65,000,000 BC TO 200,001 BC

Walking caveman


EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 200,000 BC - 35,001  BC



Man was created by God (a supreme entity) is a belief from antiquity.
Who or what is man has no universal definition.
Homo Erectus separates man from animal.
Homo Sapiens uses tools, fire, practices religious rites, burial rites.
Man has a soul.
Man evolved from animal or Man is created by the infusion of a soul.
The People of America believe everything has a soul and
is therefore deserving of our respect.


As we read our history put on your colored glasses based on Principles, Beliefs, and Values.

PRINCIPLES reflect fundamental RIGHTS, the foundation of our actions, that transcend BELIEFS



It is noteworthy that religion is not a Principle but a Belief.

BELIEF is the acceptance of something as being true or real that does not violate Principles.

Should be rational, not arbitrary
Should impair the rights as little as possible
Should be proportional

 Beliefs should not be confused with FAITH which is the blind acceptance of a belief without verification or knowledge.  Blind faith is for children or the mentally impaired not adults.

VALUES, Standards and Guidelines support the formulation of action, scope, direction and the ability to measure results. 

Should not violate Beliefs.  


Two billion years ago a meteorite struck Vredefort in South Africa creating a hole 300 km wide and is believed to be the biggest discovered.  The second biggest occurred about the same time in the Sudbury basin in northern Ontario leaving a 250 km hole.

800 to 600 million B.C. the equator was glaciated and the poles were ice free.  Some scientists speculate this was caused by the earth being tilted over 54° rather than the present 23°.   Others have speculated this was a violent change and has occurred more than once.   Immanuel Velikovcky b-1895 suggested, in 'Worlds in Collision' (1950),  it has happened in relatively modern times.  He speculated a near collision with the planet Venus caused the last one.

480,000,000 B.C. 

Researchers have confirmed the out of Africa Continental Drift Theory that originated in the late 1800's.  Alfred Wegenar (1880-1830) and Frank Taylor were the first professional geologists to publish the Continental Drift theory that had been circulating in the 19th century.  They calculated that in 200 million a super-continent existed called Panaego ( Pangaea) that began to break up.  Sailors had remarked for years of the common rock types, fossils and fauna found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.  Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, New England, the Carolinas, British Islands, France and Spain share these common identifiers of Pangaea aka Gondwana.. 

400,000,000 B.C.

The earths rotation is 400 22 hour days in a year.  The earth spin is slowing down and days are getting longer by 20 seconds every million years.

350,000,000 B.C.  

Modern man, Homo Floresiensis, a diminutive hominid from the island of Flores that disappeared 12,000 B.C., and of course the famous Homo Neanderthal found in Germany in the last century. But now there is a fourth. The Denisovan was discovered in the Denisova cave in southern Siberia.  They 'think' the Denisovan population inhabited most of eastern Eurasia, in the same way that Neanderthals inhabited most of western Eurasian. There  idea is that the ancestors of Melanesians met the Denisovans in southeast Asia, and interbred. And the ancestors of Melanesians then moved on to Papua New Guinea. The Denisovan likely split from Neanderthal 350,000 B.C. and vanished about 50,000 B.C.  They 'think' this new breed were much larger than modern humans and their Neanderthal counterparts!

250,000,000 B.C.  

Some scientists believe a massive asteroid, much larger than the one that killed the dinosaurs, hit earth killing 90% of all life.  It hit the southern land mass (east Antarctic).  Evidence suggests it hit the Bedout High some 320 kilometers northwest of Australia.  It is believed to have killed 90% of sea animals and 80% of all land animals.  Some believe this caused Gondwana the super continent to break up.

Others suggest the near extinction was a result of the Siberian basalt eruption, (The Siberian Traps) the largest volcanic even that covered an area the size of the United States and in some places the lava was 3 miles deep.
                                                          A List of Known Super volcano
There is no exact definition for a super volcano, but the term is often used to refer to volcanoes that have produced exceptionally large eruptions in the past.  Many of the claims are highly speculative in nature.  There are over 138 caldera volcanoes in the world, whose crater exceeds 5 miles in diameter, 40 of which are super volcanoes. Evidence shows that when super volcanoes erupt it affects our climate and the environment for many years after.  The following is a list of what some considered the top 7.  It is noteworthy that the more famous ones like Thera (Santorni) volcano in 1620 B.C. (the Atlantis explosion) which resulted in 3 cold world winters or the Krakatoa volcano in 1883 that resulted in 2 cold world winters are very minor in nature.
#1 - 252 million years ago the Siberian Traps a volcano that lasted over a million years is likely the largest.
#2 -  640,000 B.C.  Yellowstone Caldera, ejected 8,000 times the ash and lava of Mount St. Helens in 1980 it had previous ejections.
#3  - 760,000 B.C. Long Valley Caldera, in east-central California, which unleashed 2,000 to 3,000 times as much lava and ash as Mount St. Helens in 1980
#4 - 1.2 million and 1.6 million years B.C,  Valles caldera in the middle of northern New Mexico, west of Santa Fe.
#5 - 72,000 B.C. Toba caldera in North Sumatra, Indonesia, which ejected several thousand times more material than erupted from Mount St. Helens in 1980, others claim 10,000 more powerful but extinction claims are found to be wanting..
#6 – 24,500 B.C. Taupo caldera in New Zealand
#7 – 20,000 B.C. Aira caldera in southern Japan equal to about 50 Mount St. Helens eruptions in 1980
These estimates are likely to change as studies of the 138 volcano calderas continue.

230,000,000 B.C.

In the Dolmite Mountains in Italy in amber was discover two mice looking insects and a fly believed to be the oldest know insects.

200,000,000 B.C.

Pangaea began to split up separating Europe, Africa and the Americas.  Some of the oldest rocks of Pangaea can be found in Canada.  From a geological perspective America is the old world.  More recent research pushes this date back to 480 million years.

140,000,000 B.C.  

Downtown Hong Kong is built on the remains of a super volcano that occurred about this time.   The last super volcano occurred about 24,000 B.C. in New Zealand. 

65,000,000 B.C.  

