EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 150 - 249


The principle of apostolic succession is invented to establish authority.
The Principle of Religious monopoly is established, non Paulists are heretics.
The Principle of penance is created.
The Eastern Church creates the belief that martyrdom is the way to Heaven.
09/15/2010
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY 250 - 329 AD

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The first list of Roman Popes is created and St. Peter is not included.
The Paulists want to eliminate any reference to Jews in the new Bible.
The Paulist Church excommunicated any Christian Church that does not align with their beliefs.
The Principle of the Universal brotherhood of man is included in the Roman Law.

 

150  

Ptolemy, the mapmaker, at Alexandria knew that the earth is a sphere.  He believed only a third of the northern hemisphere is habitable.  The Apostle's creed is developed to draw the line between Roman Paulists and other Christian groups.  Those who don't profess the Creed are considered as non-Christians subject to excommunication.  This principle of forced absolutism is a Roman tradition periodically applied by the Romans against the Christians and Jews.  This is believed the first time that any of the New Testament is written and only fragments exist from these second generation Apostles of Christ.

Justin Martyr (100-165) explained to Emperor Antoninus Pius why Roman Paulist Christians worship on Sunday.  On the Sun's day all who abide in towns or country come together to trade and Jesus rose from the dead on this day.

154  

Bardaisan (154-222) an Orthodox Christian Edessene has a Gnostic (those who know) hue in his philosophy.  It is noteworthy that the Christian Essene Sect in Egypt is called Therapeutai.  Ephraem the Syrian also an Edessene, in 240 says Mani (216-276) (the Persian) claimed as heralds of his message, Hermes of Egypt, Plato the Greek and Jesus who appeared in Judaea.

155  

Anicetus (?155-166) a Syrian from Emesa and Eusebias is listed a Papa of Rome.  Polycaro the octogenarian Papa of Smyrna having reached agreement on many issues tried to persuade the Roman Paulist Church to adopt the Asia Minor tradition of observing Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month Nisan, the day of the Passover (Quartodeciman).  Rome at this time did not celebrate Easter.  Papa Anicetus (155-166) rejected the Eastern custom of celebrating the Lord's resurrection.  This likely suggests the Roman Paulist Church is split on the issue of resurrection or they are concerned with the Eastern Church gaining more authority over the Western Churches.  Hegesippus a scholar came to Rome teaching anti-Gnostic Christian teachings about this time.  The Jews again revolted against Roman rule this year.

Polycarp (69-155) is Papa of Smyrnia in Asia Minor and is burned alive at public festival.

160  

As a result of the Creed (claiming the resurrection of Jesus) the Christians are considered enemies of the Roman Gods and are accused of abandoning their Greek and Jewish historical traditions.  African Tertullian (160-220) wrote that the Marcion Good God had more in common with the God of Greek philosophy than the God of the Bible.

The first list of the Paulist Bishops of Rome is compiled about 160-185 A.D. and names Peter and Paul as conjointly the founders of the Christian Churches.  The Church at this time is split between the Paulist Sect and the Peter Sect and not until 220 during Callistus I (217-222) reign of Papa of Rome is Peter recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church.

161  

Marcus Aurelinus Antoninus (161-180) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.  He shared the Imperial powers in full equality with Lucius Aurelius Verus.  In law, the doctrine of the universal brotherhood of man, transcending limits of city or station, emphasized the humanizing trend.

164  

Roman legions returning from Syria brought back a plague that began to quickly spread throughout the Empire, depopulating whole cities.  This is during the reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus and the plague ran its course by 180.  Many Romans blamed the Christians for their misfortune.

165  

Antonine plague (measles) was reported 165-180 among the Roman army and is estimated to have killed 5 million in the Roman Empire.

166  

Soter (166-174) an Italian from Campania is listed a Papa of Rome.  As a compromise Easter is firmly established during his reign as previously recommended by the Asia Minor Churches but not during Passover but the Sunday following this Jewish tradition.  Soter papa of Rome dispatched a letter with gifts to the Corinthian Church, Dionysius papa of Corinth agreed to read his letter at service.  A terrible plague from the East seriously depopulated the Roman Empire (166-167).

Hordes of Marcomanni and kindred tribes from Bohemia crossed the Danube attacking the Romans.

