1565  - 1599 A.D.

(Without any scientific support the scientists adopted it like so many lemmings.)
Religious teaching at this time could not accept any other alternative.
Others would suggest they are the lost tribe of Israel


  INDIAN HISTORY 1600 - 1609




If you have a culture based on sound principles then
The risk of losing pride is a better deterrent to man than the loss of
substance or even temporary freedom.
Private property is respected and theft rare.
Repeated offenders are often exiled.

The horse is reintroduced into America by the Spanish
and the culture of the People is changed forever.

Running horse


On the south coast of Labrador just north of the tip of Newfoundland, the Basque whaling ship, three hundred ton San Juan sank, it is estimated that the Red Bay colony of Newfoundland at the time maintained a population of five hundred to six hundred people.  The Basque have been fishing this region from before 1535.  The Basque had a colony at Tor Bay, Nova Scotia at this time.

Francis Drake (1540-1596) the buccaneer returned to England in 1565 with potatoes from Columbia.  It is noteworthy that the Spanish ships returning from Peru first introduced the potatoes to Europe.

Pedro Menendez de Aviles of Spain built Fort St. Augustine, Florida and it is noteworthy that English pirates were already raiding the rich ships that passed.  Fort St Augustine replaced the French Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River. This fort represents the first European colony in North America.  From this location the priests set up a chain of missions among the Timucua and Apalachee Indians on northern Florida and the Guale Indians of the Georgia coast.  These churches provided burial grounds that provided the base for the study of Indian diets before and after European affects on their diet.  Before contact the Natives had a varied diet of animals, fish, oysters and terrestrial plants with limited amounts of corn.  After contact the priests encouraged the growing of corn to encourage a sedentary form of life.  Corn-dominated diets are very poor ones.  Corn causes tooth decay and poor oral health in general.  It inhibits the absorption of minerals by the body.  The Indians as a result were predisposed to anemia.  The mission Indians drank well water causing parasitic infection like hookworm and other problems.  The post contact Indian had a higher rate of osteoarthritis than pre-contact Indians.  This they believe was caused by the heavy labor of Indians associated with mission life.  It is noteworthy that draft animals did not appear in Florida until 1680.

The Spanish estimate that Acoma, New Mexico has a population of 6,000 people living in 500 homes 3 to 4 stories high.

Red Bay Labrador, the Basque galleon, San Juan, sunk in the autumn of 1565.

A Spanish judge wrote: "It is certain that from the day that D. Hermando Cortes, the Marquis del Valle, entered this Land (America) in the seven years, more or less, that he conquered and governed it, the natives suffered many deaths, and many terrible dealings, robberies and oppressions were inflicted on them, taking advantage of their persons and there lands, without order, weight nor measure...The people diminished in great numbers, as much due to excessive taxes and mistreatment, as to illness and smallpox, such that noe a very great and notable fraction of the people are gone."  

March 1:  Estacio de Sá (1520-1567) a Portuguese soldier founded Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.   He destroyed the existing French colony on orders from Portugal.

September:  A Spanish fleet of eight ships swooped down on Fort Caroline, La Florida and put the French Huguenots to death.  King Philip of Spain had ordered placards be put around their necks reading "hung not as Frenchmen but as Lutherans".  The Spanish discovered the French intruders at Fort Caroline and killed all the inhabitants some 350 in total.  Some suggest this occurred in 1564 but some may have been executed this year?


Juan Pardo of Spain is on the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains (1566-1567).  He built Fort San Felipie and the village of Santa Elena on Parris Island, South Carolina.  

A French ship, in search of strange adventures, sailed to Terra Nova this year as illustrated in a picture of and captured Eskimo ( Inuit or Yuit) woman and her child drawn from life in Augsburg, Germany 1567.  The Eskimo father was killed but not before he killed 12 French and Portuguese who were trying to capture his family.  Hendrik Kaput suggests the Portuguese were actually Basques.


The infamous Francis Drake (1540-1596) sailed to America as a captain in a slave trading fleet that was commanded by John Hawkins (1532-1595) 

Juan Pardo of Spain established Fort San Juan, (Morganton, South Carolina)  He left 20 men at this fort.  This fort was a short distance from the native town of Joara of 500 people.  

Typhoid fever swept through parts of South America and killed more than two million Indians.


May: Six Spanish forts are attacked and destroyed in the same day by the Joara people.  Teresa Martin a survivor and wife of Juan Martin de Gadajoz said the Spanish soldiers committed improprieties against the native women of Joara Town.  They killed all the soldiers and burnt their forts driving the Spanish from South Carolina...  


Maps of this period suggest Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay were explored likely by the Portuguese.