Most scientists now agree that a huge chunk of space debris struck the earth, blasting dust into the air, blocking the sun and plants died as did the dinosaurs.  There can be little doubt this had a significant impact on the planet.  It is believed the asteroid hit at 7,000 to 40,000 km an hour.  No ice covered the polar regions and some dinosaurs migrated as far north as Alaska.  The asteroid produced 10,000 billion tons of carbon dioxide, 100 billion tons carbon monoxide and 100 billion tones of methane, an amount of carbon equivalent of 3,000 years of modern fossil-fuel burning in less than one week.  Fires broke out around the planet but northern Canada and northern Europe had the least damage.  Some contend it took 10,000 years for the earth to recover, others suggest it was only 100 years.  Some suggest the carbon cycle didn't return to normal for 130,000 years.

India tectonic plate collided with Euroasia.

55,000,000 B.C.  

The north pole was a green belt with surface temps of 18° C, then it went through a burst of super-green growth with  temperatures of 23° C.
During the period of 55 million B.C. to 35 million B.C. the earth was exposed to dramatically global warming  resulting in a boon to primates, our ancestors, which thrive in sultry climates.  The small mammals spread all over the world.  They dived into two groups, the present day animals like lemur and a second group anthropoids who evolved into monkeys, apes and humans.  We don't know when or where this great separation took place or why.  What we do know it wasn't confined to one land mass.  Some argue the anthropoids originated in China, others say in Africa.  Research finding are shifting the arguments from Africa to Asia. 

Anthropoids are definitely migrating from Asia to Africa about this time.  The Africa to Asia migration of anthropoids is estimated to start 38/39 million B.C.

38,000,000 B.C.  

A fossil from Myanmar, Burma suggests anthropoids are from Asia, with full-blown anthropoid features and behavior.  

24,000,000 B.C.  

Between 24 -65 million B.C. Africa was an island.  This year Africa and Eurasia collided and dogs, lions, hippos, antelope, gazelles and hyenas migrated south from Eurasia.  Many African animals from Egypt dated to 33 million B.C. disappeared.  The reason is little understood.

20,000,000 B.C.  

It is believed that the first apes appear in Africa about this time.  Other suggest they did not appear in African until 15,000,000 B.C..  There are more than 40 genera of apes some as small as a house cat or 3 kilograms, to gorilla like at 80 kilograms.

17,000,000 B.C.  

During the period 17,000,000 to 16,500,000 B.C. some assumed the apes in Africa migrated to Eurasia.  Other evidence is  growing that the great apes and humans evolved not in Africa but in Eurasia.  Other animals that migrated to Eurasia include elephants, rodents, pigs, antelopes and aardvarks.

It should be noted that Homo was not the first Hominid to colonize Asia: Pongo (Orangutan, meaning man of the forest) had arrived in Southeast Asia some 15 million years before.  

16,500,000 B.C.  

During the period 16,500,000 to 13,500,000 B.C. some apes returned to Africa from Eurasia.  The great ape that produced the human lineage did not appear in Africa until some 1.5 million years later.

13,000,000 B.C.  

Pierolapithecus Catalaunicus is discovered in Spain and is believed by some to be the link between early humans and the gorillas, orangutans and chimpanzees families.

12,500,000 B.C.  

A 1414 tonnes feathered dinosaur of the tyrannosaur rex family that was called yutyrannus huali lived with average temperatures of about 10°C an unusually cool period in China.

9,000,000 B.C.  

In1963 a piece of Mars was found in Zagami, Nigeria that contained krypton not found on Earth 

During the period 9,000,000 to 6,000,000 B.C. drastic climate changes wiped out most of the Eurasian great apes only two lineages survived, the Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus.  They survived by moving into Southeast Asia and the African tropics.

8,000,000 B.C. to 6,000,000 B.C

Some believe this is the period when we shared the last common ancestor by humans and chimpanzees.  I think this is mostly based on education speculation to narrow the search field.

7,000,000 B.C

Some time over the next million years Sahelanthropus Tchadensis man is living in northern Chad, Africa based on a discovered skull.  Summer 2001.  The site is near Toros-Menalla in the Djurab Desert.  This find is classified as the earliest discovered hominid.  Some contend, like all other animals, humanoids had evolutionary diversity.  It is noteworthy this predates the Ethiopia and Kenya finds and opens a new window of understanding.  What is not answered is how are these early humanoids related to man or are they dead ends in the evolution of man.  It also casts doubt on the origin of man being east Africa.  There is no common agreement of how to define hominids.  More researchers now suggest the evolution of man may have evolved in Europe and Asia before entering or reentering Africa.  Most agree it is a complex affair, the evolution of man.

6,770,000 B.C

Dmanisl, Georgia is discovered skeletons of Homo Habisd.

6,500,000 B.C

Human and gorilla/chimpanzee lineages diverged +/- 1.5 MY

6,000,000 B.C

The French claim the discovery in Kenya of the bones of the earliest known bipedal, upright, hominid and most likely a direct precursor of modern man called Orrorin Tugenensis at Tugen Hills.  February 2001

It is believed that humans differenced from Gorilla and Chimpanzee about this time.

This cooler period lasted until 5,300,000 B.C.

5,800,000 B.C. 

Ethiopiaro, some believe a chimp-like creature walked upright at this time.  Paleontologists believe that upright walking marks the evolutionary split between man and apes.

5,960,000 B.C

The Strait of Gibralter closed tight and the Mediterranean Valley derided up.  The Mediterranean Valley covered 965,000 sq. miles to a depth of 12,200 feet near Greece.  It is believed that it takes about 1,000 years to dry up and this has occurred a number of times.  Others suggest the closure was closer to 5,559,000 B.C.

5,330,000 B.C

The Mediterranean Valley began slowly flooding again to create the Mare Nostrum. 

5,000,000 B.C

The Strait of Gibraltar opened allowing the flooding of the Mediterranean basin, destroying all life in the region.  

The climate changed turning the Sahara Region into a desert.

Ardipithecus Ramidus Kadabba from the middle awash of Ethiopia is discovered believed to be a hominids.  The Aging of the 60 discovered samples are in question.

