EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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The doctrine of one holy, catholic and apostolic church outside of which there is no salvation or remission of sins is created.
A doctrine is established that saints don't go to heaven, they are held until final judgment.
These doctrines are created by the pope they called the 'Son of Satan'.
The belief that a disobedient wife can be beaten has Church support.
The Britons establish the principle that all the animals of the forest belong to the Lords.
The ancient principle that all creatures belong to God is being replaced.
This century and likely in previous centuries it was common practice for the monks and other scribes who worked on making copies or translating ancient works to amend, delete or add to the works. This was not confined to religious works but even relatively new writings like the Description of the World by Marco Polo that now has some 150 differing versions that are known. Some even question if the original works actually represent the actual travels of Marco Polo as an example.
The Norman Lords loved hunting and drove the English peasants out of the forests and punished them severely if they killed any forest animals. The Roman Church taught that women should obey their husbands, be pure and holy. Like Eve, they could not be trusted and are a moral danger to men. Such religious teaching led men both to worship and also to look down on women and led women to give in to men's authority. A disobedient wife is usually beaten and the Church supports this practice until the Twentieth century. The Mongolian Horde held to a principle of religious tolerance and practiced a form of Sky worship and Shamanism. The Golden Horde officially endorsed Islam and in China endorsed Buddhism. In Southern Mongolian Russia Empire they wavered between Christianity and Islam.
Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) is observed sitting on the throne, Constantine's crown on his head, a sword in his hand, chanting remorselessly, "I am Pontiff, I am Emperor. He commissioned or permitted the erection of so many statues of himself the some people accused him of encouraging idolatry. Pope Celestine V had said of him "You leaped on the throne like a fox, you will reign like a lion, you will die like a dog." He proclaimed 1300 a year of jubilee (a holy year) with plenary indulgences for pilgrims to the Apostles shrines. Pope Boniface made three of his nephews cardinals bestowing vast lands and possession on them. The Pope had a married woman and her daughter as his mistresses. Dante said he turned Peter's burial-place into a sewer. Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) in a foul mood having leveled Palestrina killing some 6,000 people prepared a new Bull to the universal church. "There is but one holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church outside of which there is no salvation or remission of sins." I the Pope, am the one head, with Christ and Peter, of the church. This church is the Ark of Salvation; anyone outside it is doomed to drown forever, especially Greek Christians who refuse to admit the pope is Shepherd of the whole flock. He who denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter wrongly interprets the Lord's words. Both swords, the spiritual and the material are in the power of the Church. The spiritual is wielded by the Church; the material for the Church. The one by the hand of the priest; the other by the hand of kings and knights at the will and sufferance of the priest. One sword has to be under the other; the material under the spiritual, as temporal authority in general is under the spiritual. We declare, announce and define that it is altogether necessary for salvation for every creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff. Now the whole Roman Church knew that God's things are God's and Caesar's things are God's too.
King Philip IV (1285-1314) of France sent a small force to Rome to sack the Vatican and imprison this Satan's son an imposter anti-Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303). His imprisonment unhinged him and he kept banging his head against a wall and nibbled his arm incessantly like a dog worrying a bone, he died alone and unloved by anyone. Pope Celestine V (1294) had said of him "You leaped on the throne like a fox, you will reign like a lion, you will die like a dog." An insane Pope speaks to the universal church on matters of faith and morals and all future Popes must take up the two swords against the laws of Jesus Christ and millions of innocent people will die. The Roman Church had become the beast. Others suggest he is rescued by the citizens and returned to Rome where he died broken in body and spirit.
King Philip IV (1285-1314) of France began an attack on the Knights Templar Order, jealous of their power and privileges and envious of their wealth. The Inquisition accused them of blasphemy and idolatry. They are accused of denying Christian doctrines, giving homage to Satan and worshipping an idol called Baphomet (Mahomet).
The population of London is about 40,000 people while Paris contains 80,000 people. Venice at this time contained 100,000 people.
Europe and are enslaved in southeastern Europe.
Europe started into what is called the Little Ice Age (1300 to 1800) some believe as a result of the slow down of the gulf stream warm waters.
It is believed the Catholic church first developed a marriage ceremony about this time.
It is believed the Polynesians reached Auckland Islands, a sub-Artic Island south of New Zealand. about this time.
