross be inscribed "Lord, be merciful to me, a sinner".  Some believe he kept the Cariboo from becoming like the United States 'Wild West'. 

(I)-William Brotche of Scotland (1799-1859) appointed Harbour Master by Governor Douglas., died at Victoria, B.C.

Dutch Bill Dietz a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

John Cameron a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

William Downie a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

Peter Dunleavy a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

Jean Baptiste Kamloops a Salish native joined HBC (1858-1863) Thompson River.

Doc Keithley a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

Lorenzo Latora d-1888 an Italian has opened a roadhouse and planted grapes at Fountain House (Lillouet, B.C.) which is an important supply centre for gold miners, it was so named by the French Canadian Metis for the natural springs..

Etienne Pepin alias Maille and Magice, (1799-1874) is still located at Fort Langly.

A gold rush draws thousands of prospectors to the Fraser Valley. Chinese miners arrive from San Francisco, following the gold rush north.  Mrs. Kwong Lee, the first Chinese woman lands in Victoria, B.C. She is the wife of the owner of the Kwong Lee Company.

About 600 immigrants from San Francisco arrived Victoria several black folks were among the immigrants.

The first China Town in B.C. was built this years near Victoria and it still exists today.

William Macartney born Ireland arrived B.C. 1858,   He fell to his death into the bedrock flume on the Cornish Co,s ground near Richfield, interred Richfield cemetery, near Barkerville, B.C. 

(II)-Edward Julius Muench (1837-1882) a German, who freighted for the gold rush 1858 and married Kathleen (Catherine Sonat/Shenade Flathead (1839-1899), and homesteaded 160 acres West of Fort Langley in the 1860's.  
                 RECORDED CHILDREN ARE:
        Joseph Miller, Metis, 1866-1926)
        Matilda Miller, Metis, (1867-1895)
        (III)-Benjamin Muench, Metis (1869-1945)
        (III)-stillborn Muench, Metis b about-1870
        (III)-Edward Muench, Metis (1872-1888)
        (III)-George Muench, Metis (1874-1890)
        (III)-stilborn Muench, Metis b about-1876
        (III)-Emily Elizabeth Muench, Metis (1878-1934), married Christopher Moses Morrison,
        (III)-Julia Jesse Muench, Metis (1880-1919)  
        (III)-Henry W. Muench, Metis (1882-1954)
        (III)-Frank Muench, Metis b about 1884

Aaron Post was mining at the mouth of the Chilcotin River.

Ned Stout a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

(I)-James Taylor, b-1828 Orkney, arrived Fort Langley 1858, as blacksmith, died November 30, 1907,: 1st married Catherine Fallardeau, Metis daughter Narcisse Fallardeau Metis (1818-1888) and Helen (Ellen) Tihepartenate (1841-1874), they had 7 kids.   2nd marriage Barbara Jamison 

(II)-Elizabeth Tod, Metis born 1858 in B.C. died November 14, 1884 in Victoria, B.C. son (I)-John Tod (1794-1882) and Sophia Lolo Metis (1826-1883): married James Smith Drummond August 11, 1878 in First Presbyterian Church, Victoria, B.C., Canada

Richard Willoughby a California miner is camped on the Fraser River this year.

Captain O. J. Travaillot, died February 2, 1879, Barkerville, B.C.  He was hired July 13, 1858 as Revenue Officer for the district of Fort Dallas or Forks of the Thompson.  He resigned one year later.  He was a surveyor of the Royal Engineers.

Gold is discovered in main land British Columbia.  The native people in the Interior had found about 800 ounces of gold and traded it to the Hudson's Bay Company but the nearest mint was in San Francisco and a company ship, the Otter, took the gold there. The news was out and the rush began.

Victoria's daily newspaper, the British Colonist is started this year.

The stern-wheeler Umatilla struggled for 5 hours to go up the Fraser River from Fort Hope to Fort Yale, the return trip was 51 minutes.

William (Billy) Barker, a Cornishman arrived Victoria, B.C., some say having jumped ship, and joined up with the 25,000 frenzied gold seekers in B.C.  Others suggest over 30,000 are working the Frazer River and tributaries to the east.

During a one year period 30,000 men passed up the Fraser and past Fort Langley. Many of the miners passed through the fort's gates for outfitting. Supplying these men with food and clothing put Fort Langley back on the map

Jean Caux aka Cataline, and Catalonia,  d-1922, a Spaniard of Basque origin, born Catalonia on the French-Spanish border arrived Yale and commenced packing to the B.C. gold fields.  He did continuous packing until 1912 (54 years).  Jean married a Thompson Indian woman from the Spuzzum Band.  His wife lived in Spuzzum with another family and adopted their name.  Caux however did send support money to his family, always in twenty dollar gold pieces.

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877), mixed blood Governor of British Columbia decided to create a para-military force to carry placer gold from the mines of the Cariboo to the safer environs of New Westminster and Victoria.

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877), Governor of British Columbia convinced (I)-Thomas Elwyn (1837-1888) Born in Ireland, Elwyn fought in the Crimean War before coming to British Columbia in 1858, lured by stories of gold to become a constable as chief of police in Yale.

D.W. Higgins occupied a log cabin on Front Street in the wild mining camp of Yale, B.C.  He was a newspaper man, editor and part owner of the San Francisco Call.  Later he went to Victoria to become the publisher of the Victoria Colonist.

James Houston married Mary Cusheon,an Indian girl from Nanaimo, he was farming on the east side of the Salmon River near the Hudson's Bay Company's farm.  Mary was previously married to Chief Casimir's and Houston adopted his two children.

(I)-Thomas McGuffie (1831-1895) is mining the Cariboo and goes to Nanaimo in 1860.

Samuel Sincock b-1824, died June 10, 1907, Barkerville, B.C.  He and partner John Bryant mined Grass Valley, California and headed for the Fraser River in 1858.  They arrived in Victoria from San Francisco in May 1858 with several other English partners.  Sincock was a saloon keeper and lived on Lowhee Gulch tailings where the town of Wells is located.

(I)-John Tod (1794-1882), Scotland retired from the council, Tod lived in Oak Bay where he played the flute and fiddle, enjoyed nature and recalled an unconventional life.  Tod had one son named (II)-James Tod Metis with his first country wife at the York Factory, Catherine Birstone, and at least one child with his second country wife at Fort McLeod. One child was born to (II)-Elizabeth (Waugh) Tod Metis, then he had another seven children with Sophia Lolo Metis (1826-1883) who he met at the Thompson's River Post (Kamloops). After receiving news of Elizabeth's death in 1857, Tod married Sophia in 1863. John Tod's opinion of so-called half-breeds were summarized in an 1843 letter to (III)-Edward Ermatinger Metis (1797-1876): "Well have you observed that all attempts to make gentlemen of them, have hitherto proved a failure. The fact is there is something radically wrong about them all as is evidently shown from mental science alone I mean Phrenology, the truths of which I have lately convinced myself from extensive personal observation."

Wellington Delaney Moses arrive Victoria, B.C. and opened up one of Victoria's first barber shops.  He also opened a water cart business, opened a luxury bath with separate private entrance for ladies. and and eventually opened a ladies hair dressing parlor. 

Bonne Helm (1828-1864), of Kentucky, having escaped imprisonment in Missouri for murder had killed several men in California and fled to the Dalles, Oregon.  Seven men departed the Dalles for Camp Floyd, Utah, 60 miles southwest of Salt Lake City.  Bonne Helm (1828-1864), of Kentucky had joined the party and convinced them to steal 2,000 horses from the Walla Walla Indians.  Dr. William Groves, secretly resigned from the part and warned the Indians.  The disappointed 6 man party were later attacked by Digger Indians and lost one man.  Winter hit and three decided to make shelter and wait out the storm and were never seen again.  Bonne Helm (1828-1864), of Kentucky and Elijah Burton elected to proceed.  Weeks later a gaunt Helm, dressed in buckskin, and an Indian visited a fur buyer John W. Powell.  It is believed Helm shot and ate Burton.  His larder included a leg of Burton.  At Salt Lake City he rented his gun to the Danites, the Mormon secret police.   He killed two more men and fled to California where he added further killings before fleeing again to Oregon.

The first mainland town Derby, sometimes called New Fort Langley, sprang up a short distance down the Fraser River from the Hudson Bay Company's Fort Langley.   Derby is supposed to be the major port of the Fraser River and the capital of British Columbia.

Hard on the heels of the Fraser River Gold Rush, two U.S.A. companies; Wells Fargo Express, established 1852 and Freeman's Express, moved into Victoria on Vancouver Island and onto the mainland of British Columbia.  The majority of prospectors on the Frazer River were U.S.A. citizens from California.  The express companies included Fraser & Thompson River Express, Lindhard & Barnard's Express and the Pioneer Fraser River Express, owned by Nilly Ballou. 

General Newman S. Clarke sent out 600 soldiers under command of Colonel George Wright with orders to inflect a severe defeat on the Indians and to capture Kamiakin and other leaders, especially Owhi and his son Qualchin.  A combined force of 1,000 Coeur d'Alenes, Spokanes and Palouses attacked and routed Major Edwards Steptoes, column of 164 Federal troops.  The allied tribes made a major mistake meeting Colonel George Wright 600 man army on open ground and suffered high casualities.  The army rounded up many Indians , killing some and hanging 15 others.  Kamiakin escaped to Canada.

The B.C.P. (British Columbia Police was started this year under command of Chartaes Bow.  It operated until 1950 when they amalgamated with the R.C.M.P.