Don Louis de Velasco an Algonquian speaking native of Jamestown was a slave in Spain for the past nine years.  He returned to Jamestown with a party of Jesuit missionaries.  Velasco likely promised to act as peace maker and translator but he promptly decamped.  A few months later he led an attack on the colony and killed all the Jesuits.  Don Velasco had spent his tour as a slave not only in Spain but in Mexico as well as the West Indies.  It is very unlikely the atrocities and might of the Europe's is overlooked.  Some believe he organized the local People in the European nature.  When Jamestown is created in 1607, King Powhatan (Wahunsonacock) ruled 200 towns whose inhabitants paid him eight parts of their commodities as tribute.  The Spanish and English referred to the native hierarchy as Kings, Queens and Nobles.  The English King James I sent a crown and mantle for Powhatan.  His fiefdom was created by conquest not by the traditional method of reason and logic.  It is logical to assume these lessons learned were communicated up the eastern sea board during trading sessions and most likely reached the Iroquois People.  These cultural abhorrent make it difficult to separate European culture from pre-contact Native culture.   It is noteworthy that the Average native American slave under the Spanish invasion only lived barely a year.

The name Hiawatha was first noted about this time.  He was regarded as a great sorcerer, a reformer and creator of the Iroquois Confederation.   It is noteworthy that the Iroquois called the European God,  The Great and Good Spirit.

The Spanish tried to enslave the Yamasee People who lived along the coast of Georgia and La Florida for their West Indies colonies.  The Yamasee eventually abandoned the Spanish for South Carolina in 1687.

Tupa Amaru the last of the rebel Inca rulers reigned 1571-1572) is captured and executed by the Spaniards.

It is estimated that 8,000 to 10,000 fishermen are working the Grand Banks off the east coast of Canada.  Many are establishing summer settlements to process and dry their catch..

Sigurd Stefansson compiles his map of Vinland, Markland, Helluland and the Northern waters.

Some estimate that Peru's population is 1.3 million and by 1620 they numbered 600,000.  



A map by Benedict Montanus shows Alaska (North America) attached to Asia by a land bridge. By the end of the sixteen century the separation of the two continents began to be favored by map makers. It was not confirmed until 1725-1741.

The Jesuit in Chesapeake Bay were wiped out by the Indians, resulting in the complete withdrawal of all Jesuits from La Florida.

All eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were killed by the Indians.


The infamous, Francis Drake (1540-1596) as a Pirate criminal on the Spanish in Cartagena, Columbia and Panama where he stole rich booty in silver and gold.

June:  The Spanish viceroy in Mexico City ordered Louis de Carvajal (Carabajal) y de la Cueva d-1590, the Mayor of Tampico, Mexico, to find a route from the gulf coast to the rich mining district southwest of Saltillo.  He was then to head east to the mouth of the Rio Grande and veer south, punishing coastal People who are hostile to wrecked Spanish ships, as he returns to Tampico.  It took him 10 months.  He died in a Mexico City prison being accused of challenging the authorities.


Pedro Menendez Marquez of Spain visited the Chesapeake Bay area, Maryland and Virginia area..

Only 4 English vessels are seen off Newfoundland

The city of Potosi, Bolivia, at the foot of Cerro Rico grew to surpass Seville, Madrid, Rome or Paris.

Francis Drake (1540-1596) aka El Draque, the pirate and slaver, captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being trans-ported across the Isthmus of Panama.

February 11: Francis Drake (1540-1596) first saw the Pacific Ocean from Panama.


Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), has made a good living plundering the Spanish and French ships along the coast of Europe for the past fifteen years.  His piracy had earned him a prison sentence in London.  To redeem himself he is offered a chance to find the North West Passage to India.

Francis Drake (1540-1596?) who died January 28, 1595 raided Panama and carried off all the booty his ship could hold. 

The Mandan People built a fortified Town on the west bank of the Missouri River.  A high log wall enclosed 85 earth lodges.   They continuously occupied this location until 1781 when the village was abandoned as the group was decimated by smallpox.  It is believed they migrated up the Mississippi to the Missouri River.


The final Inca rebel army is defeated by the Spanish. 

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), the pirate and slave trader, sailed from England via Greenland to Arctic Canada to discover the fabled Northwest Passage which was assumed to have existed before 1565.  He sailed with three ships from London June 7, 1576.  One ship sank and another returned to London.  He sailed on in the Gabriel with an 18 man crew.  On July 28 they landed Resolution Island which he named Queen Elizabeth's Foreland.  They sailed westward to Baffin Island.  They sailed into Frobisher Bay at the head of which is present day town of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavnt, Canada.  He believed he had found the passage when he came across some Eskimo (Inuit or Yuit) off Baffin Island.  He noted that they were no strangers to trading with Europeans and were familiar with ships.  They even preformed acrobatics in the ship's rigging in the manner of sailors.  It is assumed they likely traded with Vikings or Basque sailors.  They persuaded an Eskimo to be their pilot as they sailed westward.

