EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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Theoderic (1100-1102) is elected pope by the Pope Clement supporters. Pope Paschall II captured and imprisoned him after only 105-day reign. The Pope Clement party immediately elected Pope Albert or Adalbert (1101-1101). Some of his followers succumbed to bribery and turned him over to Pope Paschal II for imprisonment. About this time the cardinal priests and cardinal bishops are becoming the College of Cardinals or the corporate political body of the Roman church.
The manufacture of silk cloth had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.
Emperor Huizong of China reigned (1101-1125) in The Northern Song.
The Westminister Council in England outlawed "the selling of men like brute animals". This is likely in response to Viking slave raids as well as African slave raids on England. This however didn't stop England from slave trading Africans in the future.
The first recorded use of fireworks is note in China.
Silvester IV alias Maginulf (1105-1111) is elected pope by Roman aristocracy who claimed Pope Paschal II is guilty of simony and heresy. Bloody fighting erupted in Rome as Pope Paschall II tried to regain Rome. When Silvesters money ran out so did his support and he had to abandon the city.
King Henry I (1100-1135) invaded Normandy and captured King Robert. Geoffrey Plantagennet is married to Marilda the daughter of King Henry I and they rule Anjou that is south and west of Normandy.
Pope Paschal II (1099-1118) is driven out of Rome by rioting and again by Emperor Henry V in 1117. The future pope Gregory VIII (1118-1140) accompanied the Emperor into Rome.
Hugues de Payens (d-1136) established the Knights of Templar vowing poverty, chastity and obedience, living monastic lives and waging war on the enemies of the cross.
Gelasius II (1118-1119) of the Pope Paschal party is elected pope in Sta Maria in Pallara. He is immediately brutally attacked and imprisoned by Cencius Frangipani head of the Patrician family who detested Paschal. The Romans led by the city prefect set him free. Emperor Henry V (1106-1125) marched on Rome forcing Pope Gelasius to flee to his native Gaeta. The Emperor installed Gregory VIII (1118-1140) as pope. Pope Gelasius unable to regain Rome withdrew to France.
King Baldwin I of Jerusalem died this year and King Baldwin II succeed him. A group of nine French knights presented themselves to King Baldwin II of the Jerusalem Kingdom. These knights would swiftly grow into on of the most powerful organizations. The called themselves the Poor Knights of Jesus Christ. They took a vow of chastity, obedience and poverty with a mission to protect the roads to the Holy Land especially the pilgrims. They lived in the Temple of King Solomon, Jerusalem. They changed their name to the Knights of the Temple of Solomon and this is shortened to Knights Templer. Those Monk Knight Templers are a religious order but they are licensed to kill. The Templers are a secret religious order. Some believe they believed in some of the Gnostic philosophy including the outlawed female goddess Sofia of wisdom
Zhu Yu described the use of water tight bulkhead compartments in the hulls of Chinese ships. This allowed ships to receive damage without sinking as only one compartment of many are compromised. This technology was used in the 20th century by the Titanic. The difference was the Chinese bulkheads were permanent, the titanic had sliding doors. The Titanic fatal error was to say "Even God can't sink her". This technology likely accounts for the lack of Chinese ship wrecks before 1200 A.D. After 1200 the bulkhead design was compromised to hold more cargo. Then the wrecks n8umbered in the thousands in the South China sea. Trading was most common between China, Arab Countries, Egypt, India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Japan, Metal ore, manufactured goods, especially metal objects, ceramics, spices and cloth were the most common trade goods. This is based on wrecks after 1200 but likely also represents pre 1200.
Callistus II (1119-1124) related to the royal houses of German, French and English and an anti-Paschal is appointed pope. Emperor Henry V changed his support allowing Pope Gregory VIII to be sent into exile.