March 6:  Fort Langley, birth (II)-Mary Cromarty, Metis, b. 1858, daughter (I)-William Cromarty (1814-1875) and Salum'mia aka Jenny Matasqui; married Mar 19, 1881 Langley, Joseph Robson Hairsine,  died 30 Dec 1889, buried Ruskin, B.C.

April 25:  A U.S.A. side-wheel steamer named Commodore from San Francisco arrived Fort Victoria with 450 gold-seekers and within a few weeks 20,000 more arrived on their way up the Fraser River.  Not far behind are the Golden Age, Stockholm and Columbia.   Lots in Victoria that sold for $25 now sell for $3,000 each. This summer Victoria is surrounded by 6,000 tents.  The population by fall advanced from less than 300 to more than 3,000 permanent population.

May 30:  The Hudson Bay Company rights to Vancouver Island are revoked.

June:  About 60 men and 400 pack-horses and mules arrived Lytton, B.C. with supplies from Walla Walla, Oregon Territory.  Alvarez, a Spanish American was part of this group who proceeded to Yale, B.C.

June:  The first herd of cattle from Oregon crossed into B.C. at Osoyoos.  Joel Palmer finally sold his cattle and supplies around Fort Kamloops.  He purchased the cattle for $10.00 plus $2.00 duty and sold them for $100.00 to $150.00 a head.  He then began to winter them around Cache Creek, Kamloops and Nicola Valley.

June:  Father Peter Rondeault, a Roman Catholic priest, born July 19, 1824, Quebec, died April 11, 1900, Victoria, B.C., arrived Victoria and immediately went north to Cowichan, Vancouver Island, B.C. where he erected a log cabin to serve as part church, part house,

June 5:  The Surprise a steam powered side-wheeler from California arrived Vancouver (Portland Oregon) to work the Fraser River to Hope B.C.  Side-wheelers proved inadequate for the job as they got hung up on the shifting sand bars and stern-wheelers proved much better for the job.

July:  From April to July about 16,000 people left California for Victoria and the Fraser River.

August 20:   Blakiston crossed the Kootenay Pass east to west, two weeks before the Pallester Expedition crossed west to east.  It is noteworthy that the pass has so much use that the Kutenai Indians  maintained the path well.  When Blakiston was credited with being the first to discover the Kootenay Pass, he said discovery is subjective, the deer made the first trails, the elk followed the deer, the buffalo followed the elk, the Indians followed the buffalo, the trappers followed the Indians and then the army officers came along and discovered the pass.  It is noteworthy that the army officer is being led by an Indian, Metis or Trader who had been there before, likely many times.  Blakiston was amused. 

September:  Dr. James Hector of the Palliser Expedition set out to explore the Kicking Horse Vallry and was kicked by one of his own horses, thereby giving rise to the place's name- Kicking Horse Pass a.k.a. Kootenay Pass, B.C.

October 17:  Issac C. Miller was fatally wounded by Henry Post.  The trouble arose over the right to a claim at Madison Bar above Yale, B.C.  Mathias Neil is charged with the murder of William Hartwell at the Forks of Fraser (Lytton) and the Thompson River, B.C.  George Harrison Johns shot Herman Wallace at Fort Yale Sunday last.

July 30: list of purchaser of lands sold on Vancouver Island

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877) at  Victoria
Robert J. Staines at Victoria
(I)-John Tod (1794-1882)  at Victoria
Roderick Finlayson at Victoria
Charles Dodd at Esquimalt
William F. Tolmie at Victoria
Robert Clouston at Victoria
James Douglas (1803-1877) at Victoria or could be his son?
John S. Helmcken at Esquimalt
James Sangster at Esquimalt
John Gregg at Esquimalt
Henry N. Peers Esquimalt
George McKenzie at Victoria
John F. Kennedy at Victoria
William H. Gliddon at Victoria
James Yates at Victoria
James Tod Metis at Victoria
Robert J. Staines at Victoria
George F. Hawkins at Victoria
James Cooper at Esquimalt
John Work at Victoria
Isabella Ross at Victoria
William H. McNeill (1801-1875) at Victoria
George Blenkinsopp at Victoria
John F. Kennedy at Victoria
Modeste De Mers at Victoria
Comelius at Victoria
John Lemon at Victoria
Baptiste Botineau at Victoria
Leon Morell at Victoria
William F. Tolmie at Victoria
William R. Parsons at Esquimalt
Charles Dodd at Esquimalt
George Mackenzie at Victoria
Paul Fraser at Metchosin
George F. Hawkins at Esquimalt
James Cooper at Esquimalt
James Stockand at Victoria
Archibald Muir at Sooke
William Bamfield at Sooke
Thomas Skinner at Esquimalt
Michael Muir at Sooke
Andrew Muir at Sooke
John Muir at Sooke
William J. McDonald at Esquimalt
William McNeill at Victoria
Arthur W. Owen at Esquimalt 
Robert Weir at Metchosin
Gideon G. Halcrow at Esquimalt
John McGregor at Sooke
Walter C. Grant at Sooke
William J. McDonald at Esquimalt
W.J. Huggîns at Metchosin
Isabella Ross at Victoria
Roderick Finlayson at Victoria
John McDougal at Victoria
William Foote at Victoria
James Douglas (1803-1877) at Victoria
John Frederick Kennedy at Victoria
John S. Helmcken at Esquimalt
Joseph D. Pemberton at Victoria
James Douglas (1803-1877) at Esquimalt
William Hillier at Lake District
William Pike at Lake District
Robert Porter at Lake District
James and Robert Fish at Lake District
Caleb Pike at Esquimalt
Charles Dodd at Lake District
Peter Merriman at Victoria
James Tod Metis at Victoria
Robert Scott at Victoria
John Irving at Victoria
Charles Gallion at Victoria
George Blenkinsop at Victoria
John Caspar Von Allmen at Victoria
John Tod Metis at Victoria
George Blenkinsop at Lake District
Henry Von Allmen at Victoria
George Greenwood at Victoria
William M'Donald at Victoria
Benjamin W. Pearse at Victoria
Jmph D. Pemberton at Victoria
William F. Tolmie at Victoria
Kenneth McKenzie at Victoria
George Deans at Victoria
James Yates at Esquimalt
Hugh McKay at Sooke
Roderick Finlayson at Metchosin
Richard Smith at Lake District 
John Caspar Von Allmen at Lake District
John Williams, sen. at Lake District 
John Williams, jun. at Lake District
Edmund Williams at Lake District
William Williams at Lake District
Richard Caselton at Lake District
John Work at Victoria
Alexander Grant Dallas (1816-1882) at Lake District
Edwin Kitson at Metchosin
John McGregor at Metchosin
George McKenzie at Lake District

August:  New Westminster, birth (II)-Florence Mary Frances Newton, b-1858 , died March 2, 1944, Vancouver, daughter (I)-William Henry Newton (1833-1875) and Emmaline Tod (1835-1928)..

November 25; The Colony of British Columbia was created but was still commonly called the Columbia Department.

December:  22,000 miners abandoned the Fraser River saying humbug denouncing the gold rush.  They didn't realize the Fraser River was flooding this year so the gold laden sand bars were covered.  Three thousand went north to find their riches.

December 23:  A brig named Cyrus is driven ashore near the mouth of Gordon River, no fatalities.  The Cyrus was anchored in Port San Juan when a squall broke her chain driving her to shore.

 

1859  

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810-1895), guided Nobles on the Wagon Road Expedition to the Frazer River, British Columbia.

Charles Brew, Chief Inspector of Police and Assistant Gold Commissioner, at Yale, B.C. wrote; "The merchants send their letters by Bellois (Ballous) Express at the cost of 50¢ than put it in the post (office) at the cost of 5¢ and remain in uncertainty when it would reach its destination."

Charles H. (One-ear) Brown was arrested in Victoria, B.C. for bootlegging.  

Neil Campbell's party arrived Horsefly River shortly after Peter Dunleavy saying hundreds more are on their way.  Tomah was likely telling everyone he met.  So began the Cariboo gold rush.

(I)-Pym Nevins Compton (1838-1879) joined HBC (1859-1867) Columbia District.  On March 10, 1863, he married Catherine MacAulay Metis (1848-1880) the daughter of Donald MacAulay and Margaret Snaach, The names of their children have not been traced. Catherine died in May 1880 and was buried on May 29, 1880 at the Ross Bay Cemetery, Victoria, B. C.

Peter Dunleavy was mining at the mouth of the Chilcotin River.  A Shuswap Indian named Tomah stopped for tea and has his cousin Long Bacheese (Baptiste) would lead them to bean-sized nuggets of gold on Horsefly River.  

Langley: John Miller died before 1864 married Catherine (Kathleen) Shenade (Sonat) of Lakahahmen (1839-1899) and had 2 Metis children.

Yoachim Withelm Lindhard of Denmark (1835-1873) operated a express company on the Harrison Lake-Lillooet trail this year.

John George Taylor arrived Victoria, B.C. from Australia, a was an Irish miner, rebel, a constable and a member of the Gold Escort.  

(II)-Simeon Tod, Metis born 1859 son (I)-John Tod (1794-1882) and Sophia Lolo Metis (1826-1883).

Victoria was described by Richard Maynard as a town of nobs, snobs and flunkies.

Fort Hope and Fort Yale town sites were laid out by James Douglas Creole, Metis (1803-1877).

Lytton, B.C. American miners hung an old Indian for the theft of a loaf of bread.