The best off in English society, the average life expectancy between 1301 and 1325 during the Great Famine it was 29.84.
Benedict XI alias Niccolo Boccasino (1303-1304) a Dominican is unanimously elected pope. The Colonna cardinals being excommunicated are excluded from the election. He absolved the Colonna family from excommunication but did not restore the cardinals nor return confiscated property. The other Roman families are outraged and the pope fled Rome.
Famine occurred in France 1304-1305.
Clement V alias Bertrand de Got (1305-1314) is elected pope after eleven months of bitter debate and intrigue. The pope created ten new cardinals, nine are French of which four are nephews; further creations in 1310 and 1312 ensuring French domination. He intended on returning to Rome but on the Kings insistence settled in Avignon. Romans considered this the beginning of a seventy-year Babylonian captivity of the papacy.
King Robert Bruce I (1306-1329) an Anglo-Norman (Viking) of Scotland had not the sympathy of Scotland. The new king is struggling west and is all but cut off at Dalry near Tydrum by the Chief of the MacDougall a Gaelic-Viking, whose descendants long possessed the Brooch of Lorn, said to have been torn from his shoulder in this action. He defeated the English army in Scotland in 1307. Edward I (1272-1307) died on the way to battle and on his grave is written, Hammer of the Scots. Pope Clement V (1305-1314) excommunicated Robert I and two bishops who supported this Scottish rebel.
October 13 (Friday) Philip IV the Fair, King of France (1285-1314) born 1268, died 1314. He was better known as a "useless owl". On this day hundreds of Knights Templar in France were simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip the Fair, to be later tortured into admitting heresy in the Order. The Knights Templar were a 200-year-old military order, supposedly answerable only to the Pope. But Philip used his influence over Pope Clement V (1305-1314), who was largely his pawn, to disband the order and remove its ecclesiastical status and protection in order to plunder it.
Emperor Wuzong of China reigned (1308-1311) of the Yuan Dynasty
King Robert Bruce I (1306-1329) of Scotland overran the north and turned to the west and made himself master of the MacDougall stronghold of Dunstaffnage.
The Archbishop of Riga and his four bishops wanting to control the city asked Pope Clement V (1305-1314) to suppress the Teutonic Order because of its luxury, cruelty and injustice. They would later accuse them of sodomy and witchcraft. The clergy also appealed to the heathen Lithuanians to oust the Order.
The Hebridean Kingdom of MacDougall is lost to their related clan of MacDonald.
In 1310 and 1330 northern Europe saw some of the worst and most sustained periods of bad weather in the entire Middle Ages, characterized by severe winters and rainy and cold summers. Some suggest this was a precursor to the Great Famine of 1315-1322.
Famine occurred in France in 1310.
May 12: Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome until Pope Clement V officially dissolved them in 1312 at the Council of Vienna.
The Mongol began the extermination of Chinese peasantry
and 35,000,000 people are killed between 1311-1340. Some suggest this is
not true. Others say: Khubilai Khan who ruled China until his death in 1294 was reported by Chinese writers of having killed 18,480.000 Chinese to maintain his throne. Some place the overall murder of Chinese over the
centuries range from 34 million to 90 million. The Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) was considered
particularly brutal toward the Chinese. It is suggested more Chinese are killed
maintaining the Dynasty than in the actual conquest. These likely inflated figures (35 million) likely include the deaths by flooding of the Yellow River because the Mongols failed to maintain the irrigation systems.
Emperor Renzong of China reigned (1312-1320) of the Yuan Dynasty
Pope Clement V (1305-1314) disbanded the Knights Templar Order for heresy involving magic. Actually this Pope was a puppet of King Philip IV of France who wanted the Knights Templar assets. He summoned Jacques de Molay Grand Master of the Knights Templars in 1307 and imprisoned him.
King Edward II (1307-1327) invaded Scotland and King Robert Bruce destroyed his army at Bannockburn, near Sterling.
England banned football (soccer) for being too violent.
Guo Shoujing (d.1314), Chinese astronomer, died. He developed water clocks with temperature compensation and escapements to provide high resolution time accuracy for astronomical observations, a “pinhole camera” to sharpen shadows cast by the sun and moon, mathematical tools for polynomial generation and interpolation, and other inventions for measurements.