The French crusaders who controlled Jerusalem married Syrian and Armenian Christians or even baptized Saracens. Fulcher de Chartes wrote they are no longer Frenchmen but Palestinians who are accepted as fellow countrymen. The local Christian churches are treated with contemptuous tolerance by the Latin Christian churches. The French Kingdom of Jerusalem however retained French as the language of administration and the ruling class claimed to be French, yet they embraced many Moslem customs including the veiling of their women.
This year the Knights of Templars had a rival, the Order of the Hospital of St. John the Baptist (Hospitallers or Knights of Malta). Friar Raymond du Puy in Jerusalem succeeds Gerard the founder as master this year. This Religious Order didn't become military until 1136. St. Bernard made it possible for them to take up the sword. They differed from the Templars in that women are allowed into the order.
Documents refer to Huges de Payens as the Master of the Knights of the Temple (Templars) although it wouldn't de endorsed by the Christian council until 1128. The first time in Christian history soldiers would live as monks. Killing for Christ is not homicide, to kill a pagan is to win glory, so wrote St. Bernard a supporting founder of the order. Isaac of Etoile an English mystic wrote that the order of the fifth gospel (Templars) that force infidel to accept the faith at the point of the sword could be an occasion of many future evils.
Honorius II (1124-1130) is elected pope but itís a turbulent one. The Pierleoni family and Frangipani family tangled at sword point during the election. The cardinals are also split over this election. Celestine II alias Teobaldo (1124-1126) is also elected pope. The Frangipani family attacked the new pope striking severe wounds to the new pope. He is neither forced nor persuaded to resign.
King David I (1124-1153) began the practice of establishing Anglo-Norman families in Scotland. Of the early charters none survived except the Annandale charter that gave 200,000 acres to the Bruces.
Emperor Qinzong of China reigned (1126-1127) thus ending The Northern Song Dynasty.
The Song Empire in China is forced to retreat south of the Tangtze River due to expansion of the Chin Empire to the north being pressured by Mongol horsemen even further to the north. The Song created a vast navy to protect their new Tangtze River boundary.
St. Bernard of France the most powerful of Church members endorsed the Knights Templer and the obscure Religious Order rapidly grew in stature and numbers. They became one of the wealthiest of the Religious Orders.
The Southern Song Dynasty is (1127-1279)
Emperor Gaozong of China reigned (1127-1162) of The Southern Song Dynasty.
Innocent II alias Gregorio Papareschi (1130-1143) a Roman
is clandestinely elected pope by a minority of cardinals. When the
majority of cardinals got the news they refused to accept the coup and
this suggest Innocent is an anti-pope. The majority of the cardinals
and people elected Anacletus II alias Pietro Pierleoni (1130-1138) of Jewish
ancestry as the rightful pope. Once elected Pope Anacletus dominated
Rome through the wealth, influence and weapons of his family. Both
popes are consecrated on the same day resulting in an eight-year schism.
Pope Anacletus aligned with Norman Roger II (1095-1154) who he granted
the crown to Sicily, Apulia and Calabria. Pope Innocent fled to France
but is recognized as pope except in Scotland, Aquitaine and southern Italy.
His allies included Louis VI of France (1108-1137) and Henry I of England
(1100-1135). King Lothair III (1125-1137) also is swayed to Pope
The Holy Knights Templer with their newfound wealth and recruits returned to the Holy Lands to smite the infidels.
Shen Kuo of China reasoned that climate changes over time. He discovered preserved bamboo in a dry cool northern location. Bamboo only grows in warm damp humid conditions.
China established the first standing navy, believed to be the first in the world.
Pope Innnocent II convinced King Lothair III (1125-1137) the German to march on Rome. Rome could not be taken and Pope Innocent fled to Pisa.
Alfons lo Batallador died leaving his Kingdom of Aragon, Spain to the Templars, the Hospitallers and the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre.
An earthquake at Aleppo, Syria killed 230 thousand people.
