EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499
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King Alfonso XI (1312-1350) the avenger of Spain decisively defeated the Spanish and Moroccan Moslems ending the African threat to Spain forever. He attempted to merge the brotherhood of the knights into a single Royal Military Order but their resistance forced him to place them under firm control. His subjects feared him even more than the Moors as he used treachery and murder to intimidate the nobles, killing rebels without trial.
A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada was centered on this time. It coincides with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. An earlier drought centered at 1126 AD.
Clement VI alias Pierre Roger (1342-1352) is elected pope. A Roman delegation begged the new pope to return the papacy to Rome. The pope however took steps to entrench the church at Avignon. The pope built a luxurious court and gorgeous retinue equal to a secular prince, not a prince of the church. He delighted in banquets and colorful festivities declaring that his predecessors did not know how to live as a pope. He lavished gifts and offices on relatives. His sexual abuses cannot be explained away.
Reval on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland, a Teutonic town, is attacked by the Estonians. During their uprising they killed 1,800 German men, women and children. The Teutonic Landmeister von Dreileve swiftly restored order. Prussians are forbidden to live in German villages because they are considered poor farmers. Intermarriage is prohibited because most remained pagan or Orthodox.
In compliance with their alliance with France, the King of Scotland attacked England and lost the battle. The English raided as far north as Edinburgh, destroying and looting. King Edward III (1327-1377) and his eldest son, the Black Prince created a code of chivalry to convince the Knights and people that war are a noble and glorious thing. War is also very profitable to some Nobles, Lords and Knights. Cruelty, death, destruction and theft are the reality of war. Mariners returning to Europe from China and India reported a deadly plague is killing thousands. Some blame the Black Plague on the Tartars (Mongols). The traders themselves are likely the carriers. The Black Death or bubonic plague killed about 1/3 of the population of Europe and Asia and then spread to Africa.
An Italian Christian trading post called Caffa on the northern shores of the Dead Sea are the first to experience the Black Death in Europe. Their post is under siege when the attacking army contracted the Black Death. This army catapulted their dead into Caffa so they also would suffer the Death. The survivors of Caffa fled in ships back to Italy carrying the Black Death with them.. Italian ships swarming with infested rats imported the Black Plague into Sicily.
The Black Death or Bubonic Plague (Bacillus Yersinia Pestis) is estimated to have killed over 34 million people in Europe between 1347-1351. It is believed to have originated in Asia. Hitting Cyprus, Italy, then in 1348 France, England, Germany, 1349, Norway, 1350 eastern Europe , 1351 Russia, following the trade routes.
The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time.”
In 1347, when the bubonic plaque ravaged Europe, one of the symptoms of the plaque was called bubos or boobos which was a swelling of the lymph nodes, hence swelling of the chest can be referred to as boobs. "Boob" is a 1950's shortening of "booby", which in the 1930's came from "bubby". Linguists aren't sure, but "bubby" may derive from the German "Bübbi" which means 'teat'.
The Black Death (bubonic plague) arrived in France and a third of the population of Europe would die. From 1347-51 some 75,000,000 people would died in Europe and Asia. The population of England is reduced by one third during 1348-1349 period when the Black Death visited that country. Christians blamed the Jews for causing the plague. In Basel, on the Rhine River, Jews are burned alive in wooden buildings. In Speyer (Germany) they are put into wine casks and rolled into the river. Thousands of Jews are sacrificed to rid the country of the plague. Other suggested that the Pope Clement VI (1342-1352) and the whores of his New Babylon Church have caused the plague. By 1351 an estimated twenty five million people had died in Europe, about one third of the world's population. The people of Europe were terrified because if one died without the last rights of the Roman Church their soul is lost to hell or purgatory. The number of deaths precluded the possibility of last rights. To avoid a complete breakdown of Religious authority Pope Clement VI (1342-1352) proclaimed that all those who died of the Black Death are forgiven of their sins. Despite this precaution there is a rapid rise of a religious order called the flagellants. The flagellants attempted to avoid the Black Plague by harshly scourging themselves so that God would forgive their sins. The Flagellant blamed the Jews for the Black Death and burned down the Jewish communities killing the people.
Accused of being a cause of the plague, the Jews in France were dragged from their houses and burned. Pogroms occurred throughout Europe. When the plague subsided, few Jews were left in Germany or the Low Countries.
