The Company of Rouen and St. Malo established a far sweeping rule,
prohibiting settlers of New France from trading with the Indians.
A hundred year tradition of free trade between Europeans and American Natives is violated.
FRENCH HISTORY 1615-1619
FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
The Company of Associates attempted to oust Champlain.
Population of Kebec 16 French + 1 Huron
(I)-Jean Bacheland from Dieppe, Normandy, a Huguenot, is at Port Royal this year and in Acadia in 1612.
(I)-Bouvier, a competitor of the de Monts Trading Company, sent one of his boys to live among the Algonquin when (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sent (I)-Nicolas de Vignau among the Huron (some say Algonquin). It is noteworthy the the Huron were subordinate to the Algonquin Nation, both in numbers and influence. The Algonquin had previously soundly defeated the more aggressive Iroquois Nation, or so claimed the Iroquois. The Huron (Wendat), an Iroquois speaking Nation, and the Algonquin Nations were friendly neighbors. (I)-Bouvier a merchant was trading the Sault St. Louis, Acadia this year.
(I)-Etienne Brule was an intermediary for the Hurons, since 1611
(I)-Nicolas de Vignau claimed to have explored the Ottawa River to the North Sea (Hudson Bay) and seen the wreckage of an English ship where 80 English had been killed by the Indians. The Algonkins said he was lying as he had spent the winter with them so he retracted his story. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) doubted his story from the start and forced (I)-Nicolas de Vignau to prove it in 1613.
The savages of Saint John called the French Normans, except the Malouins which they called Samaricois. They call the Basques the Bascua. The Port Royal colony only consisted of 22 men including the two Jesuits Masse and Biard.
The Company of Associates (Rouen Associates) withdrew from the New France fur trade.
The first use of the term Eskimos is by a Jesuit missionary, but not so in the technical sense as Richard Hakluyt, in 1584, used the word Esquimawes, writing about colonizing eastern North America, but it was not published until 1877. Eskimo, however, is from an Algonkian word, believed from the Abnaki meaning "eaters of raw fish". The Eskimo prefer the word Inuit; meaning people or men that they call themselves.
The Rochelle men refused to join the Company of Associates and continued on with their illicit trade in New France. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) accused the merchants of selling arms and ammunition to the natives, exciting their hostility against the Kebec Company.
(I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Pointrincourt (1557-1615) returned to France leaving his son in command.
Monlina Perez was sent to deal with the English at Jamestown but is capture and Spain is forced to accept the presence of the English in Spanish Virginia.
The Hollanders stopped at Cap de La Heve to take on fresh water, the savages who were friendly to the French, captured 6 including the captain of the ship.
The Grand Sault Rapids were named this year Sault St. Louis after Louis who drowned while trying to run the rapids.
The Jesuits planted apple trees in Acadia 1611 to 1613.
May 21: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived in Kebec from France and traveled as far as the Lachine Rapids, choosing Point Callieres Hochelaga as the site for future Montreal.
May 22: The (I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Poutrincourt's (1557-1615) party reached Port Royal. The first letter from Port Royal, New France to France is by the Jesuits (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622) and (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646). Timber is being exported from New France. By the fall, the Jesuit are clashing with (II)-Charles de Biencourt de Poutrincourt de Saint Just (1591-1623). Father Biard accused (I)-Charles de Biencourt (1591-1623) as being selfish and materialistic. The Jesuits are asked to leave the colony, and they, in turn, excommunicated members of the colony. The Jesuits, in July of 1613, leave to establish a religious colony on the Maine coast, but are captured by the British and returned to France. It is noteworthy that no one in Fort Kebec would receive the Jesuit in the future, save the Recollect fathers.
June 12: (I)-Hudson began his return voyage to England but his ship became locked in the ice.
June 13: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633), having been living with the Algoumequins (Algonquins), encountered (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) near the Lachine Rapids on his way to Kabec with 200 Huron to trade. Brule had learned to speak the language fluently. He immediately departed to go live with the Wendat (Huron). Many more from the small colony would follow (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) such as (I)-Duvernais, (I)-Demerais and (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642). These French would travel with the Huron into the great Lakes region to the west. (I)-Jean Nicolet would travel to the Illinoise.
