EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1500 - 1599
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Pope Pius V (1566-1572) issued a bull excommunicating Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) for her actions in separating the English Church from the Roman Church and her persecution of Roman Catholics in Britain,.
English ships began attacking Spanish ships returning from America because Spain would not allow England to trade with Spanish American colonies. Philip of Spain knew quite well that Elizabeth of England was encouraging the sea dogs or privateers as they were known. Some of the more infamous high sea criminals of this time were John Hawkins (slave trader), Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher (the pirate). The Netherlands was under Catholic Spanish rule and Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) was assisting the Dutch Protestant to attack Spanish ships.
The Spanish Catholic Church is provided escape from poverty and starvation and 1/4 of the adult population is clerical; 400,000 monks, 312,000 priests and 200,000 minor orders causing a great drain on the economy. By 1626 there are 9,088 monasteries in Spain.
The dikes in Holland burst without warning claiming fifty thousand lives.
Russian Tsar Ivan IV (1500-1584) called the Terrible, January 9, 1570 seized the city of Novgorod believing they opposed him killing sixty thousand people.
Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, d-1572 took possession of Luzon, Philippines.
In the 1570's, a Frenchman visiting Egypt found many thousands of blacks on sale in Cairo on market days.
The Mediterranean had become a Turkish lake being conquered by Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566). Raids on Spain, and Italy carried away thousands of Christians every year to be sold in the slave-markets of Africa. Pope Pius V (1566-1572), Venice and Spain entered into a Holy League to deal with the Turks. Don John of Austria led the armada engaging the entire naval force of Turks in the Bay of Lepanto, Gulf of Corinth. The whole Turkish force of 28,000 is virtually annihilated. About 8,000 Turks are killed, 8,000 taken prisoner and 10,000 Christian galley slaves are set free.
Anneken de Vlaster is the first Anabaptist martyr killed for challenging the orthodoxy of the day; she is burned. Anabaptist is pacifist and they evolved into the Mennonites, Hutterites and the Amish cultures. Some claim Jacob Hunter the 1st leader of the Hutterite clan a sup sect of the Anabaptist is burned at the stake in 1536.
St. Pius V alias Michele (formally Antonio) Ghislieri (1566-1572) head of the Roman Inquisition is elected pope. He was also the Dominican Inquisitor of Como and Bergamo. His veal and severity as an inquisitor brought him into disfavor with the people. He built a new palace for the inquisition and sharpened its rules and practices and personally attended its sessions. Under his rule the number of persons often men of culture and distinction soared. He expelled many Jews from the papal states forcing the rest into ghettos. He drove hundreds of printers to flee to Germany and Switzerland with the publication of the Congregation of the Index. How he can be beatified and canonized with the inquisition blood on his hands defies logic.
Spurred on by the high clergy of the Roman Catholic Church Catherine De Medici, mother of Charles IX of France ordered the massacre of 4,000 to 8,000 Protestants in Paris, and fifty thousand Christian Huguenots are slaughtered by Catholics in France. Many second sons used the opportunity to murder their elder brothers to stand nearer their inheritance. Many long-nurtured grudges are settled. Women are stripped naked, dragged through the streets even the children and servants are not spared. Once killed their houses are plundered. a Franciscan monk reported a dead and dry hawthorn bush at the cemetery of Innocents burst into bloom overnight. This miracle he reported is a certain sign from Heaven that God is pleased with their efforts. A new star of the East appeared, holy statues are seen to shed tears of gratitude. The priest continued to incite the murderous crowds.
Gregory XIII alias Ugo Boncompagni (1572-1585) a father of one son is elected pope. Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) commemorated with joy the massacre at St. Bartholomen where thousands of Huguenot Protestants died. The messengers who had brought the glad tidings about Paris are richly rewarded; victorious salvoes are fired. Pope Gregory XIII himself led fifty-three cardinals to celebrate a solemn mass (te Deums), bonfires are lit and a metal is struck to commemorate this great slaughter. The Church elevated Charles IX as an insignificant son of a dangerous unreliable mother to an avenging angel, divinely sent. Pope Gregory XIII actively subsidized what he called the Catholic League against Huguenots. Among the German princelings and Swiss cantons the avenging angel is branded as treacherous, heartless criminals. A few Huguenot escaped to take their position at La Rochelle, France and re-established their own military organization. Queen Catherine attempted to take La Rochelle but the siege on the city failed. Other cities as a result of the failed siege defied royal authority and proclaimed liberty of conscience for themselves.
King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain and most of Europe and the New World issued a decree to expand the existing decree that no papal decree might be published in Spain until examined by the Council of Castille. They are to hold back any such decree it considers infringing the laws and customs of the Kingdom. He expanded the former decree by decreeing that all papal briefs procured for cases sub Judaic before ecclesiastical courts should be disregarded and that no Spaniard should be cited to appear before any tribunal outside Spain. The Emperor virtually annihilated the jurisdiction of Rome as far as Spain is concerned. It is noteworthy that most of Italy and all of Sicily are under Spanish control.