The Royal Engineers under command of Richard Clement Moody cleared the land for New Westminster which was nick named 'Imperial Stumpfield' and 'Stump City' because Moody said "I grieve and mourn the ruthless destruction of these most glorious trees" as his men cut them down..

Three Oblate Missionaries, Father Pandosy, b-1824, Father Richard, and brother Surel, arrived Kelowna area to establish a mission on Duck Lake, they would relocated 12 miles south to Kelowna in 1860 an it was called Mission Creek.  Others in the area at this time were Cyprian Laurence, Theodore Laurence, Isadore Boucherie, Jules Blondeaux, Parsons Brothers, William Peon, Eli Lequime, Henry Lindley, Joseph Christien, Fredrick Brent, John McDougall, August Gillard, Alphonse Lefevre, Francois Ortolon, Auguste Calmels.  August Gillard aka Kim-Ach-Touch is believed to be one of the first white citizens of Kelowna.

Some say Father Pandosy, b-1824 actually arrived in 1858 and planted the first orchard in 1858 or 1859, the Okanogon Region, a few apple trees.  It was not intended as a commercial operation.

February:  The brigantine named Swill Boy is attacked and pirated by the natives.  about 300 natives boarded the ship and stripped it to its hulk and then they released the crew into Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island.

February 9:  About 19 canoes started for Fort Victoria, one half the crew being women, many not more than 9 years old, going to prostitute themselves at Victoria and the American territory.

February 14:  New Westminster alias Sapperton was incorporated and became the capital of the new main land colony of British Columbia.  It was named the "City of New Westminster' by Queen Victoria, after her favorite part of London. From this naming by the Queen, the City gained its nickname, "The Royal City", and became the first city in Western Canada.

February 22:  A schooner Rose of Langley foundered near the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait with two fatalities. 

April:  There were 2,835 First Nations people camped near the city of Victoria. Of these, approximately 600 were Songhees. The rest included Haida (405 people), Tsimshian (574), Stikine River Tlingit (223), Duncan Cowichan (111), Heiltsuk (126), Pacheedaht (62) and (44). Victoria was also a commercial centre for large numbers of First Nations people from Washington State.

May 1859 - January 1860 William Henry Newton, a clerk was in charge of Fort Langley.

June:  Benjamin MacDonald of Prince Edward Island found gold on Canal River.

August:  New Westminster, birth (II)-Emmaline Frances Newton, b-1859 , died March 2, 1944, Vancouver, daughter (I)-William Henry Newton (1833-1875) and Emmaline Tod (1835-1928)..

September 15:   (II)-John Jessop (1829-1901) and Elijah Duff b-1823 inexperienced travelers were on their way to the B.C. gold fields, just crossed the South Kootenay Pass to Fort Kootenay which is just south of the B.C. border on the Kootenay River.  They met John Linkleter (Linglater) of the HBC who said they were only the second party to pass this way in six seasons.  He advised them to go the USA route as the B.C. route would be not passable.  

October 15:   (II)-John Jessop (1829-1901) and Elijah Duff b-1823 departed Fort Kootenay for Pend Oreille River then south to Colville Valley, then north to Fort Coville to link up with a supply pack train going to B.C.  

 

 

1860  

Poet James Anderson remembers the boys who died in Barkerville, B.C. in the 1860's: the Watties, the Cummings, the Stevenson boys, the Laidlaw, Jamie and Bill Thompson, John Bowron, Steele, J. MacLaren, Stobo, Fraser and Hill. 

James Bird Metis born Red River, worked HBC (1860-1870) mostly New Caledonia Area.   According to family tradition, James’ wife, Maria (Boucher), daughter James Boucher, was kidnapped by one Sinket, whom Maria had insulted, and had to be rescued by her father, James (but not before she had become pregnant by Sinket). The baby was left to be raised by its maternal grandmother, Tatnan.  Apparently, at an unknown date, James Bird took his young wife home with him to St. Paul, Quebec.  James Bird took as his wife, Maria Boucher (who may have been the same as Emilia) daughter of James Boucher. Their children were 
    James Sinket Bird Metis
    John Bird Metis b-1864
    Joseph Bird Metis.b-1867
    Mary Bird Metis b-1869
    Sara Bird Metis bap.1871
    Maria had a child James Bird (Sinket) Metis  by Sinket, but the child took on the Bird family name.

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877), a mixed blood, ordered a road built from Hope to Simikameen, B.C. following the existing highway #3 route.

James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877) named Nanaimo, Vancouver Island after the local natives. 

Charles Desmarais Metis b-1839 Red River, joined HBC (1860-1884) New Caledonia.  Charles chose as his mate Amelia Boucher Metis b-1853, daughter of Jean Baptiste "Waccan" BoucherMetis b-1789 and Nancy McDougal Metis. Their children were:
    Alfred Desmarais Metis bap.1869
    Charles Desmarais Metis b-1864 
    Frederick Desmarais Metis b-1866 
    Henriette Desmarais Metis bap.1871
    Joseph Desmarais Metis b-1876 
    Robert Charles Desmarais Metis bap.1877

Elijah Duff b-1823 of the (II)-John Jessop (1829-1901) and Elijah Duff b-1823 gold seeking party decided to settle in Washington State.

(II)-John Jessop (1829-1901) finally reached the gold fields but found no gold.  He worked for the newspapers in New Westminster and Victoria.

(II)-Peter Kirton Metis born 1837  baptized 1840 Red River, son Joseph Kirton (1810-1891) and Susanna Metis (1810-1943), joined HBC (1860-1872) Columbia District.  He married Elizabeth Boucher Metis (1841-1874) and together they had: 
    Joseph Kirton Metis b-1865
    Jessie Ann Kirton Metis b-1867), 
    Peter Kirton Metis b-1868, 
    James Kirton Metis bap.1871
    Mary Ann Kirton Metis 1873

John McIver, like so many others, left to prospect in the Kamloops area. He mined at Cherry Creek, just outside Kamloops, where he lived with an Indian girl and fathered her child.  McLean, upon leaving the company had built the Hat Creek Stopping House on the Cariboo Road out of Ashcroft. McLean, upon going into battle, always wore a bullet-proof steel-plated breastplate for protection. Unfortunately for him he bragged to one too many Indians about it. A Chilcotin Indian killed him with a bullet in the back. 

(I)-Thomas McGuffie (1831-1895) is mining Nanaimo, B.C. having previously mined in the Cariboo.

Charles Mitchell (1847-1876?) a black slave from Maryland son of an African American mother and a white father arrived 1855 Washington Territory;  'October 18, 1860 a mulatto boy belonging to Gen. James Tilton (1820-1878), of Olympia, Puget Sound" (Washington Territory) "had escaped to Victoria as a stowaway aboard the steam ship Eliza Anderson".  It is believed the black folks from 1858 who were now settled arranged his escape.  He was hidden in the pantry of the ship but was discovered there and held under lock and key until the vessel docked in Victoria. It was the intent of the ship's captain, John Fleming, to return Mitchell to the custody of Tilton on the return trip.  Henry Crease (1823-1905), a Victoria barrister, took up Mitchell's cause and obtained a writ of habeas corpus compelling his release from the ship.  Bounty hunters and American legal lawyers attempted to have the boy returned to his owner.  The judge ruled that the boy's presence on British Soil guaranteed his freedom.

John Polmere, b-September 18, 1835, England, died December 6, 1878 in a snow slide Snowshoe Creek, Barkerville, B.C.  He was found by two friends out looking for him and found a good sum of money was found in his cabin along with a poke of gold which was sent to his wife in England. 

(I)-Robert Robinson, born Yell, Shetland, employed HBC (1851-1859), Northern Department 1851 and New Caledonia (1852-1859) retired 1860 to Whonnock, B.C. and married Jane Tselatsetenate, Indian b-1841 from Nicomen, B.C.

(I)-Samuel Robertson (1819-1897). In 1860 he had sold his interest in the saloon and with his Indian wife Julie Sanich (1834-1884)  and young son (II)-Donald Robertson, Metis b-1857 became the first white settler on the north bank of the river near Durby, B.C.. Baker followed suit. By 1863 (I)- Samuel Robertson had bought out his neighbors, which included Baker, and his 700 acres, known as Robertson Village, was the largest farm and landing on the river. Cherry trees and grape vines planted in the 1860s are still standing and producing on the original farm site.

(II)-James Louis Robertson, Metis (1860-1945) son (I)-Samuel Robertson (1819-1897) and Julia Sanich (1834-1884); married Christina Margaret Yates (1872-1946).

Alexander Stobo, b-1830, Scotland, died April 29, 1869, Barkerville, B.C.  He arrived the Cariboo in June 1860.  He was killed with a fellow Chinese worker when water broke into the Caledonia Claim shaft.  

J. B. Wilkinson M.D. b-1834 Eglington, York County, Canada West, died November 3, 1869, Richfield, Barkerville, B.C.  He arrived early in the gold rush and was one of the first to reach Rich Bar at Quesnel.  He sought gold but found a desperate need for medical care and returned to his practice.

(I)-John Work aka Wark, (1792-1861) is Chief Factor Victoria, Vancouver Island.

Doc Keithley and his partner I. P. Diller hit gold above Cariboo Lake on a creek later called Keithley Creek.

The Chinese came to British Columbia before Victoria, Vancouver or New Westminster existed.  They were lured by the California gold mines, which they later abandoned for the richer Fraser River Gold strike of B.C.  Two thousand became expert placer miners and prospectors, all before B.C. joined Confederation in 1871.