June 24: (I)-Henry Hudson -an inept captain, first mate Robert Juet- a thug, John King quartermaster- a troublemaker, Abacuck Prickett- a haberdasher, and a rogue named Henry Greene, aboard the Discovery, sailed for the Bay of the North (Hudson from James Bays). His mate, Robert Juet, rebelled and is thrown in irons. Robert Bylot is promoted to mate, but later demoted. They are forced to winter in Ruperts Bay. John Williams is the first to die. An Indian traded a pair of beaver hides, initiating the Bay's first known fur trade. The carpenter, Philip Staffe, is promoted to mate even though he could neither read nor write. William Wilson, Henry Greene and Rupert Juet organized a mutiny and forced (I)-Hudson, his son (II)-John and six seamen, including (I)-Staffe, into a scallop and cast them off. They are believed to have perished on or near Danby Island, James Bay. The crew, upon returning to England, is acquitted of murder and not charged with mutiny.
July 20: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) departed Kebec for France.
Population of Kebec 16 French
The French explorer (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes this year. Etienne Brule (1592-1632) explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. He probably was the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania.
The Company of Rouen and St. Malo established a far sweeping rule, prohibiting settlers of New France from trading with the Indians. A hundred year tradition of free trade between Europeans and American Natives is violated. More fundamental is the violation of ten thousand years of free trade tradition in the Americas. Trade Control is systemic in design to give power and authority to a few selected people. It tends to perpetuate poor leadership. It also discourages innovation and adaptation.
The Forbans (banished ones, outlaws or pirates) harassed the fishing fleet off Newfoundland. One thousand and eighty men were captured and carried off by force into slavery, between 1612-1620. The bulk of the English and French slave trade was Turkish pirates.
Peter Easton used Harbor Grace, Newfoundland as a base for his ten-vessel pirate fleet. He plundered 30 English ships in St. John's harbor and raided French and Portuguese ships at Ferryland.
(I)-Nicholas de Vignau reports to (I)-Samuel de Champlain, that he discovered an English shipwreck in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) this season. The Natives claim he is a liar and eventually he confesses.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant New France, recorded Basque fishermen drying fish 25 km down river from the mouth of the Sagunenay River.
John Davis, being sponsored by London Merchants to mine silver, disappeared and is assumed killed by Inuit or the elements.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) a devout Christian wanted to bring the powerful Jesuit to New France but was rejected.
Thomas Button led an expedition to look for Henry Hudson and find the Northwest Passage and lost a ship in Hudson Bay.
January 26: A supply ship arrived at Port Royal, Acadia with the lay Jesuit (I)-Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) to act as administrator of the mission. Others suggest he was a priest, the paid spy for Madame de Guercheville guised as a colonist. The Jesuits instigated troubles among the colony even going as far as to excommunicate Commandant (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623). As a result Father Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) is expelled from the Colony in disgrace and Commandant (II)-Charles Biencourt set out to prevent the Jesuit from becoming predominant to the Colony.
April 14: Thomas Button (d-1634), a Welshman, for the Company of Merchants, sailed the Discover (Hudsons old ship) back to Hudson's Bay (Bay of the North) to discover the North West Passage and the whereabouts of the Hudson party.
August 15: Thomas Button (d-1634) reached and camped in the estuary of the Nelson River.
October: John Guy explored Trinity Bay, Newfoundland to establish contact with the Beothuk People.
October 8: King Louis XIII decided to continue the New France venture after the collapse of the de Monts Trading Company. He named his nephew, Charles de Bourbon, Compte de Soisson, as the Lieutenant General in New France and De Champlain as his subordinate lieutenant
November 20: Charles de Bourbon died, and Henri de Bourbon, Prince de Conde, replaced him. He gained the fur trade monopoly over New France and is titled Viceroy of New France. He formed The Rouen and St. Milo Company to manage his business in the New World. Gua De Monts became a stockholder in the Company, Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613), a lay Jesuit, became acting administrator of Missions in New France. (I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts (1558-1628) helped organize the new Company and continued to trade and explore until 1617. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was confirmed in his post but denied the title of Governor.