The Sea Beggars (Gueax) who had fled the Spanish persecution in the Netherlands had become very successful privateers under the protection of England. The Sea Beggars took the Spanish fortress of Brill and strengthened its fortifications. The exiled Netherlanders came pouring back to defend the town. The Spanish war of siege is to last without interruption for nearly forty years. These Calvinists would eventually contribute to the fall of the mightiest empire in the world.
The Dutch War of Independence begins.
Shenzong of China with a Reign Title of Wanli, Reigned (1573-1620) of the Ming Dynesty.
Andre Lourenco, fisherman, was buried in Terra Nova and was recorded in the church Vera Cruz, Avero, Portugal. The Ottoman Turks penetrated Poland, subdued the north coast of the Black Sea and took Cyprus. The Turks had acquired Crete in 1669. The son of Catherine de Medici, Duke of Anjou became the new King of Poland.
The Spanish Catholics executed one thousand Calvinist in the Netherlands and drove another 60,000 out of the territory.
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) issued a papal bull forbidding the admission to Holy Orders of the descendants of Jews to the fourth generation is extended to include the Moors. This bull thereby effectively excluded Jesus and his Jewish disciples from the priesthood.
Gypsies in Scotland are ordered to leave the country or settle down.
The siege of Leiden, Holland by the Spanish is broken when the dikes broke flooding the land killing twenty thousand Spaniards. King Charles IX of France dies May 30 saying he rejoices that he has no male child to wear the crown fully aware of its corrupt nature. Catherine de Medici third son Anjou becomes King of France and chooses the name Henry III. King Henry believed the only way to deal with the heretics is to eliminate them. The Cardinal of Lorraine died and people say maybe now we can have peace as he was the one person that prevented it.
Some contend that nearly 150,000 Spanish had migrated to the New World by this date. The pick of the population sailed away leaving the dregs behind and is considered along with the Moor expulsion a significant factor in the decline and fall of the Spanish Empire. Continuous wars also depleted the population.
Alencon son of Queen Mother Catherine de Medici rallied the Huguenots to march on Paris and his brother King Henry III. By November Duke John Casimir, the son of the Elector Palatine, commanded 8,000 German cavalrymen, 6,000 infantry from the cantons of Switzerland and some 7,000 arquebusiers were on the march plundering and burning as they cut their way to the Loire.
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) actively supported the Jesuit Inquisition troops in the creation of colleges and missionaries to India, China, Japan and Brazil.
Alencon found himself with an army of 30,000 men waiting for his command to march on Paris. The Peace of Monsieur as it was called is signed May 6 granting every demand of the Huguenot. Free exercise of religion is granted everywhere in the realm. Every local Parliament is to have a tribunal composed equally of Catholic and Reformed judges. Alencon is granted the independent administration of the Province of Touraine, Berry and Anjou. They demanded the instigators of the St. Bartholomew Massacre be punished. As Catherine is the instigator she convinced Alencon to be satisfied with a formal declaration that all victims of the Massacre had been innocent and their families would be freed from paying taxes in the future. The Roman Catholics who had proclaimed Catherine a dedicated servant of the Faith and compared her favorably with Joan of Arc now found reason to distrust her. A League of the Holy Trinity is founded to serve the Church and protect it against enemies including the royal family. Henry III proclaimed himself as its chief hoping to avert any danger. Alencon accepted the title of Lieutenant General of France and Queen Mother Catherine used him to start the Sixth War of Religion against his comrades the Huguenots. This campaign exceeded in bestiality anything that had been previously inflicted on the innocent people. The Duke of Sully (1560-1641) reported that Alencon's troops caught six village girls, raped them to boredom and then filled them up with gunpowder and set fire to them. Sully entrenched government monopolies on gunpowder, mines and salt.
Queen of Scots, Mary's son James VI started to rule at the age of twelve. He managed to rebuild the authority of the Scottish Crown. Jesuit Robert de Nobili (1577-1656) evangelized in India.
Archbishop Beaton of Glasglow brought together the Spanish Ambassador, Juan Vargas de Mexia and the Duke of Guise hoping for a combined intervention of Spain and the Guises in Scotland. Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) of England finally too late saw the folly of repulsing for so many years the proffered friendship of Spain. She even spoke of helping him put down the rebellion in the Netherlands. The Guises had pledged that Mary Stuart would serve none but Spanish interests. Mary is consequently put to death in 1587.
About 6,000 Anabaptists are executed since their formation in 1525. Freedom of choice and rejection of Papal authority made them socially and politically dangerous.
At the General Warsaw Seym, King Stephen Báthory pronounces an edict threatening sanctions against anyone who harbors Gypsy (Roma) on their lands. They are punished as accomplices of outlaws.
Augustus, elector of Saxony, orders the confiscation of Romani (Gypsy) passports and banishes them from Saxony.
Gypsies (Roma) arrived Wales about this time speaking a form of Sanskrit from India.
