THE BODY, THE SPIRIT AND THE MIND
INDIAN HISTORY 1625 - 1639
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The French introduced scalping into North America
Henry Hudson's ship is finally freed from the ice in the Northern Bay (Hudson Bay) by June of this year. He Advised his crew that his intent is to continue to explore the Northwest Passage. The crew mutinied and turned Hudson his son John, some faithful and the sick and lame into a small boat. The remaining mutinous crew returned to Europe. No trace of Hudson and his remaining crew who were put out was ever found.
At this time a fleet of 200 ships visit New Found Land each year to fish for cod and do a minor business in trading with the savages. The French, Spanish and Basque also send their own fleets of ships. These fishermen have established fishing camps throughout the region to process their catch. They have been doing this for decades.
The Algonquian alliance is firmly established when the Wendat took Champlain a league up the Richelieu River, to an Iroquois long house with one hundred people. The French ordered the slaughter of the men, women and children except for fifteen who are burned at the stake. Burning at the stake is not dissimilar to the Church endorsed inquisition practice currently taking place throughout Europe. Its introduction by the French into Canada is a logical extension against what they call the heathen savages. Champlain assumed this action would secure more rights and freedoms from the Algonquian. The Algonquian National Council however refused to allow travel to Lake Huron even though the Wendat had previously agreed to allow travel. Iroquet, and the Grand Council is making it clear to the French and the Wendat that the Algonquian Council ruled the country. This appears to be the first recorded incident of the democratic process of Sovereignty Association that is the basis of our Canadian culture.
Some contend Etienne Brule (1592-1632) who arrived New France 1608 went about this year to live among the natives as a Coureurs de Bois. These same people suggest he traveled as far as Lakes Michigan and Superior this year.
One needs to keep in mind that the Wendat are linguistic relatives of the Iroquois and cultural allies of the Algonquian. The Grand Council it is said reluctantly agreed to a student exchange. A French boy named Etienne Brule (1592-1632), whom the Black Robes would later claim is without morals, exchanged for Savignon, a Wendat brother, who it is said is of the highest morals. It is noteworthy to remember that the People usually considered the Black Robes as habitual liars. A habitual liar is one who only sees reality from his own perspective, ignoring other visions of reality.
Sauvignon would travel to France and return to explain the French culture to the Algonquian. Etienne Brule (1592-1632) returned to Kebec in 1611 with limited knowledge of the Native peoples. If we are to believe the Black Robes assessment he probably had a number of Metis offspring as they said he is much addicted to women. This year the French traders meet the Ojibwa (Chippewa) who held the territory from the west shore of Lake Huron, all of Lake Michigan and Lake superior to the mountain ridge between Lake Superior and the frozen Bay. In short all of Michigan, most of Wisconsin and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and west Ontario. Trading historically is conducted with their brothers the Ottawa (Odahwaug). They fished, hunted and traded freely on Lakes Huron, Erie and Ontario. The Ojibwa believed Lake Huron is somehow connected to the sea because of its great depth and because of its rise and fall periodically over the years. It is noteworthy that inland people still had a clear understanding of the nature of oceans. The Dakota (Sioux) are challenging the Ojibwa on French River on the western end of Lake Kechegumme (Superior), and the Iroquois are making raids as far north as Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Spontaneous raids especially by young people to establish their prowess or capture a bride are very common among the Peoples. Serious injury or death is usually uncommon. Following any serious raids the opposing sides usually meet to settle differences. Tribute is paid for damage done and captive bride marriages are ratified as an alliance exchange of children. It is not clear if the couple joins the wife’s family under normal marriage rules or the husband’s family under exchange rules.
The falls of Saint Marie near Sault Ste Marie has long been a crossroad for the Ojibwa. A large contingent of Ojibwa arrived Sault Ste Marie this year from La Pointe, Wisconsin their historic center and many would stay until 1710. Historically the Ojibwa had been at war with the Wendat whom they claimed had committed most barbarous acts against the Ojibwa, acts that could not be easily forgiven. Larger Algonquian peace treaties had prevented retaliation but the Ojibwa as an example would not go to the Wendat defense when attacked by the Iroquois. War from a Native perspective is more like a European cold war of more recent times than continuous all out fighting like European feudal or religious conflicts. War is a matter of honor, a conflict of values than over territory or economic gain. Women and children are seldom killed, prisoners are enslaved for one season or less then adopted into the tribal family as full voting members with all rights and responsibilities.
It is recorded that the natives use 275 species of plants for medicines, 130 for food, 27 as smoking tobacco and 25 for dyes. Each spring they tapped trees for what the Jesuits called Maple Water and manufactured syrup and sugar. They also grew maize, squash and beans. The natives of Malpeque Bay and Rustico Bay cultivated orchards. The Peoples religious beliefs disgusted the first Jesuits.