Population of Kebec 47 French
After the destruction of Port Royal by Samuel Argall and his men this year: (II)-Charles De Saint Etienne De La Tour (1595-1665), (I)-Charles De Biencourt De Poutrincourt (Biencourt), d-1623 remained in Acadia, with a handful of followers to become Coureur Des Bois. They amased a following of about one hundred Natives, whom they trained in the use of firearms. The group would be bolstered by a few French free traders and Basque fishermen, who also gave up their former lifestyle to embrace the democratic laws of the land. Many also married Mi'Kmaq women and raised Metis children, and most of these unions were love matches. The Mi'Knaq had a paternal society in nature but not as extreme as Europe.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) believed that navigation is the most useful because through it, the idolatry of paganism is overthrown and Christianity proclaimed in all parts of the world. This is the major driving force for the creation of New France, a missionary outpost sustained by a commercial base. The governor of this process was French honor (la gloire) and hate of the English.
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan (1601-1677) is at Kebec this year and was still here as interpreter in 1629. (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) (1587-1677) is a long time interpreter for the Montagnais and Algonkin tribes. Tanguay says b-1601 but the Jesuits say b-1587 which is more accurate. He was called the 'Little King of Tadoussac' because he reported direct to the King and was not controlled by (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635)
(I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664 Kebec, married Marguerite Langlois b-1611. This is not possible as Marguerite was only 2 years old. See 1624. It is not known when this family arrived but it was before 1621 and they were here until 1629 but are listed in Tanguay but not in his 1929 list of families. They returned 1635 and had more kids. Also see 1609 & 1610
Thomas Dale, an Englishman, commissioned (I)- Samuel Argall (1572-1641) to destroy the French settlements in the New World. This is not true as Thomas de la Warr (1577-1618) Governor of Virginia is in England at this time and (I)-Samuel Argall (1572-1626) is assumed acting Governor. That the French and English were not at war didn't seem to matter. They first attacked a French post at Mount Desert Island, killing a Jesuit, wounded several settlers, took prisoners and then razed the buildings. Twenty men were away at the time and avoided deportation to Virginia or England. They were later rescued by the French. Others suggest (I)-Samuel Argall (1572-1641), is a pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, was only fishing when he discovered the French settlement of St. Sauveur on Desert Island and attacked for plunder like a common pirate and only later is commissioned by Virginia to clear Acadia of the French. There appears to be lots of differing opinions concerning this man. He attacked and killed Indian villages, attacked the Dutch Manhattan colony, and is not a nice man.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) complained about the numerous free traders who rush through the ice to arrive first into New France to trade secretly with the Natives, vying with one another and thereby driving the price too dearly. The French suggest that greediness of gain causes the merchants of France to set out early to trade in New France, even before the ice is out of the Saint Lawrence River system. This rivalry of secret trading (Free Trade) raises the cost of goods and should be replaced with monopoly control to get the best of the Savages.
The trading ships at Tadoussac, Quebec again exceeded the supply of available furs. (I)-Samuel de Champlain's (1567-1635) drawing shows a small settlement of (I)-Pierre Du Gua de Monts (1558-1628) which included a barracks for Swiss mercenaries on the island St. Croix in Acadia.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sent two more boys to live among the Huron.
Only 3 Jesuit are in Acadia, brother Duthet is killed along with two other French and four are wounded by the English who also captured the French ship. About 30 survived with one small boat that could hold only 15 men. The English also pillaged and burned Sainte Croix.
The English expel the Jesuits from Acadia.
PentagoŽt Bay Acadia was a site where a Jesuit Mission had been established around 1613
Father (I)-Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) of the Jesuit, who arrived Canada January 23, 1612 is killed St. Sauveur this year by the Englishman Captain Samuel Argall (1572-1641), a pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, acting Governor, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company,
(I)-Guillaume Couillard (Coullart) Lespinacy (1591-1663) is settled in Kebec with many others, he would marry August 26, 1621 (II)-Guillemette Hebert, b-1604/06/08, died October 20. 1684, Quebec, daughter (I)-Louis Hebert, d-1627 and Marie Rollet, or savage, or Metis, d-1649. Some suggest he didn't arrive until 1617. It is suggested he married Marie Rollet in 1621. I think there is some confusion between (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613? *
* (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613 and who Champlain said he was one of the earliest settlers in Kebec. It was him who Champlain trusted the care of his two savage girls who he considered his daughters, with a promise they would become foster parents until his return, being sent to France by the English. It is said (I)-William is a son-in-law to Madame Hebert. Some say Louise Couillard b-1625 is his daughter.
The English Captain Samuel Argal (1572-1626) acting Governor Virginia and ex-pirate, came upon the empty Port Royal, plundered it and burnt it to the ground. The French had taken to the woods with no winter provisions or shelter. One Frenchman was surprised that the English had not immediately killed the pernicious Jesuit Father Biard (1567-1622) who was in their custody but it was later determined he led they to Port Royal out of spite.