The Roman Catholic Church under Pope Innocent II the anti-pope (1130-1143) entrenched mandatory celibacy among priests. Prior to this time priests, many Popes and the apostles themselves are allowed to marry. Two other popes existed at this time Pope Anacletus II (1130-1138) and Pope Victor IV (1138-1139). Any Church rulings during this period must be questioned.
Celestine II alias Guido (1143-1144) a supporter of Pope Innocent and recommended by him is elected pope.
Lucius II alias Gherardo Caccianemici (1144-1145) is elected Pope. Rome established a senate independent of the Holy See. Giordano Pierleoni brother of Pope Anacletus II became leader of the senate called Patrician of Rome. The people of Rome are demanding independence from ecclesiastical control and the restriction of the clergy to spiritual functions. Pope Lucius decided to take up arms with himself at the head of the army to revolt against the senate. His assault on the Roman capital is unsuccessful. He is injured in the assault and died shortly thereafter.
Somerled (d-1164) (meaning summer sailor) of Iona a Viking-Gaelic mixed blood married the daughter of Olaf the Black a Viking King of the Isles and King of Man. He acquired the Lorn of Argyle as his share of his paternal possession and the southern portion of the Isle of Man through this marriage. They had two sons, Dugall (MacDougal) and Angus Og (MacDonald). Somerled (d-1164) is known as a conspicuous disturber of the peace.
Eugene III alias Bernardo Pignatelli (1145-1153) is elected immediately following the death of Pope Lucius and only later heard that he is pope. Pope Eugene refused to accept the popular commune that rejected the popeís temporal powers so he consecrated at Farfa 40km north of Rome and resided at Viterbo. A bull on December 1, to Louis VII of France proclaimed a second Holy Crusade (war) against the Turks and Byzantium.
Some contend the second Holy War led by Louis VII was (1145-1147) while others suggest it was (1147-1149)
Pope Eugine III traveled to France to forward the Crusade but his secret mission is to seek the help of Conrad III of Germany (1138-1152) and Roger II of Sicily (1095-1154) to conduct a Holy War against the rebellious Romans. Conrad III however wanted to join the French against the Turks and Byzantium.
The second Holy War (1147-1149) passed through Constantinople the on to Antioch. It is the most impressive crusade in scope but it failed.
St. Bernard summoned all Germans to a crusade against the Wend people who lived across the Elbe River.
Emperor Alfonso VII captured Calatrava, Spain and entrusted it to the Templar Order of Knights.
Pope Eugine III (1145-1153) excommunicated Arnold of Brescia (d-1155) because he allied himself with the Rome commune and denounced the pope as a man of blood.
Islam reaches the Philippine Islands and Borneo.
The Maori the indigenous Polynesian people arrived New Zealand about this time.
Pope Eugine III (1145-1153) finally reached an understanding with the Roman Senate and they allowed him to be installed precariously in Rome.
Louis VII obtained an annulment of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine on the grounds of her misconduct with 19 year old Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy.
Matilda of Anjou called a truce to her nineteen-year war with England provided her son Henry II would be made king of England and Normandy. Henry II became king 1154 and died 1189. Anastasius IV alias Corrado (1153-1154) a Roman is elected pope. This pope established Peter's Pence through the efforts of the next Pope Hadrian IV (1154-1159) in Norway and Sweden.
Somerled (d-1164) Gaelic and Norse by birth (ancestor of clan Dougall and Donald) allied with Donald MacHeth in a rebellion against King David I (1124-1153) of Scotland. He also quarreled with the Norse King of Man.
Hadrian IV alias Nicholas Breakspear (1154-1159) an Englishman is unanimously elected pope. The community had complained of his excessive strictness. Western France with rebellious vassals split into small feudal enclaves Brittany, Maine, Anjou, and Poitou. The Greek and Russian Orthodox churches split from the Roman Catholic Church over the issue of original sin. Pope Gregory I (590-604), the Great who emphatically stated that Christ alone is conceived without sin, the sex act always involved sin, Mary is therefore conceived in sin and committed actual sin; the New Testament said so. The Roman Catholic Church reversed Pope Gregory's doctrine and insisted that Mary is without original sin, to state otherwise would be to make Christ appear all too human. As a result the Greek's are considered heretics and traitors not to be trusted by true Christians. The hostility of the Greeks towards the Latin's is great and continues into the twenty-first century.