167  

The Christian Church is composed of some twenty splinter sects with a fundamental division between the Nostics who believed God's intent is acquired through knowledge (a Greek tradition) versus the Orthodox who believed its a matter of faith based upon the Churches interpretation of scripture.  The Nostic Christians live by the oldest surviving Gospel called the Gospel of Thomas that includes some 114 sayings of Jesus.  The Nostic Christians had some 13 books in their Bible.  The Roman Paulist Christians considered the Nostic Christians as heretics.  The longstanding pagan tradition of religious monopoly is adopted in the Roman Paulist Sect Church as a result of this debate.

168  

Emperor Lingdi of China ruled (168-189)

170

Dionysius of Corinth stated that the custom of the Romans, from the beginning, assisted the brotherhood (Federation of Christian Churches) in various ways and send contributions to churches in every city, thus relieving the want of the needy.  This is a Roman tradition an attempt to secure allegiance to Rome.  This cultural tradition did more to secure the Roman Church power base than any doctoral claims.

172  

The Romans subdued the Marcomanni and imported a considerable number of these people into depopulated areas resulting from the plague.  The Sarmatians attacked the lower Danube frontier.

174  

Eleutherius or Eleutherus (174-189) a Greek from Nicopolis, in Epirus and a deacon of Anicetus Papa of Rome himself became papa of Rome.

175  

The Biblical Acts of the Apostles is believed at this date to be a Christian of the apostolic age, either a thoroughly Hellenistic Jew or more probably, a well educated Greek with some knowledge of medicine.  Most believe it must be by St Luke a Syrian from Antioch, doctor of pagan origin.

177  

Irenaeus of Lyons visited Rome speaking of Lyons suffering grievous persecution and of the New Prophecy on Montanism started in Phrygia.  Commodus (177-192) became co-ruler of the Roman Empire.  He fancied himself a gladiator and armed his opponents with swords made of soft lead, so that the tips bent when a blow struck the Emperor.  He is eventually strangled to death.

178  

Irenaeus (178-200) became Papa of Lyons.  He is a disciple of Polycamp Papa of Smyrna a disciple of John the Apostle.  Irenaeus developed the theory of apostolic succession.  Celsus accused the Roman Christians of adopting a narrow provincial view of God.  God is available to all human beings yet Christians huddled together in a sordid little group.  Irenaeous proposed that only those churches, and those churches alone, which could trace their descent from one of the apostles, were repositories of the true faith, which the apostles had handed down.  This posed a serious problem to the Paulist church of Rome because Paul is not an apostle.  It is likely about this time that the Paulist Church of Rome changed their doctrine of Paul being the founder of the Roman Church to Paul and Peter being conjointly the founders of the Roman Church.  Later they would change this doctrine to make Peter alone the founder of the Roman Church.  Future members of the Paulist Sect would attempt to retrofit history to support their claim to succession from Peter.

The major Christian churches, at this time, which claimed authority from the Apostles  include Jerusalem, Antioch, Corinth, Ephesus, Smyrna, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Alexandria.  Rome at this time may have claimed conjoint authority from Paul and Peter.  There is serious concern that Peter never endorsed any of the Paulist Sect members thereby making the Paulist Church of Rome not of the true faith.

180  

Commodus (180-192) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.

A smallpox epidemic hit Rome and killed 3.5 to 7 million people including Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It was dubbed the Plague of Antonine.

Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons confirms the Greek copy of the Gospel according to the Apostle Judas predates 180A.D. (some suggest 130A.D.) and he calls it a "fictitious history" a Gnostic.  A copy of Judas Iscariot Gospel, a translation from Greek to Coptic (Egyptian), was discovered and carbon dated to 220 to 340.  The Gospel of Apostle Judas claims amongst other things;
        Jesus asked the Apostle Judas Iscarious to act as an agent of Jesus to teach,
        The Human body must die to free the Soul, that will be taken up.
        The nature of Heaven, a secret account only spoken to Judas Iscariot.
                The Soul of every Human Generation will die, the Spirit leaves them..
                There is another 'Great and Holy Generation', no one of Mortal Birth can associate with it.
                There exists a great boundless realm, whose extent no generation of angels has seen, [in which] there is [a] great invisible [spirit].  No thought of the heart has ever comprehended and it was never called by any name.
        The true nature of Jesus was revealed to Judas, while criticizing the other disciples for their ignorance.
                A Great Angel [Angelic], the enlightened Divine 'Self-Generated, emerged from the cloud of knowledge.
                No generation of the people that are among you will know me.
        Judas tells Jesus he has had a vision where he is stoned to death by the eleven remaining apostles.
                Jesus told Judas "You shall be cursed for generations" and then added, "You will come to rule over them" and "You will exceed all of them, for you will sacrifice the man that clothes me"

Paul aka Saul of Tarsus was not an Apostle (one of Jesus disciples) but an Gnostic (Greek for one of Knowledge).  His writings were included in the Bible but other Gnostic writing were discarded.