(I)-John Rolfe, who married Pocahontas, crossed West Indies and Virginia tobacco. He began a major industry for New England, and by 1618 50,000 lbs. of tobacco is being exported to England. The English established free ownership of land; freedom to develop diversified export and encouraged multi-culturalism. The French, in contrast, used the land to bind the people to King and God. They were prohibited in ventures that might compete with France, and multi-culturalism is not allowed.
The Company of Associates (1613-14) included (I)-Pierre Du Gua De Monts (1558-1628), Champlain, Thomas Poree, Lucas Legendre, Mathieu Dusterlo and Daniel Boyer. An attempt was made to oust (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), but it failed.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt (1591-1623) and his followers scattering through the woods around the fortifications of Port Royal searching and digging for groundnuts. Groundnuts, Apios americana or Apios tuberosa, is a member of the pea family, and its dark-red or brown flowers resemble those of sweet pea. The Mi'kmaq called them sequbbun and they taste like chestnut.
Sieur de Biencourt de Pointrincourt de Saint Just (1591-1623) stayed in or about Port
Royal area living among the Mi'Kmaq People and his friend (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665)
also lived among the Natives at Penobscot River, Acadia. Charles married a
Mi'Kmaq girl 1 st, then 2nd Marie Jacquelin, d-1645; then 3rd, Jeanne Motin,
widow of d'Aulnay
The Two-Row Wampum Treaty of 1613 states in effect the Iroquois Nations and the European Colonial Government were parallel, equal, independent, and not to interfere with one another's paths.
March: Lady de Guereheville is determined to establish her own Acadia colony dominated by the Jesuits. She sends her spy the Jesuit Fathers Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) and Quastin with orders to pick up Jesuits Father Enemond Masse (1575-1646) and Father Pierre Biard (1567-1622) from Port Royal. This expedition is under command of Rene De Coq de La Saussaye.
March 6: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), with (I)-Nicholas de Vignau, investigated Vignau's claim that he had seen a shipwrecked English ship in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) in 1612. Four French and one Indian was on this trip. (I)-Sieur Georges a merchant of La Rochelle, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and (I)-Nicholas de Vignau were named. Vignau would later recant when the Algonquin said he had wintered with them in 1611..
March 12: Rene Le Coq de La Saussaye departed Honfleur for Acadia, arriving on May 16. He sent Antoinette de Pons, Marquise de Guercheville, to stop the discord between (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622) the Jesuit, (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646) Jesuit and (II)-Charles de Biencourt, (1591-1623) commandant Port . This and the following statement is likely not true as their orders are to remove Biard and Masse from Port Acadia.
13: (I)-Samuel Argall (1580-1626)
kidnapped Pocahontas, the daughter of Wahunsonacock, Chief of the
Powhatan Confederacy, while she was with the Patawomecks, .
He had previously attacked the Indians.
It is believed to have brought the Anglo Powhatan War of 1609-1614 to a
conclusion. During this period the
English soldiers burned Indian villages and towns and executed women and
children. Virginia Indians
were led by Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) Pocahontas father.
May 21: Rene Le Coq de La Saussaye expelled (I)-Pierre Biard (1567-1622), Jesuit, and (I)-Enemond Masse (1575-1646), Jesuit, from Port Royal, then sailed to Frenchman's Bay, Maine to establish of Saint Saveur (Sauveur) on Mount Desert Island.
May 27: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) with (I)-Nicolas de Vignau, sailed to Lachine Rapids then traveled up the Ottawa River. At Allumette Island, the natives denied Vignau's story. Vignau confessed that he lied in order to have the chance of coming back to Canada.
June: Thomas Button (d-1634) crossed the Bay of the North and erected a cross, naming the area New Wales, as he was a Welshman. They discovered the Churchill River and returned to England in August, not finding a trace of Hudson nor the north west passage.
(I)-Samuel Argall (1580-1626) an English/Scotish man from Virginia who claimed to be under orders from London, attacked pillaged and burned Port Royal. Between July and November 1613 (I)-Samuel Argall (1580-1626) routed a French outpost on what is now Mount Desert Island in Maine, claimed it for James I, devastated two other French settlements on the coast of Nova Scotia, and paid a hostile visit to the "Dutch governor" at Manhattan, others say he attacked the Dutch Manhattan colony. He had previously attacked the Indians along the coast.