Charmed by a dancer in a touring show, Colonel Moody names Lulu Island, B.C. after her.

Two ex-prospectors E.W. Brink and T.C. Barnes settled in Tuk Tuk Chim later named Harper's Mill and Barnes Station and still later St. Cloud then finally Ashcroft B.C.

The gold rush this decade attracted men from every country to British Columbia and many stayed and settled.  It is estimated that 4,000 Chinese are in British Columbia this year.

The town Quesnelle Forks was created where the Quesnel and Cariboo Rivers meet.

The Nanette sank in 1860 off of Race Rocks Juan de Fuca Strait.

Charles H. (One-Ear) Brown of Victoria, B.C. is charged with cheating his native clientele out of $20.00 with the promise of buying them liquor.  Charges were dropped as the complainants failed to appear.  Just three weeks later Brown and his partner John Jones were arrested for selling 'a can' of alcohol to a Northern Indian.  It is noteworthy that 'a can' is 10 gallons.

Francois Deschiquette (or Dechiquette) had been sent from Fort Okanogan to establish a new post near where presently stands centre of the Cawston community. The post was generally referred to as Fort Similkameen although sometimes the local Indian name, Fort Keremeos, was used

On Boxing Day 1860 the magnificent Imperial Light on the treacherous Race Rocks Islets was lit for the first time. Since then, without interruption, a succession of dedicated light keepers have tended the light as a vital aid to navigation for ships transiting the Strait of Juan de Fuca bound for the ports of Victoria, B.C., Vancouver (Portland Oregon), Seattle (Oregon) and the inside passage.

Much of what is now Stanley Park was logged in the 1860s.

February 1860 - August 1860 George Blenkinsop Chief Trader at Fort Langley

August 1860 - October 1864 William Henry Newton a Clerk is in charge of Fort Langley

October 12:  A brig named Florencia sprung a leak at Florencia Bay, near Long Beach, Vancouver Island with 4 fatalities.

October 12:  A wooden trading schooner Morning Star floundered in a storm at Discover Island, Vancouver Island, with no fatalities.

November 10:  A three masted ship, John Marshall foundered at Camper Bay, Vancouver Island, losing the full crew of ten. 

November 10:  A schooner D.L. Clinch struck rocks near Port Renfrew, Vancouver Island with no fatalities.  

November 15:  A windjammer named Consort was dismasted and struck rocks at San Jose Bay, northern Vancouver Island, no deaths reported.  It is noteworthy the ship was dismasted October 26, some 600 miles away and drifted to her destruction. 

November 16:  John Wright built Fisgard Lighthouse to guide mariners into Esquimalt Harbour near Victoria and is believed to be the oldest lighthouse on the northwest coast.

December 22:  A three masted barque named Manette struck Race Rock while entering Juan de Fuca Straits but no fatalities.  

 

1861  

William (Billy) Barker, a Cornishman was arrested on a charge of threatening to stab a Mr. Townsend, at the Victoria Hotel, B.C.  Billy was let down easily on his own cognizance by the magistrate.  He then went to Williams Creek in the Spring.

Won Alexander Cumyow becomes the first Chinese baby born in Canada, in Port Douglas, at the head of Harrison Lake.

Wellington Delaney Moses, a black man, of Victoria opened the first barber shop in Barkerville, B.C.

Dutch Bill Dietz was a late comer to Antler Creek so he went up and crossed the alpine called Bald Mountain to William's Creek.  Richard Willoughby hit gold on Lowhee Creek.  Strikes were made at Lightning Creek.  Another rush was on.  The gold sent to Victoria from the Cariboo was recorded at $2,600,000.00 this winter.  

B.F. Dowell, b-1826 married 1861 Ann Campbell and retired to Portland, Oregon.

(II)-Mira Goudie, Metis b-1846, daughter (I)-James Goudie, (1809-1887) and Catherine, Schwayips [Kettle Falls] (c.1819-53), 2nd marriage August 31, 1861, he married Stromness widow Jane Fiddlar or Fydler (c.1815-88) at Fort Victoria. Jane died in Victoria on July 16, 1888.. 

John McDougall of built a ranch and small trading post at Guisachan, Kelowna.

(II)-William M. McFadden, b-1861, B.C., son (I)-James McFadden, b-1824, Ireland, died October 28, 1902, Kamloops, B.C. and unknown mother: married July 4, 1883, Victoria, (II)-Martha Mary Rosman, born September 1866, Metchhosin, Vancouver Island, died August 10, 1939, Salt Spring Island, daughter (II)-Edwin Joseph Rosman, b-England and Mary Johnson, b-Wrangell Island, Alaska. .

 (II)-Henry John Moberly (1835-1931) born Penetanguishene, Lake Huron (Ontario) son (I)-John Moberly b-1789 Russia, and Mary Fock from Russia, joined HBC 1853-1891) Lake Huron, Saskatchewan District, Athabasca and Ille-a-la Crosse, assigned Fraser Lake, west Prince George B.C.  He resigned to become a free trader.  He returned to Athabasca District 1870

(I)-Alexander Munro (1824-1911) HBC (1861-1890) Western Region, retired 1890, died February 27, 1911 Victoria, B.C 

(II)-Ann Taylor, Metis, b-1861 Fort Langley daughter (I)-James Taylor (1827-1907) and Barbara Jamieson: married Captain Frank Odin of Point Roberts (1863-1899). 

Whonnock, B.C., birth (II)-Andrew Robertson, Metis, (1860/61-1888) son (I)-Robert Robertson, born Yell, Shetland, employed HBC (1851-1859), and New Caledonia (1852-1859) retired 1860 to Whonnock, B.C. and Tselatsetenate, Indian from Nicomen, B.C.

Antler, B.C. offered champagne at $12 per bottle.  Both Antler and Keithley, B.C.  were considered as supply centers  By July Antler had 60 houses and businesses and that month 408 pack animals arrived with supplies.

There was a mammoth flood of the Willamette River and Champoeg was nearly wiped out. Most of the town which had stood on Longtain’s land was now gone. Andre Logtain (1793/94-1879) was then forced to rebuild across the river "down by the creek", near the home of his Metis daughter Genevieve Longtain Herbert McCann. This house, as well as the McCann, Newell and McKinley houses were all built by Andre’s son-in-law and Metis daughter Luce Longtain’s b-1843 husband, Joseph Osborn.

Richfield, B.C. boasted that 80 men had wintered this year.  By 1864 over 100 companies had staked claims from Richfield to Camerontown, B.C.

One of the first coins produced in B.C. was made at New Westminster from local gold.

A party of three prospectors; William Cunningham, Jim Bell and Jack Hume started out from Jack of Clubs Creek on a prospecting trip.  They worked their way westward over unusually perilous country that miners called lightning.  The came across a westerly-flowing stream that they had to ford several times and finally reached a treacherous place seemingly impassible,  Cunningham exclaimed, boys this is lightning and that is how lightning Creek obtained its name.  It is ranked as the second richest placer creek in British Columbia.  Ned Campbell in three days recovered 142 pounds in troy weight of gold.

Doc Keithley, George Weaver, Jon Rose and Benjamin MacDonald discovered Antler Creek and one pan held $100, another $75.00.  By the spring of 1861 about 1,200 miners were on the creek.  By July the canyon town had 60 houses and the rich miners brought in racehorses, theatrical troupes, women and dozens of whiskey mills.

February:  Richfield, B.C., Dutch William Dietz d-1877, discovered gold on Williams Creek. 

Victoria, Feb 19:  Victoria, marriage Robert Moore of San Francisco, to Frances Pidwell of Victoria, 2nd daughter of J.T. Pidwell of Victoria.

March Jeffrays Fraser River Express formed by J. Jeffray and W. H, Thain of Victoria were Britishers who were well financed but they were steamboat bound.  William T. Ballow a Frenchman from the south operated an express, he paddled dugout canoes and trudged along trails in his snowshoes to deliver the express.  He out performed the Jeffray's express this year.

March:  Antler Creek, B.C.,  Gold Commissioner Nind arrived Antler Creek to settle claim disputes.  The snow had reached a height of seven feet and Rose and McDonald's cabin was the only permanent building.  The prospectors were living under the snow and some had burrowed to ground level, then heating the earth with fires and dug down to bedrock. The returns, in many cases, were startlingly good.   By spring the flood of miners to Antler Creek had become a torrent.  Some sections were yielding a staggering $1,000.00 in gold to the square foot.  The miners included Richard Willoughby, Jim Bell, Jack Hume, William Cunningham, Ed Stout, Michael Byrnes, Vital Laforce, Brown, Costello and William Dietz aka Dutch Bill. 

April 13: Nanamio, birth (II)-Anne Jane McGuffie, Metis (1861-1863) daughter (I)-Thomas McGuffie (1831-1895) and Adeliza Jane Sabiston Tongas Woman.  On birth is recorded illegitinate of Thomas as they didn't church marry until 1864. 

April 14: Union Bar, death (from a boiler explosion on the Steamer Fort Yale), Samuel Powers (Blacksmith, of Hope), Joel Osburn (Fireman), Capt. Smith B. Jamieson (Boat's Master, aged about 26, a native of Arran, Scotland, and a brother to Arch. Jamieson of Victoria.) 

