EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1500 - 1599
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Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) of England sent 5,000 footmen and 1,000 horses to help the Protestants of northern Netherlands defend themselves from the Catholic Spanish army.
Pope Gregory XIII faced with crippling debt seized papal lands dispossessing nobles who turned to banditry. Serious disorder and lawlessness spread throughout the papal states and Rome.
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) the inquisitor for Venice, (he is recalled due to his severity) the Franciscan Cardinal Felice Peretti da Montalto upon being elected Pope proclaimed "now I am Caesar". He is a ruthless, violent and inflexible pope with blood on his hands. Thousands of brigands are publicly executed the nobles who sheltered them are mercilessly punished. The Jesuit Robert Bellarmine suggested that the pope only had indirect jurisdiction over temporal rulers. Theologian Vittorio wrote it is lawful to disobey unjust orders of a pope. Pope Sixtus V resolved to censure both men. The Cardinals of the Congregation of the Index are too terrified to tell his Holiness that these eminent authors based their views on the works of countless saints and scholars for fear the pope might put the saints themselves on the Index.
War of the three Henry's over Paris, the Catholic League (Henry of Guise) allied with Spain and Henry of Navarre the Huguenot became Legitimate heir to the throne. The King had Henry of Guise murdered and was himself assassinated.
Most English people at this time believed that to be Catholic is to be an enemy of England.
March 9: King Henry III issued an edict outlawing all unauthorized assemblies and prohibited the formation of armed units.
March 31: The Holy Roman League issued their Declaration of Causes that led Monsignor the Cardinal of Burbon, the Catholic Peers, Princes, Nobles and cities to oppose the King by all possible means who would in their opinion subvert the Catholic religion. The Duke of Guise with the backing of Philip King of Spain hired troops to take over Normandy, Picardy and Brittany. In Burgundy, Dijon, Macon and Auxonne are seized.
April 7: Orleans declared for the Roman League. An attempt to take Marseilles failed but Lyons surrendered as did Verdun. The treaty of Nemours revoked all previous edicts and forbade the practice of any religion other than the Roman Catholic anywhere in France. Heretics would not be allowed to hold public office. All ministers of other religions would be banned and all subjects would have to make profession of the Roman Catholic faith within six months or be expelled from France. As Henry III signed the treaty he told the Cardinal of Bourbon that this act would stem the ruin of my state and my people. To seal the treaty Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) excommunicated the King of Navarre and next in line King of France by saying the authority vested in Saint Peter and his successors by the infinite power of the Eternal King surpasses all the power of earthly kings and princes. The Papal Bull stripped him of his titles, declared him incapable of succeeding to the throne of France and absolved all his vassals from allegiance to him. The Pope proclaimed his judgments are irrevocable. The Parliament of Paris stated Sixtus had no authority over kingdoms established by God before the name of the Pope existed in the world. King Henry III said that the Pope would like me to act as his provost marshal in France. Honest French Catholic who placed their national allegiance above that of their religion heard their King say this and in large numbers went over to the side of the Huguenots.
Mount Kelut, Indonesia erupted killing 10 thousand people. It erupted
again in 1919.
The Archbishop of Treves had 118 women burned and two men for incantations that prolonged winter, this added to the growing martyrs of the inquisition, Bishop of Geneva burned 500, Bishop of Bamburg 600, Bishop of Wurzburg created 900 martyrs.
About this time the potato arrived England from Chile and Peru. Some persist in the erroneous belief the potato was introduced to America from Europe.
King Philip II of Spain, an ardent Roman Catholic, was determined to end Protestantism that flourished in England under Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), as well as repay the English for interfering in his war in the Netherlands. He decided to conquer England and began to assemble an Armada to move his army from the Netherlands to England when Francis Drake attacked and destroyed part of this fleet in Cadiz harbor.
The Duke of Joyeuse marched south to engage King Navarre. On October 20 Joyeuse's army met the Huguenots at Coutras. Within two hours, Joyeuse is dead and his army annihilated. The Duke of Guise marched east to intercept the German and Swiss mercenaries marching to assist the Huguenots. October 26 Guise engaged the army at Vimory and beat the roundly and chased them out of France.