March 18: King Philip IV and Pope Clement V (1305-1314) had the last Grand Master of the Knights Templars, Jacques de Molay, burnt at the stake in Paris. According to legend, de Molay cursed both King Philip IV (1285-1314) and Pope Clement V (1305-1314) from the flames, saying that he would summon them before God's Tribunal within a year; as it turned out, both King and Pope died within the next year. Philip died a grisly death during a hunt when he was mauled by a wild boar It is noteworthy that 39 leaders of Knight Templar were also burned at the stake this year. The Vatican's closed their Secret Archives on this matter from the 17th century to the 19th century. These secret files were opened and published October 25, 2007 confirming the Knights Templar innocence and effectively condemning Pope Clement V (1305-1314).
The Great Famine struck northern Europe, some say caused by war and the 'Little Ice Age'. Millions would die from starvation, disease, infanticide and cannibalism. Some say regional cooling lasted 1315-1317 others suggest it lasted 1315-1322. The Great European famine death toll for (1315-1317) was 7.5 million throughout Europe.
The Great Famine was restricted to Northern Europe, from Russia in the east to Iteland in the west, fromScandinavia in the north and bounded in the south by the Alps and the Pyrenees. Some suggest the Atlantic Conveyor belt or the Gulf Stream might have stopped or slowed during this period..
Famine occurred in France in 1315–1317. England the most prosperous at this time also suffered famine.
In France Parisian bakers were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the Great Famine.
England experienced a great famine brought on by too much water in the years 1315-1316.
John XXII alias Jacques Duese (1316-1334) is elected pope after two years debate split along country lines.
Four Franciscan Spirituals are burn at the stake for refusing to abandon their belief of living in poverty on orders of Pope John XXII. The Franciscan Spirituals believe they follow orthodox teaching that Christ and the Apostles owned nothing as their own. This dangerous Christian principle could undermine the very foundation of the Roman Church.
King Dinis did not appreciate the power of the Order's of Knights in Portugal and appealed to Pope John XXII (1316-1334) to expropriate the Orders land holdings. The Pope refused so King Dinis created his own Order of the Knights of Christ installing them in all Templar locations.
Two regents of Castilian perished in the disaster of the Vega and the frontier towns are so horrified they formed a league to make peace with the Islamic Kingdom of Granada (southern Spain) at any cost.
King Philip V of France made skin disease a capital crime and he accused lepers of conspiring against the government and he put many to death.
Witchcraft was added to the list of heresies against the Roman Catholic Church. The tortures imposed to obtain confessions to witchcraft were of the most deprived imagined by man. They were believed by many to be demonic in nature.
Emperor Yingzong of China reigned (1321-1323) of the Yuan Dynasty
Large numbers of Jews are massacred by Frenchmen based on a rumor that Jews had poisoned the wells in Paris.
England reported famine in 1321.
The Franciscan order of Spirituals at Perugia pronounced, in defiance of a decision of the Inquisition, that Christ and the Apostles owned nothing as their own. Pope John XXII considered it heresy to believe that Christ wanted the clergy to give up money and property to follow him in his declaration of 1323. The entire order of Franciscan Spirituals is outraged and some members branded Pope John as a heretic and a large number went into schism.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Crete.
Arabian writers recorded ideas about
The Baltic froze over and a cold spell pervaded Europe.
June 24: Jews were expelled from France for a 3rd time
Emperor (Taidingdi) of China reigned (1324-1328) of the Yuan Dynasty
The French King Charles IV (1322-1328) seized part of Gascony south of Aquitaine in France. The Duke of Burgundy then made an alliance with England against France. Louis IV (1314-1347) the Bavarian and future Emperor is excommunicated for supporting the renegade Franciscans who held the doctrine of poverty. Louis IV branded Pope John XXII as a heretic and made plans to march on Rome. A zealous Franciscan, bishop of Ossory accused Lady Alice Kyteler of witchcraft and sorcery. Lady Kyteler had four husbands and the children involved claim she bewitched the men into making unjust wills. Lady Alice escaped to England but her maid and some others implicated are burned. The children seized their rights and the bishop likely received his share. One of the earliest witch trials occurred in Ireland this year.
Mansa Musa the third king of Mali rode into Cairo precede by 500 slaves.
The Christian Order of Knights continued to raid Islamic communities. An Islamic army from Granada took Baza and Matos, Spain.