Spring:  Charles H. (One-Ear) Brown of Victoria, B.C. is again in court being charged with resisting arrest by his nemesis Sergeant Blake.  Brown and John Guest were observed delivering a case of liquor to the Songhees reserve.  One Indian with the whisky was also arrested.  Brown was fined $500.00 or 12 months jail, which he must have paid as just two months later he was in court again for bootlegging.  He was also charged with delivering a trashing to Captain Jefferson a Haida.  Captain Jefferson said that Brown had sold his tribe salt water for whisky.  When in jail he attacked prison guard Edward Wright who shot off his ear.  From then on he was known as One-Ear.  Three months later Charles H. (One-Ear) Brown escaped custody and fled Victoria.   

May:  A sawmill is constructed on the shores of the Alberni Inlet and the Alberni trail to Nanaimo, Vancouver Island was well used.

June 8: Jeffray's Fraser River Express is transporting gold from a Chinese mining company called Kwong Lee & Co. from Fort Yale to Victoria, B.C.

July:  James Douglas Creole Metis (1803-1877), mixed blood Governor of British Columbia organized his infamous gold escort, a para-millitary group.  The inaugural trip only made it as far as Lillooet and turned back, they only carried $10,000 in gold dust.  Later this summer they reached the heart of the Cariboo, Williams Creek and carried $30,000 in gold.  The next trip only reached Lillooet and carried $10,000 in gold.  The cost was $30,000.00 and revenue totaled $300.00.  The experiment was a total failure basically because the miners didn't trust the government.

Aug 15:  Victoria, marriage Augustus F. Pemberton, to Jane Augusta Brew, 3rd daughter of the late Tomkins Brew.

Aug 19: Victoria, marriage, Robert Dickinson of New Westminster, to Caroline Matilda Rogers.

August 24:  A brig Perservere foundered after springing a leak, 40 miles off Cape Flattery, Washington.  This ship was ruled un-seaworthy and uninsurable, fortunately no fatalities.

Nov 12:  New Westminster, marriage William E. Stein, of Hot Springs, to Frances Morey, daughter of Sergeant Morey of the Royal Engineers of New Westminster.

December 3:   birth (II)-Ada Frances Newton, died December 19, 1934, Essonale, B.C. daughter (I)-William Henry Newton (1833-1875) and Emmaline Tod (1835-1928).

Dec 9: Victoria, marriage W.F. Armstrong, merchant in New Westminster and formerly of Durham County in Canada West, to Miss N.C. Ladner of Victoria and formerly of Cornwall, England.

During the winter of 1861/1862 the Royal Engineers started working on that which was called "the Wagon Road".  This road to the Cariboo was 619 km (385 miles) long and 54 M (18') wide.


1862 

William Billy Barker (1820-1894) discovered gold at Barkerville 90 km east of Quesnel, B.C.  The town hit a population of 10,000 by 1863.

Richard Berry died May 22, 1908 Barkerville, B.C. and is thought to be the last of the 49er in Cariboo and he arrived this date.  

(II)-James Boyce b-1840 Ireland, family moved to Ontario and James arrived via Panama this year.  He died January 27, 1911 Barkerville, B.C.   He was propreetor of the Barkerville Hotel.

John George (Kootenai) Brown (1839-1916) prospected for gold in the Cariboo Goldfields, B.C., unsuccessfully.  He ten served as a constable at Wild Horse Creek, B.C. until; 1865.  He then departed for Waterton Lakes (Alberta).  

John A. Cameron, a novice miner struck pay-dirt on their claim on Williams Creek, Barkerville, B.C.  This claim produced over $1,000,000.00 and Cameron received $350,000.00 as his share.  Two decades later he returned to Barkerville in November 7, 1888, on the creek where he struck it rich, he died penniless.

 J. Carpenter, of Toronto, an 'Over Lander' going to the Cariboo, B.C., wrote his own epitaph in his diary " "Arrived this day at the canyon at 10 A.M. and drowned running the canoe down.  God bless my poor wife."  He lost his life in the rapids at Grand Canyon, Fraser River, B.C.

Richard Chapple (1824-1910) and Mary Tongass of Alaska (1844-1874) adopted Margaret Chapple nee Sutton possible daughter of Mary.  This couple did not marry until 1863.

Edmund Coleman (1823-1892) journeyed to Victoria, Vancouver Island.

The Cornwall brothers, Henry Allen and Clement Francis, established Ashcroft Manner in the interior of British Columbia on the way to Barkerville, B.C.  They imported cattle from Oregon.  

Bill Cunningham on Lightning Creek wrote, making from two to three thousand dollars a day, times good, grub high, whiskey bad, trails crawled with men. 

Rosalie Falardeuil, Metis, b-1862, died November 30, 1944 Vancouber, B.C., daughter Narcisse Falardeau (1818-1888), and Helen (Elin) Tiheoartenate Quantlen: married June 9, 1884 James Ibbotson.  They had 6 children.

Michael Haggarty, of Ireland, died April 1897, Barkerville, Hospital.  He arrived Barkerville, B.C. in 1862 having previously lived in Quesnel a few years.  

(I)-James Hamilton b-Scotland, died age 58 Barkerville, B.C. died December 30, 18?5, arrived Barkerville, B.C. 1862 or 63 

(I)-Gavin Hamilton, b-1835, Orkney, d-1909, Victoria son Dr. John Macaulay Hamilton and Marion Sibbald Rae: married 1862 Stuart Lake, (IV)-Margaret Julia Ogden, Metis, daughter (III)-Peter Ogden (1790/94-1854) and Phrisine Brabant, native.  They had 16 children.  Gavin arrived Victoria, B.C., 1853 

Robert Heath b-1838 England, died May 24, 1912, Barkerville, B.C. arrived 1862 after spending a few years in U.S.

William Hugill, b-1838 Fullerton, Canada West, died August 31, 1863, Barkerville, B.C.  He was an over-lander and Dobson Prest wrote in 1864 nearly all the over-landers were sick in the Cariboo last season.  There were only 5-6 who escaped disease.  

William G. McCormick born 1841, Pinkerton, Ontario, an over-lander this year, died August 2, 1890, Barkerville, B.C.  He was with his brother Thomas McCormick who returned to Ontario in 1875.

Robert McNab Metis b-1829 Renfrew, Ontario, died May 28, 1902, Barkerville, B.C.  He came to the Cariboo 1862 and mined many creeks.  He lived his last few years at Veith & Borland;s ranch at Keithley Creek.  He was married with Metis two sons.  He was brought over the Keithley trail on a hand sleigh to hospital in Barkerville, B.C.

Jonathan Martin (1831-1907) married 1862 Helen (Ellen-Ellin) a Native b-1840, they settled Gabriola Island aka Big Island near Nanaimo, B.C.  Aaron Martin b-1839 is the brother of Jonathan and also settled Gabriola Island, B.C.

Samuel Montgomery, born October 28, 1814 Ireland, died June 1, 1904, Barkerville, B.C.  Arrived 1862 in the Cariboo and spent most of his time on Lightning and Nelson Creeks near Stanley.  At age 82 he single handedly dug a shaft 53 feed deep and ran a drift 78 feet on the old Van Winkle ground..  In 1902 the Montgomery Company hit rich ground and paid its five shareholders well, of which Samuel was one.  

Janet Morris aka Scottish Jenny, a Scotch woman, fair, fat & 40 (actually 35) (1828-1870) arrived the Cariboo and it was said she dressed like a man, drank like a man and died like a man, she married 2nd June 12, 1865 (I)-William Allen d-1870 of Scotland.  She was a saloon keeper when she died after her buggy rolled down a bank breaking her neck.

Leon Nahu b-1862 B.C. married Mary b-1868 B.C. living Vancouver, B.C. in 1901 census

George Pond, b-1832, Roxborough, Massachusetts, was a clerk for Mason and Daily having arrived in Barkerville, B.C. area in 1862 

Captain G H Richards gave the most northerly tip of Vancouver Island the name of Cape Commerell, after Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Edmund Commerell, GCB, BC. Earlier called Sutil Point by the Spaniards in 1792.

(II)-S. A. Rogers b-1840, Northern Ireland, died September 4, 1911, Barkerville, B.C.  He was an over-lander in 1862 having moved with his family to Canada west in 1844.  He ran an express line and a General Store.  He was a sheriff of the Cariboo Lillooet District for 4 years.

Ned Stout tried Stout's Gulch taking out $1,000.00 a day.

Mary Webster b-1811, England, died June 29, 1864, Barkerville, B.C.  She arrived with her two daughters in 1862.  She was one of a handful of women who applied for a mining license.  She filed June 22, 1863 at Barkerville, B.C.  Barkerville at this time looked like it was thrown together by a drunken surveyor.  

Van Winkle on Lightning Creek is in existance and Richfield on Williams Creek taking shape.  Cabins first, then saloons.

It is reported that 5,000 miners joined the Cariboo gold rush this year, coming from all quarters.

Robert Harkness, Gilbert Munro and Angus McIntosh arrived an overland'er at Williams Creek, Cariboo, B.C.  Harkness quoted the price for everything, flour is $1.12 a pound, beans $1.00 a pound, rice $1.00 a pound, sugar is $1.75, nails $2.00, tea $3.00, tobacco $5.00. salt $1.25 a pound, potatoes are $1.25 a pound, a clay pipe or box of natches cost half a dollar.

The Bank of British Columbia incorporated in London, May 1862 began business in Victoria, British Columbia by August of this year. 

Bradford, Massachusetts, at his father's residence on Jan 27, of diptheria, Charles Otis KIMBALL of Lytton, B.C.

The first European settlers arrived in the Comox Valley, Vancouver Island in 1862 

The Cariboo Wagon Road from Yale to Barkerville was constructed 1862-1865 at a cost of one million dollars and it took 6.5 days to travel it.