Other Gnostic writings include the Gospel of Peter (190 A.D.) (some suggest 45 A.D.), the Gospel of Thomas (110 A.D.) (some suggest it predates the four accepted Gospels), the Gospel of Philip, the Gospel of Mary (early 100's A.D.) The Secret book of John (150 A.D.) and the Gospel of Truth (150 A.D.), the Gospel of the Savior.  The oldest surviving full New Testament dates to 350 A.D. a Greek Bible (Codex Sinaiticus) and includes Gospel of John, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Matthew. 

About 130 Gnostic writings existed at this time but only 4 were selected to form the Bible; Mathew, Mark, Luke and John.

Gospel of Peter (190 A.D.) (some suggest 45 A.D.), says Herod was the one who gave the order for execution of Jesus, and Christ's last words were "My power, My power, thou has forsaken me."  [Implying he was Yahweh (God), not the Son of God].  It is noteworthy he described Mary Magdaline as a Disciple. Jesus himself remained silent, as it in no pain.   These things caused the Gospel of Saint Peter to be called heresy.    

The Gospel of Thomas (110 A.D.)  This Heaven [earthly heaven] will pass away, and the one above it will pass away [heaven].  Similar to the Gospel of Judas.  Who will be our leader {when Jesus departs),  Jesus said go to James the Righteous, for whose sake heaven and earth came into being.  Jesus said, "I shall give you what no eye has seen and what no ear has heard and what no hand has touched and what has never occurred to the human mind."  Similar to Gospel of Judas.  When you make the male and the female one and the same [equality], then will you enter the kingdom.  "Whoever blasphemes against the father will be forgiven, and whoever blasphemes against the son will be forgiven, but whoever blasphemes against the holy spirit will not be forgiven either on earth or in heaven."  "Is circumcision beneficial or not?"  He said to them, "If it were beneficial, their father would beget them already circumcised from their mother".  These things caused the Gospel of Thomas to be called heresy.    

 

184  

During an epidemic in China, Chang Chueh led a revolt against the Han Dynasty.  Chueh is killed in 184 but his revolt continued until 204 and that led to the abdication of the emperor in 221, ending the reign of the Han Dynasty.

185  

Origen (185-254) a Father of the Church followed the advice of the Biblical Matthew and after him there grew up a whole Christian Sect who castrated themselves, the better to enter the kingdom of heaven.  This sect persisted into the twentieth century in Russia.  Many eunuchs throughout history became a privileged class in positions of power.

186   

Taupo, a volcano, possibly the most powerful in history, leveled six thousand square miles of the surrounding countryside in New Zealand.

189  

Emperor Xiandi of China ruled (189-220) and ended the Han Dynasty

Until these time the Roman Church had been dominated by Graeco-Oriental philosophy.  Victor (189-198) a Latin African is listed Papa of Rome and is responsible for shifting the Paulist Church of Rome away from Eastern influence to a Roman philosophy.  Victor Papa of Rome commissioned a series of synods throughout the known world to force uniformity upon all the Churches.  The Majority opinion sided with Papa Victor except for the Asia Minor Church.  He attempted to force the Asia Minor Churches to abandon the age-old tradition of observing Easter on the Passover in favor of the Roman decree of the Sunday following Passover.  The Asia Minor Church is excommunicated from the Roman Church over this alleged issue.  His real issue is that the Eastern Churches contend that the Roman Paulist Church is not the true church because its founder is Paul and not Peter.  The Easter issues are likely a diversion tactic.  Victor's action provoked a storm of protest and Irenaeus papa of Lyons sharply remind him that Easter is originally an Eastern Church tradition that the Roman Church had not previously celebrated.  He also excommunicated the Church of Theodotus of Byzantium who taught that Jesus was ordinary until the Spirit descended upon him at his baptism.  He also excommunicated the Gnostic Christian writer Florinus from the priesthood.  Victor Papa of Rome is the first Paulist papa of Rome to have an intimate relationship with the Roman Imperial household.  Roman Emperor Commodus (180-192) had a Christian mistress Marcia and the Papa of Rome obtained the release of many Christians condemned to the mines of Sardinia.  Included is a future papa of Rome Callistus I (217-222) whose name he had deliberately withheld.