Hoping to gain a commercial advantage John Guy with 39 Englishmen established a permanent settlement at Cupids, Deception Bay, New Found Land. Other English fishermen saw all settlers as interlopers and burned the settler’s houses, damaged their mills and ruined the crops. Some settlers retaliated and destroyed the fishermen’s gear. London eventually prohibited settlement within six miles of shore to preserve the shore for the drying of fish. Many settlers ignored the proclamation and established dozens of settlements on the Atlantic side of the Avalon Peninsula.
Peter Easton an English navy veteran became a Pirate Admiral and arrived Harbour Grace, New Found Land with ten ships and built a fort. In Conception Bay he took two ships, at St. John's he pillaged 30 ships. He also looted ships in Ferryland. He eventually moved into the Mediterranean to rob Spanish treasure.
Sakaweston was captured on a small island off the coast of New England by Captain Harlow and taken to England. He became a soldier and was sent to Bohemia to fight.
The term Eskimo is first used by a Jesuit missionary this year and its meaning is 'eaters of raw flesh'. The Eskimo called themselves Yuit later changed to Inuit. Richard Hakluyt recorded in 1584 the term Esquimawes for the Eskimo People but this was not published until 1877. It is believed the name might have originated among the Algonkian People of the St. Lawrence River.
June 22: English explorer Henry Hudson d-1611, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. The starving crew of the Discovery, which had spent the winter trapped by ice in Hudson Bay, mutinied against Hudson, who was never seen again.
Thomas Button died 1634 of England sailed this year through Hudson Strait across Hudson Bay to a point called Hopes Check. He wintered at the mouth of Nelson River. In Spring he charted the west coast and recorded Mansel Island. Hudson Bay for the next five years was called Button Bay.
John Guy sent an expedition to find the Beautiuk savages to establish trading relationships. He finally found them and had a cordial first meeting but the Beautiuk not trusting the English disappeared in the morning never to be seen again. The Beothuk traded with the John Guy settlers at Trinity Bay and ate, drank beer danced with much laughter together and arranging to again trade the following year. Guy noted the Beothuck already possessed a brass kettle, sailcloth and a fishing reel. The sailcloth covered a tepee. He concluded this represented previous European trade sessions.
Nicolas de Vignau claimed to have visited Button Bay (Hudson Bay) with the Algonkin and seen the wreckage of an English boat. Mutineers set Henry Hudson and eight members of his crew adrift the previous year. He said the natives had killed the starving English and taken a boy a prisoner. The French describe the Algonguian of Hudson Bay as Gens de la Mer meaning the People of the sea or the People of the sea of the north.
Mohominge a Powhatan village is located near the falls of James River in
Sagoquas a village of Massachusetts People is located near Cohasset, Norfolk County, Massachusetts.
Samoset who died 1653 near Round Pond, Bristol, Maine greated the Pilgrims and informed them that hw was the Sagamore of the Pemaquids of Bristol, Maine. He introduced the Pilgrims to Massasoit.
Satquin (Segocket or Segotago) a village of the Abnaki (Wabanakiyak) People is located at the mouth of the Kennebec River on the coast of Maine.
A fishing boat arrived Trinity Bay and the Beothuk assumed it is the John Guy party and advanced to trade. The French responded by firing a cannon killing a Beothuk. In response to this unprovoked shooting, the Beothuk retaliated and killed thirty-seven Frenchmen. The French in retaliation armed the L'nu'k ( Micmac) and offered them a bounty for Beothuk scalps. This is the first record of this European practice in Canada. Scalp taking is virtually unknown before this time in America. This European tradition is traced to about 500 B.C. in Russia. The Beothuk suspended all trade with the barbarous Europeans. The Iroquois are the only known aboriginal people to adopt this European practice of the French, English, Spanish and Dutch peoples. New England or Atlantic Coast tribes were aware of the practice but seldom did it. The practice was unknown to the Plains People nor in the west coast of America. The practice of scalping spread with the European settlers as they moved west. The Europeans took scalps even of women and children often while they were still alive. Scalps were braided and knotted and sometimes dyed certain colors for final payment such as soldiers, settlers, women or children. Many were paid based on the danger involved in getting the scalps this leading to exaggeration of events.
Ojibwa tradition suggests the Ottawa (Odahwaug) a Ojibwa band separated from the Ojibwa this year to begin a more intense trading culture as a result of the French in the St. Lawrence. The French named them Ottawa that means the trading Peoples when in reality they are really Ojibwa, on the Ottawa.
Pirates are attacking the fishing fleets around New Found Land and this winter decimated the John Guy colony losing their animals and eight of their men to disease. Half the colony is sick, the crops are failing and they are no longer making money. John Guy returns to England. The colony began a slow decline shifting to a winter camp and is finally totally abandoned by 1630.
Topinambour slaves from Brazil brought 'sunchokes' to Paris and the French called them 'Topinambours Tubers'.
The American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, returned to the New World from England as the interpreter for John Smith (1580-1631). He was freed by Smith but then kidnapped with 19 fellow Indians by an Englishman and carried off to Milaga, Spain. He managed to escape to England.