The Peking Man Site, early excavations in 1921 and 1923 revealed evidence of human habitation from 5,000,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The cave was excavated from 1927-37 yielding 200 human fossils (from 40 individuals) Homo erectus, more than 10,000 pieces of stoneware, several cinder layers indicating fire use in early man, as well as animal fossils from 200 separate species. Tragically the bulk of this material was lost in 1941 during the Japanese Occupation and has never been recovered.

4,500,000 B.C. 

Proto-Hominid is walking upright about this time based on evidence dated to 3,700,000 B.C. in Africa.  It is noteworthy that apes, chimps and humans are about 99% genetically identical.

Ardipithecus Ramidus. a Proto-Hominid remains are discovered at the As Duma site in Ethiopia Afar Region.

4,400,000 B.C.  

A new Homo species is discovered northeast of Lake Turkana, Ethiopia but other independent researchers have not reviewed the findings.  Ardipithecus Ramidus is discovered at Aramis, Eathiopia and is believed able to walk on two feet.  An attribute by some to define human?  Others suggest modern man did not emerge until 200,000 B.C.  After 15 years study some agree Ardipithecus Ramidus is the oldest hominoid skeleton on record.  She (Ardi) stood 4 feet tall weighing about 110 lbs.    This predates 'Lucy' Australopithecus Afarensis at 3.2 million B.C.

4,200,000 B.C

Australopithecus Anamensis (4.2M-3.9M B.C.) is discovered in Kanapoi, Kenya.

4,000,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus (4-1 million B.C.) inhabited much of Africa and is believed by some to be the ancestors of the Homo genus.   Australopithecus Bahrelghazali occupied a region 1,500 miles west of the East African Rift.

The Sterkfontein Caves in South Africa yielded the skeleton remains of the pre-human man called Australopithecus.  Others dispute the dating techniques used to age these finds. 

3,900,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus Afarenis (3.9-3 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.

3,600,000 B.C.  

Bipedal footprints are discovered in northern Tanzania.  Some suggest they represent a different sub-species different from Afarensis (Lucy).
Australopithecus Akarensis (3.6M-2.9M B.C.) is discovered in Laetozi, Tanzania.

3,180,000 B.C.  

The most famous partial skeleton of Australopithecus (4-1 million B.C.) uncovered at Hadar, Ethiopia is nicknamed Lucy and dated to this period.  Some scientists agree that this Afarensis is crossing the line from ape to human.  Some consider Lucy as the mother of humankind.  Some suggest she is a male of her species.  She/he stood upright and some believe made the breakthrough to bipedalism.  Others argue Lucy is a side evolution and not of the main stream to modern humanoid.  They argue that Lucy descendants would have to take a too complex mutation path.  The argue that bipedalism evolved from tree dwellers not ground forgers.

3,000,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus africanus (3-2.3 million B.C.) occupied Taung Southern Africa.

Yeast survived in Siberian in soil frozen from this period of time.  This cool period lasted to 2,400,000 B.C.

2,800,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus Aethiopicus (2.8M-2.3M B.C.) is discovered in Omo Basin, Eathopia.

2,600,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus aethiopicus (2.6-2.2 Million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.  Australopithecus Boisei and A. Aethiopicus (2.6-1 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.  Hominid Australopithecus, who lived 4-1 million B.C., is early man in Africa based upon evolved evidenced, by use of tools.  The classification of this culture as man, depends on one's definition of what is man, as animals also use tools.  First findings are by Raymond Dart in 1924 at Taungs, Transvaal.  Many still believe man evolved much later.  Again some refer to early man and modern man depending on definition.  The definition of man vs. animal may never be established until we can measure the presence of the soul.  Early American culture however believed everything has a soul deserving our respect.

Kadanuumuu or Big Man (5 1/2 foot) found in Ethiopian plains in 2005 confirms that these early human ancestors were fully bipedal

2,500,000 B.C

Homo Habilis (2.5-1.6 million B.C.) occupied Eastern and Southern Africa.  Homo Rudolfensis (2.5-1.9 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.  Homo Ergaster (1.8-1.4 million B.C.) occupied Eastern Africa.  Others define the species differently. Australopithecus Garhi is discovered in Gouri, Eathiopia

Many believe this is the earliest date for evidence of the use of stone tools that some attribute to the Homo species.  Others suggest Proto-Hominid is capable of making and using stone tools.  Some people believe that three species of the Homo genus likely evolved about this time.  Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus and Home Sapiens replaced Australopithecus but when where or how is not known.

2,400,000 B.C.  

Chinese archaeologists announced the discovery in Fanchang County in east China's Anhui Province of 180 stone tools dating back 2.4 million years.

Homo Rudolfensis (2.4M-1.8M B.C.) is discovered Koobi, Kenya.  

The discovery of Homo habilis near Dmanisi, Georgia dispelled the belief they were too primitive nor constructed to be an intercontinental traveler.  They used simple choppers and scrapers not the complex stone tools believed required for migration.  These Hominids are likely the ancestors of Homo Dmanisi who lived here 1,750,000 B.C.  Some are now suggesting there may have been numerous migrations back and forth between Europe, Asia and Africa.  Some are even suggesting that Homo erectus may have evolved outside Africa.  If Europe, Asia and Africa migrations why not America?

2,300,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus Boisei (2.3M-1.4M B.C.) is discovered in Olduvai, Tanzania

2,000,000 B.C.  

Australopithecus Robustus (2-1.2 million B.C.) occupied Southern Africa.  Homo Erectus is believed to have evolved into a separate species in Java about this time.  Traditional experts suggest Homo Erectus evolved from Homo Habilis in Africa about 1,800,000 B.C. but no evidence supports this contention unless the Asia and Africa Hominoids are different species as some suggest.  Some believe homo erectus migrated into/out of Africa over the next two million years.  Recent evidence however does not indicate that it was not necessarily Homo erectus.

Australopithesus  sediba discovered in Malapa, South America could be a transition to the homo species.  It's a creature with an intriguing mix of human and apelike traits, and apparently an unusual way of walking. But they still haven't pinned down where it fits on our evolutionary family tree.