193  

Pertinax and Didius Julianus are listed as Caesar this year.  Pertinax reigned for 86 days before he is assassinated.  The army auctioned off the post of Emperor to the highest bidder.  Didius Julianus is beheaded after two months.  Septimus Severus (193-211) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.

198  

Caracalla (198-217) is listed as Caesar.  Zephyrinus (198-217) son Habundius the Roman is listed Papa of Rome.  Some considered him an inept Papa of Rome in his failure to condemn modalism being taught by Noetus, Praxeas and Sabellius that obliterated the distinctions between the persons of the Trinity.  Adoptionism or the belief that Jesus is an ordinary man until his baptism still flourished with Theodotus and Asclepiodotus as the leaders.

The African Tertullian (160-225) of Carthage developed the theory of apostolic succession.  Those churches, and those churches alone, which could trace their descent from one of the apostles, were repositories of the true faith, which the apostles had handed down.  The Churches at this time included Jerusalem, Antioch, Ephesus, Smyrna, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Corinth that claimed descent from one or other of the apostles.  Alexanderia quickly claimed Mark as its founder.  It is noteworthy that Rome claimed Paul as its founder and he is not an Apostle.  Only Jerusalem, Antioch and Corinth claimed direct descent from St. Peter.  This theory is established to counter the growing number of schismatic groups such as Montanists, Gnostics, Adoptionists, Marcionists and other such movements.  It is from this time forward that false document and earlier history is created to secure a Roman Church of authority and power.

199  

Galen (129-199) a Greek philosopher noted that 1/3 of the city Pergamon, Greece  were slaves.  That is 40,000 slaves to 120,000 population.

200  

Slav-Russian (Sarmatia-Mongolian people) is displaced and peopled by Mongolian-Germanic peoples called Scandia Goths, Visigoth (Western Goth) and Ostrogothic (Eastern Goth) mixed with (Mongol, Turks and Hun).  These Goths descended from the north along the Dnieper and Don rivers.  They adopted the Sarmatian tradition to become mounted warriors.  They forced the Slavic tribes to serve them.  They would become known as the East Slavic tribes.  Near the end of the 4th century the Goth rule would be broken by the Hun.

Literacy is remarkably widespread throughout the Roman Empire through public and privately funded schools.  The western region is dominated by Latin while the eastern region uses Greek writings .  The Roman Christians adopted a strategy of absorbing many Roman Religious traditions so as to be more attractive and acceptable to Roman citizens.  The Roman Church headed by Zephyrinous (199-217) wanted to eliminate all reference to Jews from the Bible especially the book of Mathew.  It is noteworthy that no copies of the Gospels predate this period except the Gospel of Thomas by the Nostic Christian sect.  The earliest copy of Mark is 225 A.D.

The proto-Franks expanded to the lower Rhine with two major groups.  The Salian-Franks is the dwellers by the sea and the Ripuarians are the dwellers by the riverbanks.  They formed no permanent confederation at this time.

It is believed the Polynesians reached Hawaii about this time.  Others suggest it was about 600 AD.  Some suggest they came mostly from Canada to Hawaii.

Some contend early sailors used the ships boilers to desalination of sea water about this time.

The Zanjan saltman was aged 40 and stood 6 feet 3 inches and wore fine leather boots, lambs wool trousers and gold earrings.  He was found 1/2 mile down in a salt mine in Zangan province of Iran.. 

 

202

Origen born 182 of Alexandria a disciple of Clement (150-215) teaching at the Catechetical School of Alexandria believed that the Christian life means turning against the world.  He is convinced that martyrdom is the way to heaven.  Future missionaries would adopt this philosophy as an ideal.