The best off in English society, the average life expectancy between 1348-1375 went to 17 from 33.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Prizren, Serbia.
Famine occurred in France in 1349–1351. 1358–1360, 1371, 1374–1375 and 1390.
January 9: In Basel, Switzerland, 700 Jews were burned alive in their houses.
February 13: Jews were expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
February 14: 2,000 Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
February 22: Jews were expelled from Zurich, Switzerland.
March 21: Some 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
April 30: Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
May 28: 60 Jews were murdered in Breslau, Silesia.
August 24: Some 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Bubonic Plague, were killed in Mainz.
August 24: Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
September 10: The Jews who survived a massacre in Constance, Germany, were burned to death.
November 1: Duke of Brabant ordered
the execution of all Jews in Brussels. He accused them of poisoning the wells.
November 29: Jews of Augsburg, Germany, were massacred.
December 5: 500 Jews of Nuremberg were massacred during Black Death riots.
Nearly all the Jews of Worms were murdered on false accusations that they brought on the plague by poisoning the wells.
This appears the pinnacle of the First Reich in Germany; The Third Reich centered on racial purity, "The Final Solution to the Jewish problem". We never seem to learn from history.
The Black Death mysteriously disappeared but did return in smaller cases over the next few decades. London England had a population of 50,000 people and now has a population of only 25,000 people. Some estimate that 40,000,000 people died in a three-year period. Montpellier, France 90% of the population died from the Black death caused by a Bacterium called Yersinia Pestis carried back to Europe by the returning crusaders.
There was cold and drought during this period (1350-1500) in Central Asia as temperatures came down with low rainfall and low productivity.
The Khmer Empire (802-1350) the population migrated to Longvek and it was assumed as a result of rebellion. Recent studies suggest it was the result of a long extended drought that extended into the fifteenth century.
England reported famine in 1351,
December 3: A thunderstorm hit Rome and St. Peter's basilica had suffered a direct hit, and the bells had melted. In the market, everyone started celebrating Pope Clement VI (1342-1352) is dead. The people said he is dead and buried deep in hell. Innocent VI alias Etienne Aubert (1352-1362) is elected pope by 25 cardinals at Avignon. Pope Innocent VI personally ordered some of the Spiritual Franciscans to prison and the stake under the Inquisition law. The Saintly Bridget of Sweden (d-1373) publicly denounced the pope as a persecutor of Christ’s sheep.
There is a suggestion of a witch’s dance at Toulouse, France this year.
The Ottoman Turks acquired Gallipoli (Gelibolue, Turkey) from the Byzantines.
The Golden Bull of 1356 by Pope Innocent VI (1352-1362) that lasted until 1806 established the electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. The electors are the Archbishops of Cologne, of Mainz, of Trier, count Palatine of the Rhine (the Palatinate), Duke of Saxony, King of Bohemia (Austria), Margrave of Brandenburg and in 1648 Duke of Bavaria and in 1692 added Elector of Hanover (Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg). The Emperor however is a figurehead having no power or authority other than over his own hereditary lands. Charles IV (1347-1378) is the present Emperor.
Janibeg (1342-1357) son of Uzbeg the Mongol died resulting in a protracted political crisis among the Golden Horde especially his sons. Some mark this time as the beginning of the decline and fall of the European Mongol Empire and the true emergence of Russia. The southern Mongolian Russia Empire however continued until 1480 AD.
King John (1350-1364) is King of France. The peasants or Jacques Bonhomme, as the nobility of Northern France called them, revolted against the entire aristocracy vowing to exterminate them. They committed horrible atrocities and the nobility responded with equally brutal atrocities. In the town of Meaux, France, near Paris, it is said that seven thousand peasants died in one clash alone. The revolt ended in June.
The Ottoman Turks gained their first foothold in Europe at Gallipoli, Anatolia (Turkey).
Famine occurred in France in 1358–1360.
Paul Knutsson, by Royal command, sailed to Greenland, under
reports that Greenlanders had fallen into paganism and to discover the
whereabouts of the Godthaab Colony. There is no record of the results
of this expedition.
England King Edward III (1327-1377) re-established control over all Aquitaine, Gascony, parts of Normandy, Brittany, and the port of Calais.