Homo Habilis is discovered in southern Ethiopia.

Homo Habilis occupied caves in Kuruman Hills in South Eastern Africa about this time.

Stone tools are discovered in Riwat, Pakistan suggesting homo erectus occupation.

Some believe mycobacterium tuberculosis dates back to this period having mutated from the hypothetical mycobacterium canettii.  Many are skeptical.  Others contend it may go back to 2 million B,C

Studies of teeth can determine where the ancient peoples lived.  The studies suggested men were basically stationary while females roamed after sexual maturity.

1,995,000 B.C.  

Austealopithecus Sediba was discovered by a 9 year old boy in South Africa.  It stands about 4 feet 2 inches but has a brain the size of 1/3 of comparable modern man.

1,900,000 B.C.  

Some DNA studies suggest there was a major migration out of Africa about this time.  The study suggests it was an interbreeding migration with local peoples.

A new species of humans was discovered in a cavern 40 km from Johannesburg, South Africa.  He walked upright with a height of 4'2" a woman and a boy age 11-13 years old.  They called them Australopithecus sediba.  They lived at the same time as Homo habilis but their brain sizes was 2/3 the size of H. habilis.  A. sediba had longer legs and a pelvis shape to make them a more efficient walker.

Homo Habilis (1.9M-1.6M B.C.) is discovered in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.
Australopithecus Robustius (1.9M-1.5M B.C.) is discovered in Kromdrapt, South Africa.
Homo Erectus is confirmed to be living in Java before Africa leading to speculation that they may have migrated from Asia to Africa.  Others speculate these people are a different species than the later African species.  Homo Erectus appears to continuously occupy Java until about 100,000 B.C.  A jaw, tooth and stone tools found in Longgupo Cave in China and some scientists suggest Homo Erectus originated in China then migrated to Africa.  The actual origin of Homo Erectus is likely to remain unknown and will continue to change location over time as new evidence is found.

1,800,000 B.C. to 2.0 MYA

Evidence at Sangiran Java, anb Mojokerto, Indonesia of a cranium of a  child suggests Homo Erectus existed in this region supporting the contention that Homo Sapiens may have evolved independent of African Homo Erectus.  About fifty other Homo Erectus fossils support this contention.  It is noteworthy that Homo Erectus also first appeared about this time in Kenya, East Africa and the Hsihoutu site in China.  To complicate matters Homo Erectus is discovered at Thilisi, Georgia (Russia).  The Dmanisi, Georgis site has uncovered 4 skulls and 100's of stone tools with animal remains.  They are tiny-brained humans about 1/2 the size of modern humans.   

Homo erectus are discovered in Spain, Republic of Georgia and some believe they evolved into Homo sapien about 200,000 B.C. whereas the out of Africa theory suggests Homo Sapiens migrated out of Africa about 70,000 B.C.

Homo Habilis spread throughout Eurasia between 1.8 MYA and 1.5 MYA

The problem is that within 100,000 years Homo Erectus can and probably did travel to most places in the world.  We tend to under estimate the mobility of people if they are motivated to travel.  The Blackfoot Indians of Alberta, Canada as an example first heard of the horse and walked to New Mexico to obtain some and returned in the same season.  This equates to an easy three-season trip from the Middle East say to Malaysia.

Some suggest Homo Ergaster began about this time in Europe.

1,750,000 B.C.  to 1.8 MYA

Homo Dmanisi man discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia has huge canine teeth, thin brow, uses complex stone tools, had a relatively small brain but is humanoid.  Previous to this find most believed Homo erectus who migrated out of Africa was big brained that gave them the ability to make complex stone tools.  The paleo-anthropologists world has been turned upside down as a result of this find of bones of six individuals.   They believe it is a link between Homo habilis and Homo erectus and the question could be are they coming from or going to Africa or both?  Many palaeontogists refused to accept the overwhelming evidence.  Their tool set included choppers and cutters.  The discovery opened so many questions about our ancestry that one scientist quipped:  "They ought to put it back in the ground."    It is noteworthy that some trates of Homo Dmanisi man turned up in Homo floresiensis of 93,000 B.C. in Flores, Indonesia.

1,700,000 B.C.  

It is said that Yuanmou Man lived 1,700,000 years ago and was the earliest man in China known to the people.  He was found in Yunnan Province.

Homo Erectus (1.7M-250K B.C.) is discovered in Trinil Indonesia
Homo Ergaster (1.7M-1.5M) is discovered in Koobi For a, Kenya
Home Ergaster with his stone tools is discovered at Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia.
Hand axes are dated to 1.37-1.7 million B.C. at the Great Rift Valley (Ethiopia/Kenya) and many speculate that speech is required to pass on this technology.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

Damanisi, Georgia, homo erectus discovered on this site do not represent the conventional paleoanthropological wisdom that suggests the first out of Africa humans are tall, large-brained people equipped with sophisticated stone tools.   These were small, small-brained (1/2 the size of modern man) people equipped with unsophisticated stone tools.  These people likely represent the Euroasia evolved homo erectus people.  Some suggest this is the link between homo habilis and home erectus. Still others suggest we grossly underestimated the diversity of homo erectus.  Thirty people are now working this site and only a fraction of the site's extent has been explored.  It is commonly believed that homo erectus only migrated out of Africa in 1,000,000 B.C.  Some refer to him as Homo Antecessor.

Southeast (Asia) was reached about 1.7 million years ago by Homo Erectus.

1,660,000 B.C.  

About this time period, modern man is evident, based on stone artifacts found in the Nihewan Basin, China

Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

1,600,000 B.C.  

Homo Erectus remains are verified in Java and Turkana, Kenya East Africa where they are manufacturing stone tools.  No stone tools are discovered in Java lending support to a separate cultural identity.  A stone tool is discovered in Riwat, Pakistan dated to this period.  Homo Erectus is living in the Republic of Georgia.  The Turkana Boy an adolescent Homo ergaster is considered by some to be the first hominids with a modern body skeleton.

A stone tool uncovered in Nihewan Basin west of Beijing are similar to those found in 1,750,000 B.C. on the eastern Black Sea coast with Homo erectus.