King Edward II (1307-1327) a Norman Viking of England is deposed and murdered, his eleven year old son Edward III (1327-1377) became king.
Emperor Wenzong of China reigned (1328-1332) of the Yuan Dynasty
King Edward III (1327-1377) of England and his advisors gave up their claim of Lordship over Scotland. Louis IV (1314-1347) the Bavarian entered Rome and is crowning Emperor and captain of the people. He published a decree declaring Jacques of Cahors (Pope John XXII) as deposed on grounds of heresy and had a straw effigy of him in pontifical robes solemnly burned at the stake. Nicholas V alias Pietro Rainalducci (1328-1333) is elected pope by thirteen chosen from the Roman clergy. Pietro had abandoned his wife of five years and joined the Franciscans in 1310. He created nine cardinals and a score of bishops. Louis IV (1314-1347) the Bavarian departed Rome taking his pope with him.
Emperor Mingzong of China reigned 1329 of the Yuan Dynasty
All orthodox Fransciscan Spirituals are excommunicated for their belief about personal poverty. Pope John XXII issued an infallible bull stating that the right to hold property pre-dated the Fall of Man, and that scripture depicted the Apostles as owning personal possessions. The Roman Church hung its head in shame, for the Vatican has great wealth and is unable to follow Christ.
Famine occurred in France in 1330–1334.
Ibn Battuta of Fez, Morocco traveled along the East Africa coast reporting that he found peace and wellbeing among the Swahili peoples. The city of Kilwa south of Zanizibar especially impressed Ibn.
Pope John XXII held the doctrine that the souls of the saints are not in paradise but are held until the final judgement. The majority of theologians he consulted considered this heresy contending the saints are already in heaven. It is alleged that Pope John XXII made a partial retraction on his deathbed. He personally accumulated considerable fortune showering money and material gifts on his relatives and compatriots.
King Wladyslaw the Dwarf of Poland called on the Teutonic Knights to repress a rebellion at Danzig. After completing the job the Teutonic Order kept the town for themselves. The Poles routed the Knights at Plowce the following year but are unable to defeat them decisively.
Emperor Ningzong of China reigned (1332-1368) of the Yuan Dynasty
Ibn Khaldun (1332 - 1406) the pre-eminent Islamic medieval historian and social thinker wrote: "The Negro nations are as a rule submissive to slavery. because they have attributes that are quite similar to dumb animals."
Emperor (Shundi) of China reigned (1333-1368) ending the Yuan Dynasty
The Christian Order of Knights continued to raid Islamic communities. An Islam army from Granada recaptured Gibraltar.
Benedict XII alias Jasques Fournier (1334-1342) a loud-voiced indefatigable Inquisitor skilful at extracting confessions from suspected heretics and with blood on his hands is elected pope. Others were passed over because they refused to promise to restore the Holy See to Rome.
There is an unending war between the Teutonic Order and the subjects of Lithianian Grand Dukes. As an example between 1345-1377 seventy Teutonic expeditions are launched from Prussia and thirty from Livland. The Lithianians dreaded the Teutonic Order. This year the Knights besieged and stormed a fort at Pilenai on the Niemen, rather than be captured the Lithuanians burnt all their goods, killed their women and children and then beheaded each other. An old priestess decapitated more than 100 warriors with an axe before splitting her own head as the Knights broke into the fort. Pope Benedict XII (1334-1342) promised full spiritual privileges to crusaders who assisted the Teutonic Order. The princes and noblemen of Europe flocked to fight the Lithuanians. Henry of Derby, later King Henry IV of England joined in the hunt.
King Edward III (1327-1377) declared war on King Philip VI (1328-1350) of France claiming the right to the French Crown. He forbids the speaking of French in his army to make them more aware of their Englishness. This would begin the one hundred-year war that would not end until 1453, with England losing all its possessions in France except for the port of Calais in northern France. An English edict is passed stating only nobles and clerks earning more than 100 pounds annually could wear furs. The complaint is that it is becoming impossible to distinguish an innkeeper’s wife from a gentlewoman.
The Frankfurt manifesto Fidem Catholicam proclaimed the
doctrine that Imperial authority derives from God, not from the Pope.
Licet Iuris declared that the Imperial rank and power that depend on God
alone, lawfully belong to him who had been duly chosen by the electors;
confirmation or consent of the Holy See is not required.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499