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), sent five of his men to shore to find a high place for a view of their surrounds with their pilot an Eskimo.  They were ordered to land in sight of the ship but disobeyed his command and landed out of sight from the ship.   The men did not return and the ship waited a day firing it cannon to no avail.  Frobisher in retaliation  kidnapped some Eskimos returning to England but they died on the return trip..  As an after thought he had his men gather some of the black stones.  He reports that he has found the passage to India.  It is noteworthy that these Eskimo possessed iron, and a good knowledge of European culture.   It is not known what soured the relationship between these two peoples but Eskimo tradition remembers the Frobisher Expedition and suggests they were marooned by Frobisher and were taken care of by the people.  It is more likely they chose to stay and marry Eskimo women..  Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), assumed they were captured and killed.  Perhaps they merely took a temporary leave of absence from the cramped quarters and strict discipline which they had endured aboard the Gabriel for the past ten weeks. The allure of trading with the Eskimo for personal profit, romancing Eskimo girls, and fear of punishment on returning to the ship, may have kept the sailors ashore until it was too late.


Queen Elizabeth orders Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) to return to the passage and claim it for England.  He returns to Baffin Island and discovers samples of European cloth and Frobisher is determined to seek vengeance against the Eskimo.  Shortly there after they come across an Eskimo camp and attack them calling the place Bloody Point.  

Marquis de la Roche Mesgoues (1540-1606) received authority to invest and make his all lands that he can make himself master of and not previously claimed by other Europeans.  This in effect is a form of legalized piracy but more fundamental makes no mention of Native rights which implies the savages have no rights as they are not persons.  This Roman theology is at the very foundation of the European belief and value system that is still being applied systematically throughout the world.  Over time only the rhetoric has changed not the fundamental beliefs.

December 13: Francis Drake (1540-1596) a brigand of England set out with five ships on a nearly three-year journey that would take him around the world. His mission was to find Terra Australis and raid their Spanish colonies on the west coast of South America. He raided Spanish ships in the Pacific and returned with a 4,500% profit on his investment.


Antony Parkhurst counted over 100 Spanish ship fishing the Grand Banks off Newfoundland.

The settlement of Anticosti and Tadoussac on the St. Lawrence are well established at this time.  The Montagnais names Tadoussac as Tutushits meaning breasts.  There are reports that the merchants from St. Malo are trading for furs in the St. Lawrence river.

Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) an Englishman and pirate celebrated the first recorded Canadian Thanksgiving in Newfoundland, basically giving thanks for a safe journey to Canada.  Its reasonable to assume the Viking conducted similar ceremonies upon safe arrival. 

Many English get gold fever as the rocks brought back by Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) tested out by two assayers as being worth less but one said it contained gold.  Many English including the Queen raise funds for a massive mining operation.  Fifteen ships with 400 men including 150 Cornish miners under Frobisher's command return to Baffin Island.  They collect the black rock and fill the ships with 1,200 tons of ore.  It is all worthless and the passage ends up as a dead end.

Marquis de la Roche (1540-1606) is named Governor of all New Found Lands (New France) that he shall take and conquer from the barbarians and colonize.  He would attempt to establish a colony in 1598.

John Briard, merchant, owner of the Dove received a letter of Marque from Queen Elizabeth of England, giving him permission to attack French shipping.

Tree ring analysis suggests this year was very cold along the California coast.

November 13:  Three hundred and fifty private ships are counted in the waters off Newfoundland, Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence river.  The ships off the Newfoundland coast are recorded as follows:

    100 Spanish fishing
      20 to 30 Spanish and Basque whaling
      50 Portuguese and Briton
    150 French
      50 English ships dominating the harbors

November 19:   Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583) commissioned to discover new lands and form colonies in America departed Plymouth, England.  He departed with 10 ships and a crew of mostly pirates.  Three of his ships deserted to return to piracy.  The balance of the fleet were forced to return to England in disgrace.

December 5: Francis Drake (1540-1596) pirate and slaver sailed into the port of Valparaiso, Chile.  He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.



During the reign of Frederick II of Denmark-Norway, Mogens Heinesen was sent out to Greenland but no records exists to confirm he reached Greenland nor Iceland.  

March 1:  Francis Drake (1540-1596) waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, off the coast of Panama.