The hand ax was believed developed in Europe and rapidly spread throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa.

1,500,000 B.C.  

Charred Antelope bones found in South Africa suggests fire may be in use.

Homo ergaster/erectus is evident near Lake Turkana, Kenya from 24 foot-prints in sedimentary layers.

Java, Indonesia is home to Homo Erectus about this time.

Homo Erectus in Southern India are believed to have made 70 stone tools discovered dated between 1.5 to 1 million BC.

1,400,000 B.C.  

Homo Erectus near the Sea of Sea of Galilee, Israel is using the hand axe.  One branch of homo erectus migrated out of Asia to Africa.

Homo erectus first appeared in western Asia about 1.7 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in Indonesia about 1.6 million B.C.
Homo erectus first appeared in western Europe in Spain about 1.4 million B.C.

1,440,000 B.C.  

It was always assumed that Homo Erectus was a descendent of Home Habilis.  Findings in Kenya suggest Homo Habilis and Homo Erectus lived at the same time.

1,360,000 B.C.  

Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site of China are magnetostratigraphically dated 1.36 million years ago

1,270,000 B.C.  

The archaeological site of Xihoudu  in Shanxiof, China is the earliest recorded of use of fire by Homo Erectus,.

1,200,000 B.C.  

A jawbone from caves near Burgus in northern Spain is claimed to be proof that humans lived in western Europe Province about this time.  Several teeth and rudimentary scraping tools were also found among animal bones.  It is believed to be Homo Antecessor. 

Some suggest west Europe was populated since c. 1.2 million ago by Homo Erectus.

1,100,000 B.C.  

Homo erectus is discovered at Gongwangling, China

1,000,000 B.C.  

It is believed that Homo Neanderthal and Homo Devisovans are believed to share the same ancestors about this time.  Neanderthal are predominately European and Devisovans are predominately Asia but they interbreed over time.  Research has suggested the 4% of Neanderthal DNA and 6% of Denisovan DNA are present in modern man but is not found in Africa.  Devisovans are believed to have once ranged widely over Eastern Asia and likely originated in Melanesia as they bear 4-6% of the genetic material of the early Devisovans.  The estimates of Neanderthal in Eurasians are overall 3% but some variations are as follows:
Cambodian 4.4%
Mongolin 4%
Han Chinese 3.2%
French and Sardinians 2.6%
Melanesians 2.5%
Karitianas 0.9% (Brazil, South American, like brought by the Melanesains
We need to keep in mind the evolution of humans in central, eastern and southern Asia is poorly understood and we are likely to see some interesting results in the future.  Also DNA is not well preserved in hot climates and acid environments.

Some people suggest Homo Erectus is differentiated between Homo Erectus African and Homo Erectus Asian about this period.  Others suggest they evolved from separate species.  Australopithecus (4-1 million B.C.) is believed totally replaced by the Homo species about this time.  Some suggest the possible use of fire by Homo Erectus at the Swartkrans, South Africa digs.  Fire is likely in use throughout the known world.  Others suggest that Homo Erectus in China about this time is the ancestor of modern Chinese and not a dead end species as some suggest.  Homo Erectus a tall slender species migrated onto Europe likely from Asia by way of Africa between now and 700,000 B.C.

Homo Neanderthal DNA has been 60% decoded (2010).  One to 4% of Homo Neanderthal DNA is present in non-African peoples.  French, Han Chinese and Polynesian were tested and had similar amounts of Homo Neanderthal DNA.  The two Africans proved negative (no Neanderthal DNA).   It’s noteworthy that African blood type is ‘B’ whereas American Indian blood type is ‘A’.  The Homo Neanderthal genes appear to be survival genes that improve cognitive functions, ability to metabolize food into energy and a role in the shape of the skull, rib-cage and shoulder joint.  It is noteworthy that Homo Neanderthal had a larger skull and had more muscle than Homo sapiens.  He was better adapted at survival in colder climates.
Keep in mind only two bone samples were used, one dating to 40,000 – 32,000 B.C.  Another from 43,000-41,000 BC.  A 28,000 B.C. finger bone from the Denisova Cave in Siberia so far suggests a one million year old DNA not found in Homo Neanderthal or Homo sapiens.  This might bring pressure on the generally accepted out of Africa theory.  We can't just speculate that out of Africa happened before one million BC.  The limited DNA study suggest there was likely no migration into Africa from Euroasia by Homo Neanderthal man after this time.
It’s possible and the unknown Denisova hominid, Homo Neanderthal hominid, and Homo sapiens lived near each other.   We now know that Homo Neanderthal and Homo sapiens inter married, so they can’t be genetically too far apart.  We need to rethink past assumptions about the simple hominoid tree and think a bush instead.  I think it's too early to be definitive but the future looks exciting.

The DNA found in Siberia doesn't match modern humans or Homo Neanderthals, two species that lived in that area around the same time ( 30,000 to 50,000) years ago.  Their analysis indicated the Siberian species last shared a common ancestor with modern humans and Homo Neanderthals about 1 million years ago.  Without a completed analysis of the nuclear DNA, “we are not saying this is a new species,”   The new creature could be an early version of Homo antecessor, a forerunner of Homo Neanderthals and modern humans known from fossils in Spain.   Or, it could be a new species.   In fact, the eventual decision could hinge mostly on the philosophical question of just how different a creature has to be to be declared a new species.

Mounting evidence suggests homo erectus originated in Euroasia and back migrated to Africa rather that out of Africa.

In south Africa near the Kalahari Desert evidence in a cave suggests homo erectus man used fire and tools at this time.

Some suggest Home Heidelbergenis (Heidelbergensis) or Homo Antecessor originated about this time in Europe and lasted to 250,000 B.C.  Some call them Archaic Homo Sapiens.  Some argue they migrated into Africa to become Homo Sapiens.   Others suggest they are the ancestors of Homo Neanderthal.  Still others suggest they are Homo Ergaster 1.8 to 1.5 million B.C. 