Census records for William Creek, B.C. recorded two respectable married women and 9 prostitutes. 

The smallpox virus arrived in Victoria in this year, carried by a man on a steamer from San Francisco. Most of the Songhees had been vaccinated, but the disease was devastating for the First Peoples visiting from the north coast. Police commissioner Joseph Pemberton ordered the removal of all aboriginal people in Victoria, except for those "employed by whites," and people returning home took the disease with them, along the coast and up the rivers to the interior, causing annihilation in village after village. Eventually, smaller numbers of northerners returned to Victoria, but the extent of their influence on the local society and economy was never the same.

January 23:  Victoria, B.C., William (Billy) Barker, a Cornishman and John Copland appeared before Magistrate Augustus Pemberton, to settle Copland's claim for the sum of 10 pounds, two shillings and 11 pence, alleged to be owing him by Barker for work done on Saltspring Island.  Magistrate Pemberton noted the court was limited to cases involving 10 pounds and less.  If Billy had no objection, he said Copland could lower the suit to 10 pounds.  Billy objected forcing Copland the expense of taking out another summons.  Billy took his books and promptly departed for the Cariboo, B.C.

February 1: marriage William Kelly, (Boulogne-Sur-Mer, France), Barrister in Yale, to Madame Emile Mertens.

March 10:  The ballast Ann Bernard floundered 15 miles east of San Juan with 2 fatalities.  The natives rescued the captain and crew taking them to Victoria, Vancouver Island .  

Mar 31: Victoria, marriage, Major William Downie, formerly of Downieville, Cal., to Adeline Davidson, formerly of Charlottetown, P.E.I.

Apr 3: Victoria, marriage B.F. Moses of New Westminster, to Kate Levy, daughter of John Levy of Victoria.

April 18: New Westminster, on Good Friday, marriage William Harris of San Francisco, to Adeline Waterford of New Westminster.

June:  Williams Creek, Barkerville, B.C. arrival William Hodgkinson b-1844 Simcoe Country, Ontario.  He worked various claims for others and his own, he was working the windlass of the Cameron claim when it struck gold.  He married Isabella aka Bella b-1845, died October 5, 1911, Barkerville, B.C.  She was a washer-woman and he sold wood, and ran a dairy. 

June:   The McMicking Expedition, consisting of 150 people with 97 Red River carts, left Fort Garry for Fort Edmonton.   The part led by Thomas and Robert McKicking (McMicking) arrived at Fort Edmonton on July 21.  They traded their Red River carts for pack horses and crossed the mountains to the Fraser River with the help of Native guides.  They rafted down the Frazer to Fort George (Prince George), losing 6 men to the river.  Most went on to the Cariboo (Caribou) Goldfields. Others went on to Kamloops (Cumeloups meaning the meeting of the waters),  arriving in October.  The only known woman was Catherine O'Hare Schubert with her 3 children.  She gave birth to her 4th shortly after arriving at Kamloops.  It is noteworthy that about 250 would-be prospectors passed through Fort Edmonton this year on their way to the gold fields.

June 9: Bridge Creek died of inflammation, Isaac Archibald, (1838-1862), a native of Muscodived, Nova Scotia.

June 12: Yale, B.C. died of typhoid fever, George Eves, partner of Mr. Beedy of Cariboo.

June 14, New Westminster, death of smallpox, P.O. Smith, (1831-1862), late of Dover, New Hampshire.

June 22: Victoria, death of smallpox, John Hall or Hale, aged 22, late of Oshawa.

Notice in paper: FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD!. The above reward will be paid by the undersigned for the recovery of the body of the late Aaron Bassett, who was drowned on the 8th of July...........J.A.Webster. (body was recovered and funeral was held on July 29).

July 19: The Stikine Territory is created in northern B.C.

July 26, Near Quesnelle Forks,  murdered by person or persons unknown, D. Sokolosky (late of New Westminster), Herman Lewin (late of Victoria and brother to Hieman Lewin of New Westminster), and ___?___ Rosseau (a french Packer).

August of 1862: New Westminster died of bilious fever, Leslie M. Withrow, (1835-1862), a native of New Brunswick. Deceased came to the Colony in 1859 with his 2 brothers. He was elected Captain of the New Westminster Fire Brigade.

August 17: William (Billy) Barker, a Cornishman and his party hit gold after a number of unsuccessful claims.  They took out 124 ounces of gold in 10 hours.

Notice in the Aug 2 paper regarding the estate of Thomas Hamm, who died in Victoria and was formerly of Cornish, Maine.

August 2:  Victoria was incorporated as a city with Thomas Harris as its first mayor. 

August 13:  Barkerville, B.C., Billy Barker (1820-1894) and 6 Englishmen partners struck gold in a 52 foot hole.  In less than a year the population of Barkerville was 10,000 people.  Billy and Company took $600,000 worth of gold from that hole but he died a pauper in Victoria, B.C. in July 11, 1894.  Billy married a widow with expensive tastes and as soon as she spent Billy's money she departed.

Notice in the Aug 13 paper regarding the estate of Dr. William FIFER of Fort Yale.

August 16: Thomas Harris is elected the first Mayor of Victoria.

August 21:  Barkerville, B.C. is created when William (Billy) Barker, a Cornish sailor, made a large gold strike.

In September, the Tynemouth, a bride ship from England, arrived carrying 61 "well-built, pretty-looking young women, ages varying from 14 to an uncertain figure; a few (were) young widows who (had) seen better days".  To this point in time most if not all children born of European men in the colony would be Metis.

September 7: New Westminster, death Matthew NICHOLAS, a native of France.

September 13: Mrs August Schubert from the east with 3 children, gave birth, Fort Kamloops and is believed the first white child born in the interior of British Columbia.

September 18 Victoria, marriage H.N. Steele of the Cariboo firm Steele & Co., to Janet E. Forest, late of San Francisco.

October:  The McMicking Expedition, from Ontario, consisting of 150 people with 97 Red River carts, left Fort Garry in early June for Fort Edmonton.   The part led by Thomas and Robert McKicking (McMicking) arrived at Fort Edmonton on July 21.  They traded their Red River carts for pack horses and crossed the mountains to the Fraser River with the help of Native guides.  They rafted down the Frazer to Fort George (Prince George), losing 6 men to the river.  Most went on to the Cariboo (Caribou) Goldfields. Others went on to Kamloops (Cumeloups meaning the meeting of the waters),  arriving in October.  The only known woman was Catherine O'Hare Schubert, d-1918 with her 3 children.  She gave birth to her 4th shortly after arriving at Kamloops in October.  It is noteworthy that about 250 would-be prospectors passed through Fort Edmonton this year on their way to the gold fields.

October 18: Yale, B.C. death Capt. William Knapp Kilborne, of Newburyport, Massachusetts.

November 20, On board the Steamer Henrietta, died of consumption, Alexander Gourlay (1822-1862), a native of Colinsburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland. Deceased came to this Colony in 1858.

November 21: New Westminster, died of inflammation of the brain, James Locke, a native of Waterville, New York.

November 25: New Westminster, died of disease of the lungs, John Taylor, (1817-1862), of Toronto. Deceased leaves a wife and family in Toronto.

November 27: New Westminster, died of dropsy, William Callahan, (1827-1862), a native of Liverpool, England.

December 3: New Westminster, marriage, William Johnston, to Elizabeth Burr, niece of William Burr of Victoria and niece of Hugh Burr, proprietor of the Columbia Hotel in New Westminster. 

 

1863  

Seth Berry died some time after John and William Berry arrived Williams Creek, Barkerville, B.C. this year.

James Bissett b-1831 Lachine Canal son Alexander Bissett, Superintendent of Lachind Canal, Quebec, (1843-1868); joined HBC (1853-1880) Montreal (1853-1859), Honolulu (1859-1860), Victoria & Shushwap (1860-1871), Montreal (1871-1880) living Lachine 1891
    One unnamed son b-1863 in Woodland Cottage, Victoria     

Richard Chapple (1824-1910) married 1863 Mary Tongass of Alaska (1844-1874), they settled Gabriola Island B.C.

Oliver Cromwell b-1833 United States, died April 12, 1873 Royal Hospital, buried, Barkerville, B.C..  He was in the Cariboo this year

(I)-Samuel Daniels b-1832 England, died June 1864 by accident Prairie Flower Ore Claim, Barkerville, B.C.  He obtained his license to mine April 29, 1863.

(I)-John Dunn b- 1839, Wales, died October 6, 1863, Barkerville, B.C.

(I)-David Edwards, b-1824, Wales, died April 26, 1911, Barkerville, B.C.  He arrived the Cariboo 1863 as a shoemaker, lived some time Stanley and Van Winkle.  He was active in a number of claims, in 1890's with Billy Barker (1820-1877)and others, in the Willow and Discovery Claims on Poorman's Creek near Beaver Pass.  

Harry Edwards Esq. b-1840, died August 8, 1873, Barkerville, B.C.  He was in Barkerville, B.C. this year.

(I)-William Elsterman b-1848, Germany married 1879 Jane b-1863 B.C., living Skeena in 1901 census.

William Henry Emptage (1829-1907) married about 1863 Fort Langley Louisa Musqueam an Indian

Julius H. Franklin, b-1847 Island of Jersey, arrived Cariboo 1863, died June 13, 1870 Barkerville, B.C.  He fell down a shaft at the Perseverance Company's claim at Mink Gulch on Harvey Creek.  There was no rabbi to perform a Jewish burial service.