June 17: Francis Drake (1540-1596) sailed into San Francisco Bay and proclaimed English sovereignty over New Albion (California). Some claim that Sir Francis Drake sailed into the San Francisco Bay.   Francis Drake claimed San Francisco Bay for England. It may have been Drake’s Bay or Bolinas Lagoon. In 1999 there were 17 proposed locations for his landing. A brass plate, allegedly left by Drake, was found in 1993, but determined to be a fake in 1977.


Tupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.


Friar Augustin Rodriguez d-1581, two other friars, a Soldier Francisco Sanchez Chasmuscado (1511-1581) of Spain and nine other soldiers (some 28 persons) visit New Mexico and the Zuni and Piro Pueblos.  The found three survivors of the Coronado expedition.  Rodriguez and another friar are killed by the Zunis.   Chasmuscado died on the way back to Mexico.

Merchants from St. Malo, France are reported trading for furs up the St. Lawrence River. 


Antonio Espejo d-1585 a wealthy landowner and an Inquisition official, of Spain, a fugitive from justice, with Fray Bernaldino Beltran visit the Rio Grande, New Mexico and the pueblos of Jumanos, Yavapais, Acoma and Zuni pueblos.  They punished the People for the death of Rodriguez and his fellow friar.

The Spanish missionaries exploring the Verde Valley, New Spain (Arizona) and noted the Indians were using copper from nearby mines (near Jerome, Arizona). 

Dutch soldiers on campaign received 2 gallons of beer or ale each day.  Queen Elizabeth's men only got one gallon a day.

Mapmakers labeled New England in the New World as Norumbega


Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), as a result of his failed venture into Canada is forced to return to piracy. 

Antonio de Espejo, d-1585 a Spaniard reported the Montezuma Castle and Well were abandoned.  He noticed the irrigations canals.  He renamed the Pecoe River in Texas as the Rio de Las Vaccas (River of the Cows), a Buffalo River.

June 11:   Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583) departed Plymouth, England with five ships, Delight, Raleigh, Golden Hind, Swallow and Squirrel reaching Tierra Verde (Newfoundland) July 30 and St. John's August 3.  He observed 36 fishing vessels in the neighborhood.   Gilbert claimed Tierra Verde for England in defiance of Portugal's claim by treaty of 1494 and possession by Gaspar Corte Real of 1500.  He also ignored the Basques claim by continuous possession from 1540-1590's.  His attempts at colonizing proved unsuccessful.

August 20:   Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583) explored Cape Race to fish for cod.

August 29:   The ship Delight, one of Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583)  ships from England runs aground at Sable Island and eighty-five people is reported drown.  Twelve men made it to land.  This is the first identifiable Canadian Marine disaster.  John Cabot disappeared 1501 and most likely Basque fishermen ship wrecked before 1583. 

August 31:   Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583) died at sea and his two remaining ships returned to England.  His half-brother Walter Raleigh inherited his North American colonization project.


Joanes de Echaniz a Basque died at Carrol Cove in the Strait of Belle.

Francisco Gali (Galli or Gualle) sailed from Acapulco, Mexico to the Philippines and back to San Francisco and Santa Cruz, sailing down the coast of California to Baja California.  He died before making a second planned trip.

Richard Hakluyt wrote about colonizing eastern North America and used the word Esquimawes to describe the Eskimo.

The First English settlement in North America was created by Walter Raleigh.  It vanished and 4,000 Lumbee People around Robeson County, North Carolina claim to be their decedents. 

The Secotan an Algonquian People lived on the Albemarle Peninsula and in several counties in North Carolina.  They met with Walter Raleigh this year. 

April 27:  Amadas commanded the English expedition with Barlowe using navigator Simao Fernande  arrived the West Indies in June then sailed north to La Florida.

July 4:  The Amadas & Barlowe expedition sailed to Georgia then sighted land in North Carolina between Cape Fear and Capr Outlook.

July 16:  The Amadas & Barlowe expedition made contact with the Roanokes People, reporting "they are very handsome, and goodly people, and in their behavior as mannerly, and civill, as any in Europe", according to Barlowe.  These People made three crops of corn (maize) in one season.  Barlowe and seven men went up Pamlico Sound as far as Albemarle Sound and the Albemarle River.  Two natives, Manteo, a Hatteras, and Wanchese, a Roanoke, they say volunteered to sail to England. 


John Davis (1543/50-1605) with the ships "Sunshine" and "Moonshine," sailed from Dartmouth, England, June 7, to the Canadian Arctic, to Exeter Bay, Baffin Island at 66" 4' N. Latitude and returned by September 30.  He stopped at Greenland but found no Europeans.  He had hopes of finding the Northwest Passage.  He encountered Eskimo on this trip.   They carried, besides their more necessary equipment, a band of music "to cheer and recreate the spirits of the natives," made his first voyage in quest of the north-west passage, and discovered the broad strait which leads into the icy deserts of Baffin's Bay. But neither in this attempt nor in his two following ones (1586-1587) was he able to succeed. These repeated failures cooled for a long time the national ardor for northern discovery

Menatonon an Algonquian provided much help to Ralph Layne who was sent out to get Information on the new country by Walter Raleigh.