Ancestors of a hobbit-like species of humans may have colonized the Indonesian island of Flores as far back as a million years ago, much earlier than thought, according to a new study.  These early ancestors, or hominins, were previously thought to have arrived on the island about 800,000 years ago but artifacts found in a new archaeological site suggest they might have been around even earlier.  These hobbit-like humans, Homo floresiensis or “Flores man“, who stood about one-metre tall and had skulls the size of grapefruit.  “Flores man” is thought to be a descendant of homo erectus and a massive volcanic eruption on the island caused their extinction in 10,000 B.C.

900,000 B.C.  

Growing evidence suggests Homo Erectus (Ceprano) likely roamed Italy, Germany, Spain and Britain about this time.  It is noteworthy that Homo Erectus is in Java by 1.8 million B.C.  Many tools of Homo Erectus dating to 800,000-900,000 B.C. found on the Indonesian Island of Flores suggests they used watercraft to reach the Island.  Other animal evidence suggests no land bridge linked the other Islands to Flores.  Homo Erectus is likely smarter than generally believed.

Homo erectus is unearthed in the Liang Bua cave on Isle Flores in Indonesia.  The Homo Floresiensis a dwarf people in 93,000 B.C. are believed their descendants.

840,000 B.C.  

Some suggest that a major migration out of Africa lasted from this date to 420,000 B.C. based on genetic DNA studies.   Others suggest it was 700,000 B.C.  Another wave occurred 150,000 to 80,000 B.C.  Both migrations were not a replacement but resulted in a interbreeding migration.  The 'Eve Theory' does not stand up to DNA analysis.  Humans expanded again and again into and out of Africa. 

Human ancestors (homo erectus) are know to occupy Flores Soa Basin, Indonesia about this time and it would take a boat to get there.

Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world.  Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C.  The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3.   The next closest was Yellowstone in 2.2 million B.C. that ejected 2,500 Km3

800,000 B.C.  

Some scientists believe the modern human brain started evolving at this time because of climate variability.  Human brains tripled in size.  Climate change turned forests into Savannahs; savannahs became deserts; ice ages came and went.  Early humans who specialized for narrow habitats faded.

Stone tools are discovered in southern China near the Vietnam boarder.
The Trinil beds of Java may date to this period as does the skull from Lantien China.  Homo Erectus at Choukoutien, Mongolia hunted giant sheep, horses, pigs, buffalo, rhinoceros and deer.  It is believed they and their ancestors occupied this region until 130,000 B.C.  They migrated north and south likely following the glacial advances and retreats.  Home Erectus in France is known to be using fire.

Homo Antecessor is discovered in Dolina, Spain.  They used stone tools and hunted deer, bison and rhinoceros.  Evidence suggests they practiced cannibalism.
Researchers in Spain claim to have discovered a link between the Homo Ancestors Homo Neanderthal and so called modern man.
Stone tools on the Indonesian Island of Flores dated to 800,000 to 900,000 B.C. suggests that Homo erectus crossed at least 20 kilometers of water, likely on rafts.  This also suggests they had better mental, technological and linguistic skills than previously thought.

790,000 B.C.  

Early man on the banks of the Jordan River was making fire using flint.

780,000 B.C.  

The magnetic pole changed from south to north for unknown reasons and consequences.  This phenomena is used to date many archaeological finds.

Some suggest Home Heidelbergenis (Heidelbergensis) or Homo Antecessor artifacts date to this period.  Others suggest 400,000 is the oldest artifact.

The Gran Dolina Cave in the Atapuerca Hills on northern Spain the fossils were called Homo heidelbergensis but may represent another distinct form.

750,000 B.C.  

Australian anthropologists contend that Aborigines in Australia originate from Java Man (Homo Erectus) and then Homo Neanderthal.  Human presence is discovered in the Soa Basin of Flores, Indonesia.  

700,000 B.C.  

Some researchers suggest Modern Man and Homo Neanderthals had a common ancestor about this time.

Stone tools at two sites on the Island of Crete are dated between 700,000 and 130,000 B.C.  The tools resemble those made by Homo heidelbergensis and Homo erectus.  This also suggests our human ancestors boated across at least 40 miles of open sea to reach the Island. 

In 2005 scientists said that 32 black flint artifacts, found in river sediments in Pakefield in eastern England, date back 700,000 years and represent the earliest unequivocal evidence of human presence north of the Alps.

Homo Erectus in Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel suggest man separated their living space for food preparation 25 feet away from their eating area.  It was previously believed this social organization didn't develop until 200,000 B.C.

Homo Erectus is located at Isernia La Pineta, Italy (southeast of Rome).  They are using flakes, scrapers and choppers.  Quartzite pebble tools are discovered at Ulauka, Siberia.  Some suggest they are shaped by nature not man.  The Filimoshki site in the Amur River basin is dated 700,000 B.C., others date it as 130,000 and 30,000 B.C. based on different interpretations.  The Indonesian Island of Flores contains stone tools, causing much concern.

Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world.  Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C.  The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3.   The next closest was Yellowstone in 2.2 million B.C. that ejected 2,500 Km3

Homo Erectus is discovered at Lantian, China.

Homo Erectus is discovered at Tighhenif, Algeria.

Anglia man is located in East Anglia, Britain.

Paleolithic sites are found in China as early as this date.  Zhoukoudian, about 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Beijing, China was a natural habitat of human ancestors.

670,000 B.C.  

Homo erectus occupied the Longushan cave. The Dragon Bone Hill site is 30 miles southwest of Beijing. The bones were found in the 1920s-1930s and were popularly referred to as Peking Man.

660,000 B.C.  

Some believe Homo Neanderthal Man genetically split from Homo Erectus about this time.  OR may Homo Erectus split from Homo Neanderthal Man about from this time.  OR maybe they never genetically split because it is believed Homo Neanderthal Man was either replaced or absorbed about 28,000 B.C.  Science is just not sure, yet.

640,000 B.C.  

It is believed that Homo Neanderthal and Homo Devisonans diverged about this time but they were interbreeding with Homo sapiens as late as 40,000 B.C.  What is clear is the Neanderthals, Denisovan and Homo sapiens interbreed and are in fact one species.

630,000 B.C.  

A severe ice age started about 685,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to hot conditions by 625,000 B.C..  Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

600,000 B.C.  