Grand Duke Olgerd of Lithuania, son of Gedymin occupied Kiev. Urban V alias Guillaume de Grimoard (1362-1370) is elected pope. The popes desire to unite the east and west churches and to conduct a crusade influenced his moving the papacy to Rome. He later changed his mind deserting the Imperial city.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Dubrovnik, Crotia.
Grand Duke Olgerd of Lithuania combined with the Russian army and marched south to the Black Sea. The Russian-Lithuania army defeated the Mongols at the mouth of the Bug River giving them control of a large part of Ukraine. Olgerd the Mongol in alliance with Tver marched on Moscow against Grand Duke Dmitri (1362-1389) but failed on two attempts to storm the Kremlin.
King Charles V (1338-1380) Charles Le Sage (The Wise) King of France (1364-1380) prepared for war with the English driving them from France into their coastal enclave in Aquitaine.
Chinese rebels drove the Mongol outside the Great Wall and established the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) thus ending the Yuan dynasty. The Ming Dynasty retained the Mongol city of Beijing alias Daidu as their capital city.
Taizu of China with a Reign Title of Hongwu, Reigned (1368-1398) of the Ming Dynesty.
The last recorded regular run from Norway to Greenland by the Royal Norwegian monopoly belonging to the town of Bergen is this year. When Bergen suffered the black death, in 1349, one in three of the population died. The harbor town is burned and sacked and Greenland lost its lifeline to the motherland.
England reported famine in 1369,
The Hanseatic League is form by a group of Germanic merchants from the cities of Hamburg, Leipzig, Bremen, Danzig, Stettin and Lubeck that achieved official standing this year. Gregory XI alias Pierre Roger de Beaufort (1370-1378) is elected pope by 17 cardinals at Avignon. He is particularly active in repressing heresy in Province, Germany and Spain. In France he used the Inquisition ruthlessly calling on King Charles V (1364-1380) to help fill the prisons who escaped the stake.
May 22, Jews were expelled (massacred) from Brussels, Belgium.
Famine occurred in France in 1371.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared on the Island of Corfu.
Famine occurred in France and Europe in 1374–1375.
John Wyclif (1328-1384) of England advocated the laity had the right to control the property of the church. He wanted to restore a pure early church unencumbered by complex organization or doctrinal accretions of dubious origins and equally dubious worth. He contended the Bible alone has divine authority. The supremacy of the Bible means the fallibility of all clerical institutions, including the papacy. The papacy naturally condemned his doctrines as heretical but could not arrest him. After his death his bones are dug up and burned in effigy.
Robert of Geneva a legate of Pope Gregory XI ordered a blood bath at Cesena raising hostility in Rome against the papacy. This pope however did return the papacy to Rome.
The election of the next Pope drew a crowd of 30,000 Romans who demanded they pick a Roman or an Italian. The French naturally are determined to keep the papacy to themselves. Rioting broke out and the conclave is invaded and the cardinals pacified the crowd by telling them an elderly Roman had been elected. However Bartolomeo Prignano is selected by sixteen cardinals to become Pope Urban VI (1378-1389), he is not Roman. He turned out to be a vile-tempered, spiteful alcoholic pontiff. Many believed he is deranged and incapable of being pope. The cardinals slowly abandoned him meeting in Anagni and published a declaration that his election is invalid being under the fear of mob violence. The cardinals elected Robert of Geneva as pope taking the name Clement VII alias Robert Amadeus (1378-1394) creating what some refer as the Great Schism (1378-1417). Europe divided into two religious churches, the Clement's being France, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and Scotland. The Urban's being England, Germany, most of Italy and other countries of central Europe. Catherine of Siena, Spain remained neutral. The whole curia defected to Pope Clement so Pope Urban created a new one naming 29 new cardinals. Each church excommunicated the others members.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Rila Monastery, Bulgaria.
The Clement Church army met the Urban Church army at Marino and Clement's army is crushed.
A rebel priest in England, because of the cruelty and greed of the Church, called for the removal of all Bishops, Archbishops and Nobles. It is believed the Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) is taxing the English to support the French in their war against England. The sixty to one hundred thousand peasants under the loose leadership of Wat Tyler, Jack Straw and Jogn Ball stormed London and executed the Archbishop of Canterbury who is also the Kings Chancellor and therefore one of the oppressive establishment. Wat Tyler is treacherously killed while negotiating with the King Richard II (1377-1399), and not long after, King Richard gained the upper hand and executed fifteen hundred peasants as an example.