Francis Drake (1540?-1596) the pirate raided the Spanish settlements of La Florida including Saint Augustine, Santo Domingo and Cartagena.  On his return to England he stopped into the failed New England settlement of Roanoke Island, North Carolina to pick up the surviving colonists.

John White painted a picture of Pomeioc an Algonquian village in Hyde County, North Carolina.

The American potato is believed introduced into Ireland this year.

The Indian Sun Choke aka Indian Sun Root, later called the Jerusalem Artichoke was sent to Europe from Canada and was called the Canadian potato.  It actually is of the sunflower family.


Chaunis Temoatan is a village of the Virginia People who are manufacturing salt as a trade item.

Francis Drake (1540-1596) the buccaneer of England attacked, pillaged and burned the Spanish colony of St. Augustine La Florida. 

John White is reported in 1586 to have returned to England with American potatoes.  This innocent action would eventually save Europe from starvation and allow industrial expansion.  It is noteworthy that Francis Drake (1540-1596) returned to England in 1565 with potatoes from Columbia.  It is noteworthy that the Spanish ships returning from Peru first introduced the potatoes to Europe.

Richard Grenville and Walter Raleight of England on Roanoke Island, North Carolina destroy an entire Native village over the alleged theft of a cup. 

The legend of the 'White Indians' originated from the lost colony on Roanoke Island to describe a race of People who were white, had no beards and who dressed like Europeans and roamed North America. 

May 7:   John Davis (1543/50-1605) again sailed from Dartmouth, England to America with four ships, Sunneshine, Mooneshine, Mermayd and North Starre.  He crossed the Davis Strait to land near Cape Mercy.  He then sailed down the coast of Labrador to the Hamilton Inlet at 54' 30' N. Latitude, did a little cod fishing then returning October 6, to England but failing to find the north west passage.


Pedro de Unamuno and Sebastian Rodriguez Cirmenho (Ceremeno) both of Portugal sailing for Spain charted the California coast after returning from the Philippines.  He sighted land at 35 degrees north and landed Puerto de San Lucas (Morro Bay) near San Louis Obispo and explored with 12 soldiers and some Filipinos.  They discovered three deserted villages suggesting slavers might have visited the region before them.  

John White established a colony of 100 English men, women and children at Roanoke, North Carolina.

Thomas Cavendish (1560-1592) an English buccaneer inspired by Frances Drake set out to circumnavigate the world.   He plundered Spanish settlements and ships as far north as California.  He is reported to have captured a Manila galleon.  He completed his infamous voyage in two years and 50 days.

May 19:   John Davis (1543-1605) again sailed from Dartmouth, England to America with three ships the Sunneshine, Elizabeth and Ellen.  He sailed up the east coast of Greenland were ice forced him to sail to Hope Sanderson at 72" 92' N Latitude Baffin Island.  He then sailed south to the Estuary of Hamilton Inlet where he was attacked by Eskimo.  Dispite 2 men killed and a number wounded they fished for cod to offset some onf the cost of the trip.  They returned to England September 15. 

October 19:  The People attacked Pedro de Unamuno's ship killing one and wounding 4 men.  This was likely in retaliation to slave traders.  The Spanish killed a number of Americans in the battle.



Juan de Fuca, d-1602 a German, sailing for Spain, sailed to the mouth of the Great River of the west (the Oregon) of the Native tales.  There are conflicting beliefs concerning this man.  See 1592.

Lorenco Ferrer Maldonado d-1625 submitted documents to King Phillip III of Spain to support his claim to passage through the northwest passage going east to west.

Thomas Cavendish lost his ship going up the northwest coast of America.


The Spaniards introduced smallpox for the third known time into Mexico about this time.

John White departed his Roanoke, North Carolina colony to return to England for supplies. 

The Arendahronon People joined the Wendat (Huron) Nation which includes the Attighawantan and Attigneenongnahac Peoples.

The Clovis hypothesis is proposed by Jose de Acosta a Jesuit missionary to South America.  This hypothesis created a scientific psychological barrier restricting thinking that American Peoples only existed since 10,000 B.C.  This dark age thinking would last into the 21st century. 


Fray Jose de Acosta a Spanish priest suggested the American-Indians are descendents from hunters who crossed from Northern Asia to America.