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) conspired to have Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) of England assassinated after his failure to get King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain to attack Ireland, the Netherlands and then England. During Queen Elizabeth's I (1558-1603) reign the Irish rebelled encouraged by the arrival of 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. The English considered the Irish people as wild primitive people and therefore treated them with great cruelty. When Elizabeth finally subjected the people they looked like death, spoke like ghosts and had been forced into cannibalism to survive. Ulster had fought the longest therefore most of the best land was given to Protestant English and Scottish merchants. The county of Derry in Uster was taken over by a group of London merchants and divided among the twelve main London guilds. The town of Derry was renamed Londonderry, after its new merchant owners. The most militant of Catholics, the Jesuits, is sent to England as missionaries. The English expecting an assassination attempt executed the head of the Jesuits and other executions followed.
King Henry III, goaded by the Duke of Guise and the Holy League and funded by Philip King of Spain the French again attacked Huguenot cities. The inhabitants are massacred, women raped and children held for ransom.
King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain invaded and defeated the army of Portugal. He declared himself King Philip I of Portugal. In the last twenty two years it is estimated that four and one half million Americans had died as a result of Spanish occupation through disease, war and inhuman slave labor. The mortality of Black slaves is as severe as that among the Indians.
Russian Tsar Ivan IV (1500-1584) passed a law binding peasants to the land. They became slaves unable to move and subject to sale with the estate to which they belonged. Prior to this time the people simply migrated during times of war, famine, plague or poor leadership. This effectively removed the people’s historic form of passive resistance to poor leadership.
Thomas Lupton says that lying in England is so loved and allowed that there are many times gamings and prizes therefore purposely to encourage one to outlye another.
The Netherlands meaning the low countries, a conglomerate of seventeen provinces declared their independence from Spain. They consisted of northerners that spoke Germanic (Flemish or Dutch), and southern French speaking called Walloons. Amsterdam remained Catholic an island in a Calvinist sea. The leaders of the low lands are French Roman Catholics. The Calvinist religion has been slowly building from the 1560's and would be the single most driving force for the creation of the Dutch, and they are also greatly inspired by the French Huguenots. To avoid the ongoing slaughter the Calvinists move northward and the Roman Catholics moved south. Within a few years the principle city of Holland, Amsterdam is the commercial and financial capital of Europe. Their main cry is 'liberty' meaning freedom from interference by central authorities or outside powers. They favored local custom, local law and local privileges.
King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain invaded and conquered Portugal bringing the Iberian Peninsula under a single control in nine centuries. All the New World is now under the Spanish Empire as is most of Africa. The Spanish Empire now controlled the Persian, Indian and Far East trade.
Alencon the Duke of Brabant mounted a military campaign on the cities of Antwerp, Bruges, Dunkirk and Ostende. He persuaded the city of Antwerp to enter the city to honor them with a parade. Wise in ways of treachery they agreed and when the army is inside the city the gates were closed and the army ambushed. A few Frenchmen, including Alencon escaped but 12,000 soldiers are hacked to pieces. The Julian calendar is replace by the Gregorian calendar that is still in use today. The populace believed they had been robbed of 10 days and wanted them back.
Catherine de Medici of France, alarmed by the growth of Spanish power, sent a fleet of 60 ships and 7,000 soldiers to enable Don Antonio to take the Azores. Don Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of Santa Cruz commanding 25 ships and 2,000 men demolished the French fleet. The French lost 20 ships and 2,000 men.
Responding to excessive population growth in England, landowners turned to sheep farming which resulted in fencing off the lands that had always belonged to the whole village. Many poor people lost the land they farmed as well as the land in common where they kept their animals. As one man said, these enclosures are the cause why rich men eat up poor men as beasts do eat grass.
The Jesuit Matthew Ricci entered Peking, China with knowledge of mathematics for use in astronomy and is honored as a wise man from the west. He is allowed to establish three hundred churches over the next thirty years. His success is his understanding that the traditional approach of offering civilization to a barbaric heathen culture would not work with a superior civilization like China. He instead presented a church in sympathy with the traditions of China.
Alencon son of Queen Mother Catherine de Medici died in June. King Henry III is childless and everyone believed he would remain so. The next heir to the throne is the King of Navarre, not only a Huguenot but the chief of the Huguenot cause in France. Don Bernardino de Mendoza ambassador of his Most Roman Catholic Majesty, King Phillip II of Spain subsidized the Guise family and the Holy League to ensure they would not recognize a heretic as king of France. They designated as his heir apparent the Cardinal of Bourbon, brother of the late Antoine and uncle of the King of Navarre.
To put things in perspective Paris at this time is a small city of some 200,000 people. Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain lay siege to the greatest city of the Netherlands, Antwerp. It would fall in 1585 bringing all southern Netherlands under Spanish domination.
Gypsies (Roma) arrived Finland about this time speaking a form of Sanskrit from India.
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) changed the calendar this year by 13 days. The Orthodox religions refused to accept this change as a matter of faith. The Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches continue to celebrate Christmas on January 7. Pope Gregory routinely dissolved marriages between Protestants and Catholics and sanctioned abortions before 40 days. He said that abortions before 40 days are not a serious sin.
November 23: The English Parliament expelled the Jesuits.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1500 - 1599