Tokhtamysh led a Mongolian army on Moscow looting and burning the city in retaliation for there failed battle of 1380.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Hungary.
Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) imprisoned and brutally tortured six cardinals who conspired against the deranged pope claiming incapacity. Five of the cardinals mysteriously disappeared and foul play is suspected.
A treaty of union is signed between Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland. Queen Jadwiga of Poland wed the Grand Duke of Lithuania creating an empire from the Baltic to the Black sea. This empire reached its maximum size by the fifteenth century.
The Gypsy (Roma) appeared in Romania as slaves.
Grand Duke Iogaila of Lithuania became Roman Catholic, married the Polish Queen Jadwiga and is crowned King Wladyslaw II of Poland and Lithuania. He thereby extinguished the Holy War forever. The Teutonic Order claimed that many of his subjects are still heathen or Orthodox schismatic's. As late as 1413 it is noted that some still burnt their dead, splendidly dressed, on oak pyres within the sacred groves.
The Ottoman Turks defeated the Serbian Empire (Yugoslavia) at the battle of Kosovo where Serbian independence is lost for the next five hundred years. The Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina (Yugoslavia) are slowly converted to Islam (Muslim) during this period. Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) died as a result of poisoning. His temperament alienated the population, the treasury is empty and several of his own appointed Roman cardinals deserted him for the Clement Church. Boniface IX alias Pietro Tomacelli (1389-1404) a Roman is elected Pope of the Urban Church.
The old Anglo-Saxon language continued to be spoken by ordinary people but is no longer written for the past three hundred years. The new English that borrowed so much from the Norman French began to be used by the ruling and literate class in England.
Famine occurred in France in 1390.
Between 1390 and 1485 a breastbags (bra) was discovered at Lengberg Castlein Austria the oldest discover todate.
March 15: An Archdeacon named Martinex incited his congregation to riot and led the march against the Jews.
August 24: Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
Benedict XIII alias Pedro de Luna (1394-1423) is elected pope of the Clement Church by 21 cardinals.
September 17: In France King Charles VI (1380-1422) decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains. The decree was not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts
After an eight-year war Tamerlane of Samarkand defeated the Mongol Tokhtamysh and during the course of the war destroyed most of the major cities of the Golden Horde. Tamerlane then marched on Moscow but after observing the Russian army led by Basil I (1389-1425) retreated deciding the encounter would be costly and not worth the trouble. The Russians ascribed the unexpected retreat to the miraculous intercession of the Holy Virgin. Moscow became a semiautonomous state.
Pope Boniface IX of the Roman Urban Church made himself the undisputed master of Rome by appointing the Senators. He exercised no serious steps to eliminate the schism spending his time consolidating his power. All offices of the papacy or Imperial offices are for sale to the highest bidder. Indulgences are extended to cities far beyond Rome for a price. Future Pope John XXIII is assigned to assist in the Papal financial business. Pope Benedict XIII (1394-1423) is urged to abdicate by Charles VI of France as well as the English and Germans. The pope stated that the abdication of a lawful pope is sinful. To end the stalemate the French court and a national synod withdrew French support and revenue from their pope. The cardinals with no incoming funds withdrew support from Pope Benedict and deserted him. Pope Benedict XIII is imprisoned but he escaped and regained French support.
The Ming Emperor Hung Wu (1368-1398) is considered the harshest and most unreasonable tyrant in all of Chinese history.
(Huidi) of China with a Reign Title of Jianwen, Reigned (1399-1402) of the Ming Dynesty.
The death of King Richard II (1377-1399) ends the Angevins dynasty in England. Before the end of the fourteenth century the Viking settlements in America are fading into legend to be passed among the sailors, traders and explorers of Europe.
The Teutonic Hochmeister Konrad von Juningen (1394-1407) encouraged
the Grand Duke Vitautas to wage war against the Golden Horde to the East.
He assembled a great army of Lithuanian and Ruthenian Boyars along with
exiled Tartar Khan (Lord), Toktamish and 500 Teutonic Knights. Edegey
Khan (Lord) slaughtered 2/3 of Vitautas army pursuing him mercilessly over
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1000 - 1499