John White returned to his Roanoke, North Carolina colony and found it exactly as he left it but now there was no people.  There was no sign of violence only one word carved on a tree 'Croatan'.   A search failed to turn up a single settler or body.  Some believe they went native and became the Croatan-Indians.

Gaspar Castano de Sosa of Portugal sailing for Spain led a group of 170 colonists on an unauthorized expedition from the failed northeastern Mexican town of Almaden into the American Southwest.  They used two-wheeled carts to cross the plains and established a new route across the Rio Grande near Del Rio, Texas, and up the Pecos River to Albuquerque, New Mexico.  He captured Peco and continued his atrocities against the People through Tehua, Queres, and Tiguas pueblos, as far as Taos.  

Louis de Velasco son Louis de Velasco is viceroy of New Spain (1590-1595) and (1607-1611).


Gaspar Castano de Sosa of Portugal is arrested and returned in chains to Mexico, along with his colonists where he was found guilty of invading the lands of peaceful People.  He was exiled to the Philippines for six years but was killed on the voyage by rebellious slaves. 


Anmtonio  Gutierrez de Humana and Francisco Leyva de Bonilla led an expedition from Nueva Vizcaya, Mexico into the American Southwest.  They wintered in a Pueblo at Bove (San Ildefonso, New Mexico, then marched northeasternly to Nebraska.  Somewhere between Arkansas and Smoky Hill rivers in eastern Kansas Humana killed Bonilla during a dispute.  The rest of the expedition was killed by the natives.  Their guide Jusephe escaped to New Mexico and was captured by the Apache.  He later returned to Pecos and later joined the Onate expedition of 1598.



Willian Barents of the Netherlands sails the Canadian Arctic and returns 1596. 



"Our years are turned upside down, our summers are no summers, our harvests are no harvests"  John King.

The Glacier at Gietroz, Switzerland advanced because of the Little Ice Age and dammed the Dranse River and caused flooding in Bagne causing 70 deaths.  This is evidence to confirm global cooling 1550 to 1850.

Sebastian Rodriguez Cirmenho (Ceremeno) of Portugal in his ship San Agustin ran aground in Drakes Bay.  He explored Trinidad Head, near Cape Mendocino then south to Bahia de San Francisco.  He claimed to have sighted Trinidad, northern California.  This area was occupied by the Tsurai people.  The Spanish in 1775 named it La Santisima Trinidad.

 Francisco de Bolanos (2nd) served as chief pilot on the Sebastin Cermeno to Drake's Bay, California.

Francisco Pareja, a Franciscan missionary, arrived La Florida and learned the Timucuan language and made the first grammer book of a North American language.  He made a Spanish-Timucuan catechism.  This language no longer exists. 

Francis Drake (1540?-1596) the English pirate raided the Spanish settlements of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was driven off but John Hawkins was mortally wounded.  

October 29:  Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno (Sebastiao Rodrigues Cermenho) was ordered to survey the coast of California from the Oregon border to Mexico on his trip from the Philippines to find a suitable port.  Francisco de Bolanos was his pilot.  He sighted land November 4 at 42 degrees and proceeded south to San Francisco Bay which was actually Drake's Bay.  His ship was destroyed but he continued to chart with a smaller ship.  


The pirate Francois Drake (1540-1596) with Hawkins sailed to the West Indies in 1595 and Drake died of dysentery off Portobello, Panama.

Apostolos Valerianos a Greek sailor claim to have discovered the North Sea, Arctic ocean.

Sebastian Vizcaino (1548-1628) of Spain explored the southern California coast.  He built a settlement this year at La Paz, Baja California.


The Yamasee at their village of Tolemato on the coast of Georgia revolted against the missionaries and drove them away.  Juan de Salas of Spain is in Georgia.


Francisco Leyva Bonille in 1594 to 1598 on an unauthorized expedition into New Mexico is killed along with his entire party.

Marquis de la Roche (1540-1606) landed forty convicts on Sable Island off the Nova Scotia coast, inadvertently leaving the men for five years.  They built huts and a storehouse with timbers from a wrecked ship.  The island had wild cattle obviously from a previous colony.  When they are rescued in 1603 eleven are still alive and some eventually returned to New France to engage in the fur trade.

Don Juan de Onote (Onate) (1550-1626) of Spain inadvertently reintroduced the horse to America in New Mexico and dramatically changed the Native culture.  The Great Plains people sought the possession of the horse with a passion.  Possession not in the European sense of economic value but for honor and prestige.  The more horses acquired, the more one has to give away as gifts.  Honor and prestige is gained through the giving or potlatch process.  He was visiting the Axol pueblo of the Tewa in New Mexico.  He visited New Mexico and the Colorado River and Massacred the Keres People of the Acoma Pueblo.   Actually Lucas Vasques de Ayllon (1475-1526) introduced the horse in 1526 at San Miguel de Guandape (Jamestown) North Carolina by abandoning between 80-100 horses.