July 2: (I)-Samuel Argall (1572-1641), assumed as acting Governor of Virginia and some claim he is a former pirate from Jamestown, Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, is sighted in Frenchman's Bay, Acadia (Maine), contesting the French claim to Acadia which included Maine at this time. (I)- Samuel Argall (1572-1641) fired the first shot killing the Jesuit Gilbert du Thet (1575-1613) and seriously wounded 4 others and two men were drowned. He captured and plundered the French ship. The colony surrendered and were informed they were on English soil and therefore classified as freebooters and Pirates. He took 15 citizens back to Virginia in chains. He told the citizens to flee in a shallop and find a French fishing ship to return to France. The prisoners were spared execution for piracy because they were in Acadia by French orders.
August: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at St.Malo, France were he deposited his account of his journey in New France along with his maps.
October: The Virginians equipped two ships for war to clear the French from Acadia. Samuel Argall (1572-1641) returned first to the St. Sauveur colony to burn it to the ground. They then sailed to St. Croix Island to steal the French fishermen's salt supply. Argall had taken the Jesuits Biard and Quantin. It is believed the Jesuit Biard, out of spite, directed the English to Port Royal providing they would kill (II)-Charles Biencourt (1591-1623). Port Royal was empty as the inhabitants are five miles away taking in the harvest. Samuel Argall (1572-1641) ordered his men to plunder and burn the settlement to the ground. Samuel Argall returned to Virginia in November making himself infamous in American Annals. Among their loot was horses which they captured and ate.
November 13: Samuel Argall (1572-1641), acting Governor of Virginia, commanding an English ship for the Virginia Company, conducted a campaign of terror against the French Acadian settlements of Saint Saveur (Maine), Port Royal (Nova Scotia) and other French settlements in Acadia. The English reign of terror had begun in America. After this incident, neither England nor France showed much interest in this Acadian region until 1629. (II-Charles Biencourt de Saint Just (1591-1623), would, however, re-establish the settlement? The infamous Samuel Argall (1572-1641) was considered a tyrannical, autocratic man who vented himself not only on the French, the savages but even his own people. This harsh attitude would infect Virginia for years to come. This evil man was knighted in 1623 and promoted to admiral in 1625. The implication is that England were by their actions an evil culture.
The Acadian colonies fled into the interior, some making their way to the St. Lawrence and some joining the Indians to create a unique Acadian Metis culture. Very few returned to France that had no interest in defending their rights.
(I)-Jean de Biencourt Sieur de Pointrincourt (1557-1615) abandoned any future Acadia activities blaming the Jesuits for the destruction of Acadia.
(I)-Claude La Tour, (1570-1736+) the elder, a Huguenot lost his Fort at Pemboect, Acadia.
Population of Kebec 47 French
(II)-Anne Martin, Possible Metis, b-1614, died December 4, 1683 Quebec daughter of (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais, b-1589, died September 8, 1664, Quebec and possibly a Matchonon (Huron) Savage Marguerite Langlois, b-1611? not possible; married November 17, 1635, Kebec, (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661 an Englishman.. Some suggest she was born March 23, 1621 in La Rochelle, Charente Maritime, France. See 1624. Also see 1609 & 1610
The Company of Associates attempted to oust Champlain. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) formed the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint Malo. The Company agreed to settle six families in Canada each year. He also approached the Recollect order of priests to send four missionaries to Quebec.
(II)-Charles de Biencourt Baron de Saint Just (1591-1623), son of (I)-Jean de Biencourt de Poutrincourt, (1557-1615) is appointed the Commander Port Royal, Acadia ( Nova Scotia). He was considered as being tactless in his dealings and had violent quarrels with the Jesuit missionaries. This is most likely a Jesuit assessment as they had tried to have him killed by the English.
The fur trade became profitable enough to consider upgrade the trading shacks to a real Fort Kabec.
A visit to Port Royal, Acadian says the colony is in ruins and the settlers are starving.
The English colony at Conception Bay Newfoundland has 60 residents.
Allen Block, a Dutchman discovered The Fresh
River aka. Quinnehtukgut the soon to become New Holland.
The Dutch trading post is established close to the city of Albany, on Castle Island.
Back to Top
FRENCH HISTORY 1615-1629
FRENCH INDEX Return to Main French INDEX