The Knights of Templar and Hospitallier are the greatest landowners in the country. The Templars are also the bankers of Jerusalem including the issue of bills of exchange. The Templars conveyed 6,000 pilgrims each year to the Holy Land. They could be trusted not to sell the passengers into slavery as did some Italian merchants. They exported spices, silk, dyes, porcelain and glass taking full advantage of their customs dues exemption. The local Bishops and clergy wrangled with the Orders over dues, tithes and jurisdictions. The Patriarch of Jerusalem traveled to Rome to ask the Pope to place the military orders under his authority. Pope Hadrian IV (1154-1159) upheld their independence and any financial obligation from the local church. Jacques de Vitry said the Templars owned no individual property, but in common they seemed anxious to possess everything. Pope Hadrian IV (1154-1159) called the Templars the new Mackabees. They had an extensive spy network and employed assassins using poisoned knife, flat cakes being their trademark and terrorized Moslems and Christians alike.
Pope Hadrian IV (1154-1159) approached the German King Frederick I Barbarossa (1152-1190) to conduct a Holy War against the Romans and William I of Sicily (1154-1160) who he said had attacked the papacy. The pope had Arnold of Brescia arrested and executed but could never bring the Roman commune to heel.
Pope Hadrian IV committed treason and alienated himself from the majority of the cardinals by making William I of Sicily King of southern Italy with special rights over the church.
The Templar Order abandoned the fortress of Calatrava, Spain fearing their ability to defend their position. The Cistercian abbot, Ramon Sierra offered to defend Calatrava and is accepted. The Knights of Calatrava as an Order is created.
Alexander III alias Orlando Bandinelli (1159-1181) a pro Viking and anti Roman is elected pope but had to flee for his life. There are violent scenes because it had been agreed that the election must be unanimous and many cardinals did not agree with the decision. Victor IV alias Ottaviano (1159-1164) is elected pope with the support of the Roman Senate and the people of Rome, causing an 18-year schism.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum occurred between 800 - 1300 A.D. with the Medieval Climate Anomaly occurring 1159-1176. Many believe the MWP was warmer in Europe than 20th century climate. There is insufficient data in the southern hemisphere to support the European data. Australia data is wanting. The Antarctica date is some times the exact opposite of European data suggesting an unknown climate anomaly or a poorly understanding of the European data. Ice core data, sea surface data and tree ring data don't always agree. La Nina, El Nino oscillation patterns combined with the changing gulf stream intensity causes climate anomaly. Another significant factor is the jet stream stalling and change. Sun spot activity cannot be tracked over time. Some believe we just don't understand climate or have the ability to model it.
In Ireland tree ring analysis showed a strange anomalies occurred this year. For about 200 years there was rapid growth then abruptly in 1159 the tree ring growth virtually stopped until 1176 when the growth returned to normal. This has been interpreted as Global Warming before 1159 followed by Global Cooling for 17 years. The real question is was this phenomena regional or global, and was it caused by cold, lack of sun or lack of water. If it was global then Siberia and Canada tree ring data would support the Ireland data. Also southern hemispheric data would also support the Ireland data. If not then it might be northern hemispheric only or just regional. If regional then the Gulf Stream is suspect. However Ireland tree ring analysis suggests that tree growth virtually stopped from 1159 to 1176. Some think the warming gulf stream may have stopped. Others think that the sun was masked by a comet or asteroid striking the earth. Others suggest it was caused by volcanoes but critics say that only lasts for a year or two before settling out. The other option is drought. See 2354 B.C. in European section for a similar tree ring anomaly. Other dates are also offered but most are wanting.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499