A Homo Erectus skull contains mixed characteristics of features from Java, China and Europe suggesting a more complex pre-history than previously believed.  Paleolithic period (Older stone age) begins, that includes two ice ages, called Gunz-Mindel and Riss-wurm, in Europe.  Evidence includes chipped stone implements, use of fire and burial rights developed during this period.  Some believe tool modification, control of fire and religious belief signals the beginning of man.  This is likely the reason why archeologists attribute religious interpretation to most artifacts.  Others believe the size of brain capacity determines man.  This belief would place modern man as being inferior to Homo Neanderthal man.  Depending on one's definition of modern or man this might be a complement.

Excavations begun in 1921 at Zhoukoudian, China, suggested evidence that Peking Man had mastered fire and practiced cannibalism over this period.

Three archaeological periods make up the Stone Age:

    600,000 - 100,000 B.C. Older Stone Age,

    100,000 -  50,000 B.C. Middle Old Stone Age, and

     50,000 -  10,000 B.C. Upper Old Stone Age.

585,000 B.C.  

A moderate ice age started about 625,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to hot conditions by 570,000 B.C..  Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

525,000 B.C.  
The oldest hominin fossils date between 525,000 to 397,000 B.C. in a Serbia cave.  The sample, lacks features associated with Homo Neanderthals and may come from Homo erectus.

505,000 B.C.  

A severe ice age started about 670,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to cool conditions until the next severe ice age that peaked 425,000 B.C..  Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.


500,000 B.C.  

Pithecanthropus (Homo Erectus), development of early man, using the hand-axe, in Indonesia, China, Africa, and Europe, the earliest evidence of controlled fire is from China and Africa.  The hand axes called Acheulian are still being made until 50,000 B.C.  Paleolithic man is also living in Korea at this time.  Some suggest Homo Erectus is differentiated between African, Asian and European Archaic about this time.  Others suggest they evolved from separate related species.

Bone fragments of proto-humans are found all over China.

In a Serbian Cave in the Balkan Mountains are found what are believe to be the ancestors of modern humans as well as Homo Neanderthal dating to this time.

Homo sapiens (archaic). Skull of adult male found by Greek villagers at Petralona, Greece in 1960.

A human jawbone of about this age, homo Heidelbergensis, was found in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907.

A human skull fragment form Turkey shows signs of mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Others are skeptical suggesting other diseases could cause the sane results.

Zhoukoudian near Beijing is one of the most famous and most extensive. Homo erectus, also known as "Peking Man," is first identified from fossils found in a cave at this rich site that also yields antlers, bones, and teeth from many animals, and evidence for the use of fire.

The Peking Man Site is situated in the Dragon Bone Hill near Zhoukoudian. Since 1921, eight sites of ancient human remains have been discovered. 26 localities where high concentrations of fossils were found have been excavated. 118 kinds of animal fossils and over 100,000 stone wares have been unearthed. These fossils and remains serve as evidence of the existence of humanoid species 500,000 years ago in Zhoukoudian, China.

There is evidence that Homo Erectus has been traveling Africa, Europe and Asia for the past 400,000 years.  Pebble tools are discovered north of Mosul, in the Tigris valley (Iraq).  The hand axe is discovered in Britain.  Britain is much warmer than present as hippopotamus bones were uncovered.

Stone Age:  Some of the earliest relics of Stone Age man in the subcontinent are found in the Soan Valley of the Potohar region near Rawalpindi, Pakistan with a probable antiquity of about 500,000 years.

Ancient Babylonian tradition established the beginning of the world at this time.
The enormous carnivores, saber-toothed cats, hyenas and hunting dogs are extinct in Europe.

Some suggest Homo Neanderthal and modern man differentiated about this time.  Homo Neanderthal was considered the stronger and more intelligent of the Homo Sapiens Men.

Homo Sapiens skeletons discover about this time in China do not differ much from Homo Sapiens skeletons discovered in 20,000 B.C. in China.

Humans have inhabited the Korean peninsula from as early as the Pleistocene era, about 500,000 B.C.

Studies of mtDNA in Europe suggest Homo Neanderthals and humans had a common ancestor about this time.  This is highly questionable because most suggest mtDNA is only good for tracing 50,000 years maybe 100,000 years.  Other question the assumption of one genetic mutation every 10,000 years.  The other concern is this belief is based on a a very small questionable sampling.

460,000 B.C.  

Homo Erectus is located at the Zhoukoudien caves in China.

Kathu Pan South Africa Homo beidelbergensis believed by some to be the ancestors to both Neanderthals and modern humans was using stone-tipped spears.

440,000 B.C.  

The Mittelberg Hill above the village of Wangen, in the Unstrut Valley, near Nebra in central Germany was a major trading center during the Bronze Age (2,500-1,500 B.C.).  A Sun Disk used to chart the night sky was discovered this location dated 1,600 B.C..  This location however has been occupied since 440,000 B.C.

430,000 B.C.  

A prolonged warm period that lasted 28,000 years reached its peak about this time.

425,000 B.C.  

A moderate severe  ice age started about 405,000 B.C., peaked about this time and returned to warmer conditions by 400,000 B.C..  Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

420,000 B.C.  

The youngest Homo erectus (from China) date in this period.

400,000 B.C.  

Members of a Homo Erectus (Homo erectus pekinensis) (Peking Man or Beijing Man) band of people gathered around a fire at Choukoutien Cave in China.  They used stone tools, hunted and gathered plants for food.  It is known that they killed elephant, rhinoceros, horse, bison, water buffalo, camel, wild boar, sheep, deer and antelope.  It is believed they used speech to communicate and had developed a social structure.  Homo Erectus is also living at Terra Amata near Nice.  Evidence of Homo Erectus in Java dates from 1,900,000 to 400,000 B.C.  The evolution from Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens may have begun about this time or as late as 200,000 B.C.  The Choukoutien caves of China are still occupied by Homo Erectus until about 350,000 B.C.  They are controlling the use of fire.  The Swanscombe deposits in Kent, England dates a species of Homo Sapiens to this period.  Homo erectus at Eddsfleet, Kent in southern Britain are killing rhino and elephant, likely with spears and are cutting up the kill with flint tools.  These findings do not support the out of Africa theory in 100,000 B.C. 