Peter Gibson b-1832 Vankleekhill, Canada West, died July 24, 1863, Barkerville, B.C.  Gibson was the first person officially buried Barkerville, B.C. and was a constable in Osoyoos district before coming to the Cariboo.

Jessie Heatherington, of Scotland, murdered 1863 Richfield, buried Barkerville, B.C.  She married a drunkard who included her in his drinking.  She left him but was smothered in a highly intoxicated state.

George Kamano, Hawaiian Metis assisted the Oblates in building a mission on Harbledown Island off Fort Rupert. 

Ed H. Kimball, born 1836, Bradford, Massachusetts, U.S. died January 31, 1874, Barkerville, B.C  He arrived in 1863 as an express-man and died in an avalanche near Six Mile Creek with John W. Stevenson.  His estate mounted to $4,948.00

Griffith Lewis b-1836, Wales, died April 12, 1867, Barkerville, B.C.  He was on the Creeks by 1863 and died on inflammation of the bowels at William Creek Hospital that charged $500.00 for medical attention.  Folks were outrageous even for the Cariboo.  His estate was worth several thousands.

John Malcolm died July 14, 1913, Williams Creek, Barkerville, B.C., wintered Fort Edmonton in 1862 arrived this year to work the Wessels Co. claim.  Later he staked a claim beside fellow Over-landers Fortune, Thomas Dunn and Robert Burns (1843-1915).  In later years he worked Quesnelle Forks and Keithley Creek.

Mary Isabella Martin, Metis (1863-1893), Gabriola Island B.C. daughter Jonathan Martin (1831-1907) and Helen (Ellen-Ellin) a Native, b-1840: married 1883 David Roberts.  Mary died in childbirth..

R. B. Morgan b-1929 England, died September 11, 1863, Barkerville, B.C.   

Whonnock, B.C., birth (II)-William Robert Robertson, Metis, (1861/68-1884) son (I)-Robert Robertson, born Yell, Shetland, employed HBC (1851-1859), and New Caledonia (1852-1859) retired 1860 to Whonnock, B.C. and Tselatsetenate, Indian from Nicomen, B.C: 

(II)-George Taylor, Metis, born February 6, 1863 Fort Langley son (I)-James Taylor (1827-1907) and Barbara Jamieson: 1st married Celia Cotash of the Chawuthen Indian Reserve, died December 29, 1920:  2nd married after 1920 Pernadette Peters of American Bar, B.C.

Sam Wilcox arrived in the Cariboo this year, is buried Barkerville, B.C. but date of death is unknown.

The first settlers around Fort Victoria included (II)- Peter Erasmus (1833-1931) and wife Charlotte Jackson Metis d-1880, George McDougall, Flett, Conors, Phil Tait and Revard Rose Norn. 

The Company of Welsh Adventurers, a part of 26 men formed in Wales in 1862, arrived Victoria in June 1863.  Late summer they reached Lightning Creek but their Welsh mining experience didn't help their venture and members began to desert.  Within a few years only 3 remained of the 26, namely, John Evans, Harry Jones (1840-1938) and Robert F. Pritchard.(1837-1915).   Evans d-1877, interred Stanley cemetery, near Barkerville, B.C.  

Jerome Harper and brother Thaddeus Harper joined forces with the three Volkenburgn brothers and they controlled the B.C. beaf market for the next twenty years. 

The Nez Perce complained to the Government that settlers were encroaching on their lands and asked for help to enforce the treaty of 1855.  The Government response is to issue a new treaty taking away another 3/4 of their treaty lands and forcing them out of Washington, Oregon to Clearwater River in Idaho.  Nearly 2/3 of the Nez Perce refused to sign this punitive treaty.

Old Joseph of the Wallowa Valley Nez Perce in Oregon still had not signed treaty when they are forced from their lands into Idaho to make room for the advancing white settlers.  Old Joseph is so offended that he tore up the Bible a white missionary had given him to convert him to Christianity.  To let the white men know they still claimed the Wallowa Valley he planted poles all around the boundaries of the land where his people lived. 

John Henlee, a Cherokee Metis and Bill Brady also an American on a hunting expedition landed on a small island south of Salt Spring Island, Vancouver Island.  Three Cowichan and two squaws visited their camp and appeared very friendly but during the night fired on their tent.  Brady was rendered helpless but Henlee with three wounds fought off the attackers.  Henlee nursed his dying partner for three days before he died.  Henlee launched their whaleboat and sailed to Oak Bay were his condition was rated as serious.

The Colonist newspaper reported "Another atrocious murder!", Frederick Marks a German and his married teenage daughter Caroline Harvey on Saturna Island were killed by Cherokee believed to be the same ones that attacked John Henlee.  It was reported these Indians had murdered three men at Plumper's Pass, in 1858.  The villains were eventually captured at their secret cave on Galiano Island, ending the reign of terror.  Ahcheewun, his brother Shanahsaluk, Qualatultun and Umwhanuk are sentenced to death.    

The Klamath People who lived in southwestern Oregon with their main village at Klamath Lake ceded a large part of their land to the encroaching whites.  The Modoc a close relative of the Klamath who occupied northern California and Oregon were also herded into reservations.  They recently occupied such places as Modoc Lake, Tule Lake and the Valley of the Lost River.   The would rise up in resistance during the Modoc war of 1872-1873. 

Johnny L. B. McLean a Blackman b-1836 Barbados, died February 4, 1911, Barkerville, B.C.  He partnered with John Giscome and Henry McDame who discovered the Giscome portage near Prince George on their way to Peace River.  

Barkerville was created this year on Williams Creek.  By next year 4 towns sprung up on Williams Creek, Richfield, Barkerville, Cameronton and Marysville.  They formed one long street of hotels, saloons, brothels, general stores, restaurants and numerous less important buildings..

Brothers Forbes George Vernon (1843-1911), Charles Vernon and partner Captain Charles Houghton acquired 14,000 acres at 'Hu-cue-deep Moose-Chin' (jumping over place) or Vernon, B.C. as a military land grant  The Vernon's bought out Houghton in 1869. 

January: New Westminster, death in his 29th year, William Kneale (1834-1863), late of Doncaster, Canada.

January 4 : New Westminster, death in his 26th year, William Capel Morrison (1837-1863) of New Westminster.

Jan 8: Hope, marriage, Edward Howard Sander, Police Magistrate of Yale, to Annie Moresby, eldest daughter of William Morsbey.

Victoria, Jan 8: Victoria, marriage, John A. Webster of New Westminster, to Martha Wilhelmina, 2nd daughter of the late Thomas P. Kemp of Cork, Ireland.

January 10:  birth (II)-Clara Allena Brown. christened October 20, 1867, daughter (I)-Charles B. Brown, b-1818, England and Jemina, b-1825; married John Haggerty, November 28, 1879, Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, B.C. , died February 5, 1896, Victoria, B.C.  

January 13: New Westminster, death William Moresby, (1807-1863), a native of England.

January 14: New Westminster, death in his 25th year, Joseph Wilcox, a native of Pennsylvania.

January 16: New Westminster, death John Hernandez, (1831-1863), a native of St. Augustine, Florida and late of San Francisco.

January 14:  Mansfield, Ohio, marriage at the residence of the bride's father, Mortimer Cook of Lytton, to Miss N.F. Pollock.

January 31: New Westminster, death in his 26th year, Matthew Kelley (1837-1863), a native of Ireland.

February 15:  A schooner named Explorer struck a reef near Nanamo, Vancouver Island with no fatalities.  The infamous schooner Surprise refused to transport survivors to Victoria..  

February 18: Yale, B.C. death  E. Hurdle, an old pioneer. His remains were followed to the grave by the whole male population; Rev. A. Browning officiating.

April 17: New Westminster, death Lucis Floris, a native of Mexico.

May 5: New Westminster, death of inflamation of the kidneys, Frank Holben, a native of England.

July 4:   Ah-chee-wun and two other Lemalchi, Salish Natives are executed and their village on Kuper Island, British Columbia is destroyed and ended their existence as a tribe.

July 22, Port Douglas, died in his 44th year and by drowning, James Irwin Miller (1819-1863), police officer. Deceased was a native of the north of Ireland.

July 23: Lillooet, death Robert W. Huston, a native of Peterborough, Canada West.

August 21:  In August 1907 the Colonist newspaper in B.C. Canada read "Guerrilla chief's home at Quatsino."   It reported that John Sharp (1837-1910), watchman of the West Vancouver Coal Company's property at Coal Harbor, B.C., had been identified as the Confederate terrorist 'Quantrill'.  William Clarke Quantrill alias Charles Hart (1837-1865) was the leader of the most savage fighting unit in the civil war.  Before joining the Confederate cause he was wanted for horse theft and murder.   August 21, 1863 he led a force of 450 raiders into Lawrence, Kansas killing 183 (150) men and boys many in front of their families, pillaged the banks and pubs, and burnt the town.  Some of his bloody crew included Bloody Bill Anderson who wore a necklace of Yankee scalps into battle.  Others were the James Brothers (Frank & Jesse), and the Younger Brothers (Cole & Jim).  John Sharp had admitted to being Quantrill and those who believed him had evidence to support that opinion.   

September 19: New Westminster, death Aaron White, (1808-1863), of Sweeze Port (Shreveport???), Louisiana.

September, 22: Victoria, marriage, Francis George Clandet, to Fanny Fleury, eldest daughter of Charles Fleury of Weymouth, Dorset, England.