Don Juan de Onote (Onate) (1550-1626) with his brother Vicente de Zaldivar Mendoza conducted a a three day assault on Acoma killing 1,500 men women and children.  About 500 men women and children are made slaves.  Many prisoners hands or feet are cut off as punishment.  Sixty to seventy young women are sent to Mexico as slaves.    

Don Juan de Onote (Onate) (1550-1626) visited the Navajo People a strong Athapascan tribe living in Arizona and New Mexico.  The Navajo were very warlike and usually won their battles against the Europeans.  Onate also visited the Sandia an ancient pueblo located 12 miles north of Albuquerque, New Mexico, not to be confused with a more modern pueblo of the same name.  Onate also visited Taos aka Tewa (Towih) or Tuata or Red Willow Place in New Mexico.

The Dakota people are settled in the upper reaches of the Mississippi.  The Ojibwa named them Nadouessioux meaning snakes or enemies.  Enemies means aliens but snakes mean people who they had trading alliance with but through intrigue the relationship is broken.  The Sioux called themselves Dakota meaning friends or allies.  The most probable basis of this difference of opinion is that the Dakota are crossing the historic Ojibwa trading route of the Mississippi, Red River and Pembina River systems.  Likely this happened with proper ceremony and establishment of new trade relations.  It would appear that the Ojibwa are displaced back to their La Pointe stronghold.  It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa occupied Shaugawaumikong an ancient village along the coast of Lake Superior in Ashland County, Wisconsin but later located to Batfield and La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Santa Ana a Keresan pueblo located in central New Mexico on the Rio Grande was active this year and is one of several with the same name but this one was visited by Onate.

Reports circulated that the English were on their way to attack Porto Rico and the Spanish assembled an army of two thousand soldiers and sailors with 20 ships to deal with the invaders.   Porto Rico however fell before adequate defenses could be mobilized.

Sebastian Rodriguez Cirmenho (Ceremeno) of Portugal explored north up the Pacific Coast but because of secrecy it is not know how far he went but likely Coos Bay, Oregon

Vicente de Zaldivar, born Mexico, with Vicente and his brother Juan explored a crossing point of the Rio Grande called El Paso.  They may have ventured into Texas.  Juan was killed by the revolt of the Acoma pueblo People.

Philip II (1527-1598) King of Spain and Portugal collected a fifth of all the wealth generated from the mines in America to fund his wars.  He invaded England and burnt heretics.

January 12:   Troilus de Mesgouez, Marguis de la Roche is appointed Lieutenant-General of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador, and Norumbega (Maine).

January 26:  Juan de Onate (1552-1626) assembled an army of 130 men, 10 Franciscans, with wives, children and servants bringing his expedition to over 500 persons.  His two mile long column included 80 wagons and carts, 7,000 head of livestock.  His nephew Vicente de Zaldivar went ahead to blaze a more direct route through the Chihuahua Desert west of Conchos to the Rio Grande.

April 30:  Juan de Onate (1552-1626) for Spain made a formal declaration of Spanish possession of New Mexico

May 4:  The Onate expedition crossed the Rio Grande at El Pasco.  Juan de Onate (1552-1626) rode on ahead up the Rio Grande valley to San Juan pueblo (Okhe) north of Santa Fe, where he planned to build the capital of his new kingdom.  In 1599 he would move it across the river to San Gabriel.

August 18:  The main column reached the new kingdom and Juan de Onate (1552-1626) conducted a series of forays from San Juan to explore the Pueblo Peoples country.  He went north to Taos, east to Pecos pueblo, and southwest through the Tano villages of the Galisteo Basin and westward , and southwest of the Jemez Mountains to the Towa pueblos.

September 15:  Juan de Onate (1552-1626) sent Vicente Zaldivar out with 60 men to bring in a winter's supply of bison (buffalo) meat.  They met the Apachie close to the Texas border, where were found vast herds of bison (buffalo).

October 6:  Juan de Onate (1552-1626) started westward by way of Acoma and Zuni pueblos to locate a port on the Pacific for his supply ships.  Later from Arizona's Hopi country he sent Marco Farfan southwest were he explored the Montezuma Castle for riches and he returned to explain the Pacific was 30 days march.   