Denisovan Man is believed to have evolved 400,000 to 300,000 as discovered in the Altai Mountain cave in southern Russia based on DNA evidence.  It is believed the Denisovan branched to the west to become Homo Neanderthal Man and to Denisovan moved eastward.  They still speculate that Denisovan came from Africa but off no proof just speculation.  The Denisovan DNA is found in Melanasia, New Guinea and Dougainville north of Australia.    

Homo Neanderthals of Schoningen, Germany are using finely crafted, precisely designed and balanced throwing spears.  The three spears found were about 30 years old and used to hunt horses.  The 1.8 to 2.3 meter javelins are examples of very clever wood workers and organized hunters.  That the spears survived for thirty years speaks volumes.

Researchers in Germany in 1997 unearthed wooden spears made of spruce of this age from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. The spears were found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover.

Researchers in 2000 found evidence from a homo erectus skull, Sm 3, of this period that individuals communicated with each other.

Some believe the Arctic Ocean lost its ice cover during a period of warming.

Plant DNA frozen in Siberia is authenticated by Copenhagen and Oxfords and is believed the oldest recovered.

In an Israel cave is found teeth that might represent ancient Homo Sapiens.  The previous oldest Homo Sapiens evidence was 200,000 B.C. in Ethiopia, Africa..

385,000 B.C.  

Some time between 385,000 to 325,000 B.C. on the Roccamonzina Mountains near Campania, in southern Italy walked a fully bipedal, free standing gait man.   He is believed to be homo Heidelbergenis an ancestor of Homo Neanderthal man.  They found footprints and palm-prints in volcanic ash.  It appears he only used his hands to steady themselves on the difficult slope. 

350,000 B.C.  

Skulls found in China in 1989 dated to 350,000 B.C. and again throw doubts that modern man only originated in Africa, so reports the British Scientific Journal.  The skulls are definitely identified as Homo Erectus.  Their facial features are more modern looking than other human groups in other parts of the world.  The brain casings however are those of a primitive Homo Erectus man.  The infusionists believe all mankind migrated out of Africa.  It is noteworthy that the difusionists earlier believed all mankind migrated out of China.  We may never be sure where Homo Sapiens originated or if it is a singular event or a global occurrence.  It is known that early Hominoids traveled extensively throughout the world.

Humans left tracks in the volcanic ash of the Roccamonfina volcano in Italy

Homo Neadderthalensis spread across Europe, Russis, and western Asia from this time until 30,000 B.C.  Their brain sized topped modern man by 1,700 cubic centimeters.

335,000 B.C.  

A ice age started about 400,000 B.C., peaked about this time, had a mid cycle warming period 365,000 and returned to hot conditions by 325,000 B.C..  Ice ages occur at 100,000 year intervals.

325,000 B.C.  

Between 325,000 and 200,000 B.C. the world climate osculated between moderately cool to warm and then hot.

300,000 B.C.  

Clactonian (Clacton, Essex) cultures established themselves in England, France and Germany, as well as, India and Africa.  They are probably an offshoot of Australoids and Asiatic peoples, replacing the Abbevillian, who migrated to Africa carrying the Clacton culture with them.  Fossilized human skulls with Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens features are discovered throughout Europe.  Pre-Neanderthal (Heidelbergensis) is disposing the bodies of their dead in the Sierra de Atapuerca cave in Spain.  In La Sima de los Huesos, Spain or the Pit of Bones are 32 individuals mostly teenagers representing different types of humans.  They had some Homo Neanderthal features yet are as short as modern humans are.

Castel Di Guido or more accurately La Polledrara Di Cecanibbio, Italy is discovered a mud sink hole containing elephas antiquus along with primative instruments made of flint and bone

The largest know ape was Gigantopithecus being two to three times larger than a gorilla and lived in China and southeast Asia.

280,000 B.C
Devisova Hominin was discovered in Denisova Cave aka Aju-Tasch (Altai Kras, Russia) dated to 39,000 B>C. and is believed to be from a common ancestor of Homo Neanderthal dating back to 1 million B.C.  They interbred with the Melanesian people as they have 4.8% DNA of Denisovans as well as 2.5% DNA of Neanderthal man and was well spread out over Asia by 50,000 B.C. or earlier.  This cave has been occupied by homo sapiens since 280,000 B.C. 

270,000 B.C

Molecular analysis of mans Y chromosome suggests modern man originated about this time and all differences between man are really superficial variations.  The science community calls this the Adam theory.  The ancient Sumerian tradition supports this theory but place the timing closer to 246,000 B.C.  The Chaldaeans, Parthians, Medes and Hebrew tradition call the first man Adam.  Other traditions call the first man Thouthos, Phos (Prometheus) or Epimetheus according to Egyptian theology.

260,000 B.C.  

Homo Erectus or another hominid species occupied Siberia at the confluence of the Lena River and Diring Creek considered the cold pole of the world at present time.

250,000 B.C.  

Stone tools are being used in England.

Spear points made from flint first appeared in Europe about this time.

In Siberia stone tools along a river near Irkutsk were dated by radioisotope to about this time.

Some believe the first people arrived the Philippines about this time. 

246,000 B.C.  

Sumerian (Sumer or Shumer) tradition (Iraq) places the creation of man about this time.  Their story of creation explains that the people must be the servant of the gods.  It also accounted for the natural wickedness of humanity being created from the blood of the evil god Kingu.  This early belief that man is intrinsically evil is unique to the Sumerian but would eventually spread throughout Europe.  Some speculate this belief evolved because the erratic climatic nature of Iraq led the people to believe the gods are punishing man for doing bad things.  Many other peoples of the world met with the same natural disasters but did not come to this masochistic conclusion.  The Sumerian story of creation however is the oldest creation story recorded.

The Sumerian believed their culture began in Eridu, Iraq and only two king clans reigned for the next 64,800 years.  The Sumerian is neither Semitic nor Indo-European linguistically and some postulate they are closer to Caucasian.


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