September 30: New Westminster, death, William Julius Voight, aged 2 yrs & 9 mos, son of A.T. Juluis Voight.

October 7: New Westminster, marriage ceremony performed by the bride's father, Lieut. Henry Spencer Palmer, youngest son of the late Col. J.S. Palmer, to Mary Jane Pearson, eldest daughter of the Venerable H.P. Wreight, Archdeacon of Columbia, Chaplain to the Forces, and Chaplain to H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge.

October 8 Victoria, marriage, Henry Reynolds Luard, Captain Royal Engineers, to Caroline Mary Leggett, eldest daughter of the late George Leggett

October. 7, died in his 26th year, Fred. John Rogers (1837-1863), Purser of the Steamer Flying Dutchman. Deceased was a native of Clifton, near Bristol, England, and brother-in-law to the Mayor of New Westminster.

Oct 7: Nanaimo, marriage, Joseph Ganner of Nanaimo, to Dorothy Preston of Nanaimo and late of England.

October 19: Victoria, death Victoria Maria Hall, aged 1 yr & 10 mos, only child of Mr. A. Sherwood Hall, late of Brockville, Canada West.

Nov 2: Yale, B.C. marriage, Edward Johnston, to Mary Evans, late of London.

Nov 4: New Westminster, marriage, James Ellard of the Royal Engineers, to Emma Quinn

Nov 12, boating accident near Quesnelle claims 7 lives: John Walker, B. Ranton, J. Robinson., T. Beatty, J. Beeth, Thomas Anderson, and __?__ Smith. Deceased were all Canadians and all connected with the Prince of Wales claim. 

1864  

Basil Brousseau worked the Langley farm, he ran the dairy making butter, and he, along with 3-4 assistants, one of whom was his son Basil Brousseau Jr.Metis, milked the long-horned Spanish cattle which the company kept. During the winter these cattle would be kept in barns on the Big Farm.  

Sequsue Carraico b-1858 Chilie married 1885 B.C. Auuie b-1864 B.C. living Vancouver, B.C. in 1901 census

W. J. Crawford b-1834 Port Hope, died July 22, 1864, Barkerville, B.C.

(I)-W. F. Davidson born Wales, died September 25, 1864, Barkerville, B.C., applied for a mining license April 30, 1863, arrived 1864, Barkerville, B.C..

(I)-Robert Davis b-1832 half breed (Welsh dad and German mother), died September 4, 1891 Barkerville, B.C.  Arrived Barkerville, B.C. this year.

Dick Dekker died Barkerville, B.C. no other information.

Donald Easter b-1835 Vankleerhill, Canada West, died September 21, 1864, Barkerville, B.C.

Ralph James Elkins appeared at Fort Langley and obtained work on the company farm. He married an Indian girl.

William Henry Emptage (1829-1907) arrived to become a gardener at Fort Langley and early Langley settler.  Emptage was married to the daughter of a Musqueam Chief by Catholic priests who gave the Indian lass the English name of Louisa.  He hired Indian women at 25¢ a day to do the hoeing.

George Johnston b-1829, Colchester Country, Nova Scotia, died May 7, 1865, Barkerville, B.C.  He arrived 1864 and died Lowhee Creek of a disease called gum-boot gout aka Trench Foot.

Fort Langley: (II)-Edward Julias Muench (1837-1882/83) a German who settled Langley in mid 1860's and was well established by 1872, married  Catherine (Kathleen) Shenade (Sonat) of Lakahahmen (1839-1899) epouse married 1859 John Miller who died before 1864

Fort Langley birth William Henry Emptage Jr., Metis (1864-1944) son William Henry Emptage (1829-1907) and Louisa Musqueam Indian: married Sarah Amelia Elkins (1867-1936) Metis daughter James Ralph Elkins and Amelia Knantlen Indian.

(III)-John Alexander Fraser 4th son of Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company arrived the Cariboo trhis year in search of his fortune.  He mortgaged the family farm left to him by his father to finance his venture.  He invested in several claims that did fairly well but not enough to cover the mortgage and it was foreclosed.  A love affair fell apart and in 1865 he slashed his wrists and jugular.  The following day one of his claims he had heavily invested struck a rich lead and brought good returns to the investors. 

George Issac b-1833 Ireland, died September 16, 1919, Barkerville, B.C.  Arrived with family in Canada in 1843 to escape the potato famine.  He departed for the gold fields in 1862, arrived 1864, Barkerville, B.C. where he operated a sawmill on Conklin Gulch.  In the 1880's he explored the Bowron Lake country where Issac Lake is named after him. 

The Klamath People who lived in southwestern Oregon with their main village at Klamath Lake ceded a large part of their land to the encroaching whites.  The Modoc a close relative of the Klamath who occupied northern California and Oregon were also herded into reservations.  They recently occupied such places as Modoc Lake, Tule Lake and the Valley of the Lost River.   The would rise up in resistance during the Modoc war of 1872-1873. 

The Cox Reserve is established for the Okanogan Indians and includes the future site of the city of Vernon, B.C.

The telegraph reach Vancouver area of British Columbia. 

The old Fort Victoria was finally demolished and the lots were auctioned off.

At Chapman's Bar, Jan 7, Joshua Smalhome, (1831-1864), of Connecticut. deceased came to Fraser River in 1858. Interred at Yale.

January 10: New Westminster, death William S. Smullen, (1802-1864) a native of Ireland.

January 10: New Westminster, death Augustus Osborne, (1835-1864) a native of New Bedford, US.

January 10: New Westminster, death   the wife of James Dixon, late of the Royal Engineers' Camp,..

January 17: New Westminster, death James Coleman, (1830-1864), a native of New Brunswick.

January 14t:  New Westminister, birth (II)-Henry John Newton, died September 4, 1949, Hammona, B.C., son (I)-William Henry Newton (1833-1875) and Emmaline Tod (1835-1928): married November 12, 1896, Vancouver, Hannah Mary Collaway..

Sapperton, Jan 22: Sapperton, death of inflammation of the lungs, Edward Townsend, (1836-1864), a native of Wolverhampton, England and late of the Royal Engineers.

April 30:  About twelve Chilcotin warriors, led by their chief Klatassine, killed a group of road builders in British Columbia on the.Homathko River, In a matter of minutes nine men were dead. They were shot, stabbed or clubbed. Their bodies stripped and mutilated and then thrown into the river. No trace of their bodies was ever found.  Others killed included (II)-James Goudie Jr.Metis, (1836-1864), William Brewster, John Clark and Baptiste Demerest.  Five Indians, Klatassine, Tellot, Tahpith, Piell and Cheesus, were hung for the murders 

March 7: New Westminster, death Steamboat Capt. Joseph Kerr Riddle, 1825-1862), a native of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

March 28: Hope, marriage, Edward Dewdney of Richfield, to Jane Shaw Moir, eldest daughter of the late Stratton Moir of "Dhekinde", Ambegamon, Ceylon, and step-daughter of Thomas Glennie of Hope, B.C.

May 10: New Westminster, marriage Arthur Walter Shaw Black, son of George Balck of Birdholme House, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England, to Elizabeth Kathleen Kemp, youngest daughter of the late Thomas P. Kemp of Cork, Ireland.

May 12: New Westminster, marriage Jonathan Hay BROWN, to Sarah Bayliss, both of New Westminster.Aug 21: Victoria death, David W.Wiggins, aged 7 months, only son of David W. Wiggins

May 31:  Robert Harkness, writing to his wife from Williams Creek, Caraboo, B.C. says very many have left & are leaving every day, unable to earn enough to procure grub.  I now live in a small cabin with two men having lived in a tent for the past two years.

June 20, New Westminster, death Christina, wife of Richard Lewis, Architect in Victoria.

June 28:   Robert Harkness, writing to his wife from Williams Creek, Caraboo, B.C. says I worked for the "Bed Rock Drain Co," but had to take all my pay in stock, except $60.  The stock is unsalable now, money is very scarce, work hard to get and times dull.Charley is on Lowhee Creek, Josh Bowen and Angus McIntosh are both working the Montreal claim.  Gilbert Munro is still making shakes.  They wintered in New Westminister.

August 25:  A barque Armin struck a reef in thick fog between San Juan and Sooke, Vancouver Island .

September 20: New Westminster, death of inflammation of the lungs, Wilhelmina, aged 1 year, 11 months & 18 days, eldest daughter of Henry and Lena Eickhoff.

September 25: New Westminster, death of tertiary syphilis, Horace Humphries, (1819-1864) a native of Charleston, South Carolina, and for 4 years a resident of New Westminster.

October 1864 - August 1874 Ovid Allard  a Clerk is in charge of Fort Langley.

November 9 The first export of lumber from Burrard Inlet to a foreign port when more than 250,000 board feet leaves for Australia.

November 11: death Cheealthluc, the chief of the Songhees tribe on southern Vancouver Island, he is reported to have Hawaiian blood.

November 22, Yale, death Mrs. William Reid.

November 24: New Westminster death Charlotte Marion Cooper, aged 5 months and 10 days, daughter of Harbormaster Captain Cooper.

November 24:  A barque named Iwanowa is waterlogged in a squall and sank near Tatoosh Island, Washington.  The fatalities are 6.

Nov 29: Nanaimo, marriage by Rev. E. White (brother-in-law of the bride), Thomas Cunningham of the firm Cunningham Bros. of New Westminster & Nanaimo, to Emily Woodman, 3rd daughter of William Woodman and Mary Ann Woodman of New Westminster.

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