1599   Juan de Onate (1552-1626) and nephew Vicente de Zadivar are accused of asking for excessive provision at Acoma, New Mexico.  To add to the complaint the soldiers are accused of stealing and abusing the women.  The natives killed Vicente de Zadivar  and his command.  A Franiscan Friar said if the people of Acoma will not submit voluntary to Spanish rule, then war without quarter against them is permissible.  After three days of fighting Acoma was defeated,  every man over 25 years had one foot amputated as a lesson against rebellion.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) with his uncle who was under Spanish command traveled to New Spain in Mexico noting that the Roman Catholic Inquisition condemned so many of the people to slavery or death that the very telling of it brings tears to ones eyes.  It is obvious that if the Inquisition of the Holy Church is allowed to persist in strict accordance with the law, the Peoples would all have died at the stake.  The Natives are forced to attend mass on Sunday or the Parish priest orders the culprits beaten before the assembly with 30 to 40 blows with a stick.   (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) writes the Indians are melancholy by nature, though they are intelligent enough and learn quickly.  They are good-natured and put up patiently with ill usage.   (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) only occasionally refers to the People as savage and it would appear he is responsible for placing that label on the Canadian Peoples.  Some content this 1599 voyage is a fabrication built on other peoples reports and the Brief Discours is not published until 1859.  Others suggest it was written after the fact and he just made errors in the writing or others made errors in translation. 

Before the Europeans arrived the Natives of America believed in the one Great Spirit who gave the People the commandments of voluntary discipline, his distinctions of right from wrong, weak from strong.  All the tribes of the Great Plains regarded the buffalo (Bison) as a gift from the Great Spirit.  A lodge, weapons or articles for personal use 'these could be owned'.  Possession of such things as a deer or bison (buffalo) carcass is an estate by right of accomplishment of his labors, or his prowess as a hunter or warrior, and by the same standards they could be taken from him.  Family groups would develop 'territories' for trade but they were open to all for food and necessities of life.  Each tribe had a leader but he had no power to enforce rules or laws-only their beliefs accomplished that.  Wrongdoing brought misfortune or illness and the only remedy is public confession.  Repeated offenders are often exiled from the band but censure before others is usually sufficient.  It not only humiliated the wrongdoer-it also taught the young; as all listened, children learned what is expected of them.  Private property is respected and theft rare.  The risk of losing pride is a greater deterrent to Man than the loss of substance or even his temporary freedom.  Europeans especially with their religions believed that no society can exist for long without enforced law and structured authority.  Europe groaned under the weight of oppressive laws and crueler punishment.
The early explorers found an entire continent of nations who had no enforced laws, their respect of property and freedom based on codes of personal honor and myths of legend.  The Canadian People, before white contact, is the greatest enigma in history.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed into Porto Rico and found the fort and town in ruins having been sacked by the English.  The houses and fort had been burned and most of the residence taken as prisoners.  Many Negro slaves had fled into the mountains to avoid the 600 English Army.  There was no defending army in the fort as the governor had sent them with their supplies to Cartagena, Colombia.  The English stripped the fort of fifty brass cannon and filled their 12 ships with the towns supplies of sugar, cinnamon, molasses, hides, ginger, gold and silver. 

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed to Mexico City and was astonished at the magnificent temples, places and great houses, the broad avenues, handsome shops, stocked with goods of all kinds.  He estimated there was 12-15,000 Spaniards in the city and 75-80,000 Indians and many thousands of Negro slaves.  There are many lovely gardens along the rivers and many fine farms.  The people cultivate maize, yam, melons, cucumbers, artichokes, lettuce, cabbage, pumpkin, apples, pears, avocado, guava, algaroba, carreau, plum, coco, etc.  

All Peoples are obligated to attend Mass, the priest calls out the names on his list and any not attending are arrested and brought before the priest.  If he has no valid excuse for not attending mass he is administered 30-40 blows under direction of the priest with a stick in front of all the people.  In this way the Natives go to church.

(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) sailed on to Panama and suggested a canal could be cut to link the Pacific to the Atlantic and save 5,000 miles travel.  Tobacco (petun) or Queen's herb, is dried and made into little cakes.  The sailors use it both Spanish and English by smoking it as the American-Indians do.  It is noteworthy that Champlain calls the La Florida-Indians as Savages likely because they are the sworn enemies of the Spanish.

Vincente de Zaldivar, Cristobal, Francisco and Juan Zaldivar of Spain visit New Mexico and Texas.  Vicente de Zaldivar,  put down the revolt of the Acoma pueblo People and dealt out harsh punishment to the People.

The Spanish this year massacred the Acoma People at the Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico.  

November 22:   Francois Grave du Pont (1554-1629) who had previously fur traded the St. Lawrence River and Pierre Chauvin de Tonnetuit (d-1603 a Huguenot merchant from Hongleur is granted the position of Lieutenant General of Canada, Newfoundland, Labrador and Norumnega (Maine) forfeited by Troilus de Mesgouez, Marquis de la Roche.

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