It took three blows to remove Mary Queen of Scot's head.
Spain attacks England and the Spanish Armada is defeated.
The Duke of Guise and the Holy Roman League demanded the French King establish Courts of Inquisition in every province to confiscate all Huguenot property and put to death all Huguenot prisoners of war who refused to recant their heresy. They also demanded the return to the Church all lands and property it had been forced to cede by earlier edicts.
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) promised Philip II of Spain (1556-1598) large subsidies if he invaded England. When the Armada failed the pope refused to pay however he did support Philip against the Huguenot Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France (1589-1610). King Philip II of Spain rebuilt his fleet and the defeat of the Spanish Armada more by bad weather than by English guns marked the arrival of England as a great European sea power. The African Company is given a charter by Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) to trade in slaves.
The Duke of Guise quietly and without bloodshed took Paris and King Henry III fled the city. The Duke Cardinal of Lorraine brother of the Duke of Guise let it be known that any agreement would have to include the ceding to him of Sedan and its great fortress. The Duke of Savoy demanded withdrawal of French protection from Geneva that he coveted. The Papal Nuncio Morosini is on everyone’s side striving to delay any settlement until the Spanish Armada had landed its troops in England. The Church is solidly behind Spain and supports the dismembering of France. King Henry III (d-1589) ordered the death of the Duke of Guise (December 1588) and his brother the Duke Cardinal of Lorraine. The Catholics of France are outraged and declared Henry deposed.
Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) sent an army of 20,000 men against Lisbon, Portugal (Spain) but half the army is lost and they retreated to England. Raids by England on Spain would continue as Spain is preoccupied with France.
In Denmark, the death penalty is ordered for any Roma not leaving the country.
January 5: Catherine de Medici died. The Roman Catholic Church absolved all his subjects from their oath of allegiance with a free conscience to wage war on their king. The Holy League seized power.
August 1: A monk, Jacques Clement, stabbed Henry in the stomach and King Henry II died the next day. Before the King died he proclaimed Navarre as his successor thereby thwarting the Roman Church and its Holy League. Protestant Henry of Navarre became Henry IV of Burbon (1589-1610) and would fight the Catholic League, the Spanish armies but would convert to the Catholic faith in 1593 to put an end to the war. The Roman League proclaimed Cardinal Bourbon as the King of France taking the name Charles X. Philip II of Spain advanced a claim through the person of the elder daughter of his own marriage to Elizabeth the daughter of Catherine de Medici and Henry II. The Pope supported King Philips proposal that until succession is resolved he be appointed Protector of the State and of the Religion of the Kingdom of France. It is noteworthy that the House of Bourbon is founded on the Celtic God Borvo. Celtic beliefs also included touching wood to ward off evil, kissing under the mistletoe as an antidote to poison or saying things happen in threes keeping alive the sacred Celtic triad. Let us not forget the Celtic May Day festivals.
Spain sided with the Huguenot leading up to the war with France of 1595, and interference in France by Spain would end in 1598. About this time the Russians entered Siberia from the Perm region in the middle Ural area. Evidence suggests a group of Novgorodians fleeing from Ivan IV (1500-1584) of Russia reign of terror, took ships and eventually reached Alaska via the Arctic Ocean.
Urban VII alias Giambattista Castagna (1590-1590) an inquisitor is elected pope but died before coronation. Gregory XIV alias Niccolo Sfondrati (1590-1591) is elected pope with brutal intervention by the Spanish Government. He continued to fund the Spanish Holy League (inquisition).
Innocent IX Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti (1591-1591) an Inquisitor is elected pope being on the acceptable list of King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain. Not surprising he supported Philip II, the Holy League against Protestant Henry IV (1589-1610) of France.
April 18: Pope Gregory XIV alias Niccolo Sfondrati (1590-1591) in Cumsicuti ordered the Indian slaves be set free. No one listened.
Clement VIII alias Loppolito Aldobrandini (1592-1605) is elected pope.
Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) paid King Sigismund (d-1632) of Poland (1587) and Sweden (1592) 20,000 crowns to restore Roman Catholicism in Sweden. Kind Sigismund is schooled in the doctrine of the Jesuits. He ruled Sweden through Polish ministers and the Roman Catholic clergy as though Sweden is a dependency of Poland. This arrogance would lead to revolution in 1597 reverting Sweden back to Lutheranism. More important a fundamental and perpetual hostility resulted between Poland and Sweden.
Henry of Navarre, France a Huguenot became Catholic to secure the support of Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) to become King of France. Spain is attacking France and the Pope is fearful of a further expansion of Spanish power even though the conversion of Henry is an obvious piece of hypocrisy.
Between 1593 to 1618 the invading Turkish armies burned eleven Hutterite schools in Moravia (Chez Republic).
William West an English lawyer defined a witch or hag as one who made a league with the devil causing her to perform unnatural acts and to fly through the air and perform lust and lewd desports.
In Venice there are 11,600 courtesans, twelve times the number of patrician wives.
William Parents aka Barentz, d-1597 made three trips into the Arctic of Russia and Siberia in search of the North East Passage to China, in the years 1594, 1595 and 1596.
King Henri IV of France declared war on Spain and the French allies are the English and Dutch. They all agreed not to settle a separate peace. Jesuit priest Pedro de Rivadeneira (1527-1611) wrote that Kings are not absolute lords over the property of his subjects.
"Our years are turned upside down, our summers are no summers, our harvests are no harvests" John King.
The Glacier at Gietroz, Switzerland advanced because of the Little Ice Age and dammed the Dranse River and caused flooding in Bagne causing 70 deaths. This is evidence to confirm global cooling 1550 to 1850.
Stefan Razvan, the son of a Gypsy (Roma) slave and free woman, becomes ruler of Moldavia in April. He is deposed four months later and murdered in December of the same year.
Abraham Ortelius (Abraham Ortels) (1527-1698) of Belgium was the first to propose the theory of 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics'.
106 men and women are condemned to death at York just for being Gypsies, but only nine are executed. The others prove they were born in England.
Edict of Nantes granted limited religious tolerance, political equality and fortified strongholds to the Huguenot but this was short lived and finally revoked by Louis XIV in 1685. Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) reluctantly accepted the treaty.
King Philip II (1556-1598) of Spain through costly wars attempted to secure his Empire from serious debt. He granted France the return of all lost territories over the past 18 years if France would break the alliance with England and the Dutch. Henry IV of France broke his alliance with England and the Dutch. King Philip II ceded the sovereignty of the Netherlands to his cousin Archduke Albert who married Philip's daughter. Philip III born 1578 son Philip II and Anne of Austria became Emperor and King of Spain but his father on his death bed had said "God who has given me so many kingdoms has not granted me a son fit to govern". Philip III effectively place the power of the Empire in the hands of Marquis of Demia (Don Francisco Gomez de Sandovalaly Rojas) later to be called Duke of Lerma for the next twenty years.
Jesuit priest Juan De Mariana (1536-1623) wrote monarchy is superior to democracy and should be strictly hereditary with a perfectly definite law of succession yet a monarch is he very antithesis of a tyrant. If a King usurp sovereignty by violence it is lawful to use violence to dethrone him and to deprive him of his life. If they make themselves intolerable by their wickedness and evil deeds, then they are liable to be assassinated, not only justly but with the applause and acclamation of posterity.
At the Synod of Diamper the Christian followers of the Apostle St. Thomas are brought into communion with the Christian followers of the Roman Paul. The Thomas Christian liturgical books are edited and reformed in a Roman direction. It is noteworthy that Ignatius Mar Atallah the Syrian bishop was assigned as Patriarch of India in 1653 was captured and handed over to the Roman Inquisition. He was martyred through burning in Goa or as others believe he died in Paris.
EUROPEAN & ASIAN HISTORY Return to EUROPEAN & ASIA INDEX 1500 - 1599