The Romans at this time are astonished to discover the freedom of Celtic women who could inherit and dispose personal property freely during or after marriage.  She could be the family head and even discard her husband in favor of another.  She had sexual freedom without shame.  She could be a warrior even hold military command.

209  

Geta (209-212) is listed as Caesar of the Roman Empire.

210  

Dura Europus a middle eastern city contained Roman, Jewish and Christian churches indicating a period of religious tolerance.  It is believed the Roman Church adopted the Syrian tradition of the trinity of God into their own tradition about this time.  This conforms to their strategy to absorb other traditions to attract new converts.

Origen, a presbyter of Alexandria excluded the Epistles of James and Jude from his catalogue of the books of the New Testament.  He makes reference to these books in other writings suggesting he has access to copies.

Horseracing is established in England.

211  

Caracalla (211-217) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.  Others list his reign as (198-217)

212  

The edict of Caracalla extended Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire save for a limited group likely the Egyptians and some others.

216  

Mani (216-276) a Persian believed he was the successor of Jesus ands combined elements of Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism.  He was martyred by the Zoroastrianism priests.  He wrote in Syriac but only the Old Coptic or Greek copies survived.  This religious sect called them-selves Manichaeism.  This sect died out by the 14th century.  St. Augustine was a follower of this sect.

217  

Macrinus (217-218) is Caesar of Rome.  Callistus I (Calixtus) (217-222) a slave of a Christian freeman Carpophorus became Papa of Rome.  Carpophorus had previously established Calixtus (217-222) as a banker but he panicked and fled when the business failed.  There are serious losses to the Paulist Christian depositors.  He is brought back to work on a treadmill then released.  Calixtus a failed banker is charged with brawling in a synagogue on the Sabbath and sentenced to hard labor in the mines of Sardinia.  Victor I (189-198) Papa of Rome did not like Calixtus but Zephyrinus (198-217) Papa of Rome did and obtains his release from prison making him his principle deacon.  Papa Calixtus (217-222) excommunicated Sabellius the leader of modalism but never formally censured papa Hippolytus (217-235) of Rome.  He preached that the Church is a home for sinners as well as saints and freely offered reconciliation, this infuriated the Saints of the Church.  It is believed he is killed (murdered) during a popular riot.

This is the first period in the Roman Church that a position of Bishop of Rome first emerged.  Prior to this time such a position did not exist.  The first list of bishops of Rome is alleged dated from 160-185 A.D. but is likely a later forgery.  This list makes Peter and Paul conjointly the founders of the Roman Church.  No one at that time asserts that St. Peter was a Bishop.  Callistus I is the first to claim Peter as the first bishop of Rome likely to support his own position.

Callistus I (Calixtus) (217-222) a former slave is the first Paulist Papa of Rome to directly invoke Petrine authority to impose his doctrine of penance on all the other Christian Churches.  It didn't work but Stephen I (254-257) would again try by adopting the phrase of the Chair of Peter.

St. Hippolytus (217-235) a Greek Presbyter and chief intellectual of the Roman Church  became what the Roman Church called the first anti-Papa of Rome.  St. Jerome considered him papa of Rome and a prolific author.  Hippolytus Papa of Rome accused Callistus Papa of Rome of modalism and laxity in discipline.  He said Calixtus (217-222) permitted papa's guilty of grace offences to remain in office, ordained men who had been married two or even three times, refused to condemn clergy who married, recognized unions (condemned by Roman law) between upper-class women and men of inferior status and readmitted to the church without penance converts from heretical or schismatic sects.  Hippolytus (217-235) envisaged the Roman Church as a community of saints.

218  

Elagabalus (218-222) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.  He dressed in drag and proclaimed himself as Empress of Rome.

220  

The six Chinese Dynasties covered the period (220-589);  The three Kingdoms (220-265) was the Wei Dynasty (220-264); the Wu Dynasty from (222-280) and the Shu Han Dynisty from (221-263).  This was followed by the Western Jin Dynasty (265-317) then the period of Northern and Southern Dynasties (386-589)

King Wendi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wei (220-226)

'Shu' Han, a kingdom during the Three Kingdoms Period (220-265) This Shu is a one character symbol not a two character symbol.

During the period 220-280 China built a five story ship that could hold 3,000 soldiers.  They invented the paddle wheel to propel the ship.

 The Hsiungnu Tartars regained control of the Turkestan trade routes linking East and West.
During Callistus I (217-222) reign as Papa of Rome is Peter recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church.  Prior to this time Paul is recognized as the first Papa of Rome and it would be another 20-30 years before the tradition of Peter being the first Papa of Rome took shape.

221  

King Xuande of China ruled the Kingdom of Shu Han 221-223 to begin the Shu Han Kingdom (221-263)  The kingdom of Shu competed for control of China when the fall of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.)

 

222 

King Wudi of China ruled (the Kingdom of Wu 222-252) to begin the Wu Kingdom (222-280)

Alexander Severus (222-235) is Caesar of the Roman Empire and tolerant of all religions.  Urban (222-230) son Pontianus, a Roman is elected Papa of Rome.  St. Hippolytus (217-235) still reigned as Papa of Rome splitting the Roman Church.

223 

King Hou Zhu of China ruled the Kingdom of Shu Han 223-263 to end the Shu Han Kingdom (221-263))

 

227 

King Mingdi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wei (227-239)

 

230  

The Teuton, Sennones under Roman pressure federated into the Franks and Alemanni.  Franks means people who are free of the Romans.  To the north of the Germanic-Franks are the other Germanic tribes of Frisians, Saxon, Angles, as wells as the Jutes and Lombards.  Pontian (230-235) a Roman son Calpurnius is the papa of Rome.  Origen the outstanding Greek theologian is expelled from Egypt by Demetrius papa of Alexandria.

 The St. Georgeous Church was built in Jordon. In 2008 archeologists found a cave under the church with evidence that it was used as a church by 70 disciples of Jesus in the first century after his death, which would make it the oldest Christian site of worship in the world.

235  

Maximinus Thrax (235-238) became the Roman Emperor determined to strike at Roman Church leaders.  He arrested both Hippolytus (217-235) Papa of Rome and Pontian (230-235) Papa of Rome deporting them to Sardinia.  Pontian (230-235) Papa of Rome abdicated September 28, 235 being the first Papa of Rome to do so.  This however did not save his life.  Both Papas's died shortly from harsh treatment at Sardinia that is known as the Island of death.  Some Church historians have attempted to detach from Hippolytus some of his writings and assign them to another hand.

Anterus (235-236) a Greek became Papa of Rome and died a natural death the following year.  Papa Donatus of Carthage excommunicated papa Privatus of Lambaesis at the Africa synod.  Papa Fabian (236-250) of Rome later supported this action.

236  

Fabian (236-250) a Roman became Papa of Rome and Emperor Thrax did not harass this Papa.  Emperor Gordian III (238-244) and Emperor Philip the Arab (244-249) also showed sympathy towards this Papa of Rome.  Fabian Papa of Rome held influence in the Roman Courts and used this position to restructure the Roman Church.  Donatus Papa of Carthage condemned Privatus Papa of Lambaesis at an African council with the support of the Papa of Rome.  The Roman Church speaks of a great church with a single rule of faith that shuns extremity and eccentricity.  The Roman Orthodox Church outlawed the Gnostic, Marcionites and Montanist sects of Christianity.

238 

Gordian I and Gordian II are listed as the Roman Emperor this year. Roman Emperor Gordian III (238-244) dropped the policy of Christian persecution.

230 

The Kingdom of Wu sent 10,000 troops to Yichow (Taiwan) but didn't achieve domination and it was not rediscovered until the 1600's

240

King Shaodi of China ruled the Kingdom of Wei (240-253)

Ephraem the Syrian also an Edessene, in 240 says Mani (216-276) a Persian, claimed as heralds of his message Hermes of Egypt, Plato the Greek and Jesus who appeared in Judaea.  Mani created the sect Manichaeism.  He believed he was the successor of Jesus but also combined elements from Buddhism and Iran's fire-glorifying Zoroastrianism.  This creed spread from North Africa to China but died out in the 14th century.  Their belief called for freeing the good (light) trapped in human bodies regarded as inherently evil, or dark.  He died in prison in Iran in 276 at the hands of the Zoroastrians.

244  

Philip (244-249) is Caesar of the Roman Empire.

249

Messius Quintus Traianus Decius (449-251) persecuted those who would not sacrifice to the Roman emperor, likely the Jews, Roman Christians and other non-loyal sects.  In 250 he arrested the papa of Rome where he died.

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