The Iroquois began trading with the Dutch for guns and ammunitions on the Hudson River to offset what they saw as the Algonquian and Wendat acquisition of guns from the French. This arms buildup would continue for most of this century. Many Eastern aboriginal people consider this a major turning point of paradise lost. The Dutch introduced the nasty habit of wanton killing of women and children and glorified the practice of prisoner death by fire. Death by fire is considered a purification rite by most Europeans being encouraged by the Roman Church.
Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) produced the first crude map of the North West Territories including Manitoba, James and Button Bay (Hudson Bay) that obviously originated from native and Coureurs de Bois maps or other verbal accounts. One of his 1614 maps showed a village at Sault Ste Marie and north of there the Nation and Village of Puans. The inhabitants of Puans, the Ojibwa, also live at Lac des Puans, Winnebago Lake, Wisconsin and La Pointe near Duluth at this time. One needs to keep in mind that the Ojibwa of Sault Ste Marie and La Pointe had been a merchant center of the Midwest trading network from about 1400 to the arrival of Europeans. They maintained trade relations with the Assiniboine, Cree, Dakota, Illinois and Wendat people.
The Peoples called Massachusett were first noted by Captain John Smith of Spain. The Seccasaw was a village of Massachusetts who lived along the coast in the northern part of Plymouth County, Massachusetts. Smith wrote the lands were so planted with gardens and corn fields and so well inhabited with a goodly, strong and well proportioned people that I would rather live here than any where. Europe by contrast only knew hunger, sickness and Government oppression harsh. The Europeans were shocked that America was larger, richer and more populous than Europe. They were freer with their democratic spirit and respect for human rights in most Native cultures. Roger Williams wrote, they will not conclude of ought unto which the people are adverse. This is not true of all cultures as the Inca Empire is believed to be as cruel as the Spanish.
Thomas Hunt of Spain kidnapped several Wampanoag people to be sold as slaves in Spain. One victim is a Patuxet named Squanto (Tisquantum) who is sold to a religious monk who attempted to civilize him. He eventually obtained his freedom and worked his way back to America as a translator. Very few slaves returned to America. He eventually worked his way back to Massachusetts only to find his village totally destroyed by epidemics. It is noteworthy that during the period of 1614-1617 3/4 of the People of Massachusetts are destroyed by epidemics.
The Spaniards introduced diphtheria into the Mexico Region about this time.
April 5: American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) daughter grand chief Powhatan married English Jamestown colonist (I)-John Rolfe (1585-1622) in Virginia. Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English settlers and the Algonquians. They had one son (II)-Thomas Rolfe Metis
The Two-Row Wampum Treaty of 1613 states in effect the Iroquois Nations and
the European Colonial Government were parallel, equal, independent, and not to interfere
with one another's paths.
The Wendat nation is better positioned than the Ottawa (Odahwaug) for European trade. The Wendat product line included corn, tobacco, hemp, and European items and squirrel skins. Tobacco is in much demand by the Europeans. The Ottawa (Odahwaug) trade items included dried fish, meat, skins, copper, clothing and medicine much being obtained from the western Ojibwa.
William Baffin and Robert Bylot of England sailed Baffin Bay in the Canadian Arctic.
The Montagnais, Ottawa (Odahwaug), Nipissing, Wendat and Ojibwa had a well-established historic trading empire along the St. Lawrence and throughout the Great Lakes to the Hudson Bay. Each of the trading partners had its own river systems, yearly schedule and alliances with other trading networks that covered most of North America. The Algonquian and Iroquois who previously are interdependent in trade appear to have become mortal enemies upon the arrival of the European. The Iroquois and Wendat have been in historic conflict because of religious and cultural differences and recently because they are becoming more culturally aligned with the Algonquian and French. The vengeance appears more directed toward the French being fueled the French claim by the Dutch and English. History suggests the French brought this problem on themselves with much Algonquian encouragement.
Captain John Smith noted Kennebec a village of the Abnaki (Wabanakiyak) People is located on the Kennebec River near Augusta, Maine. Moshoquen another Abnaki village is located along the coast of Maine.
A major smallpox epidemic is recorded for the period 1616 to 1619 along the northeastern Atlantic coast. It is believed that smallpox had spread throughout America last century. The Aztec recorded a great smallpox epidemic in 1528 and it is ridiculous to suggest it didn't spread thought out North and South America, likely killing millions of People. As an example the 1837-1840 epidemic killed 98% of those infected among the Mandan, Blackfoot and Assiniboine.
The Fuerte de San Diego was built to protect the port of Acapulco, Mexico, from Dutch and English pirates. Acapulco, is a major port for Spanish galleons.
An epidemic, (1616-1619) possibly viral hepatitis from contact with Europeans, ravaged the Wampanoag confederacy in Massachusetts. This helped to make possible the Pilgrim settlement in 1620.
The Patuxet village (Abenakas People) of Massachusetts at Plymouth, is wiped out by smallpox. Smallpox hit Maine, Connecticut and Merrimack Valleys. An estimated population of 25,000 was reduced to 2,500 by next century.
The Spaniards introduced measles into the Mexico Region about this time that ravaged the remains of the Inca Culture.
The United New Netherlands Company, held the charter for North American Development, founded their first trading post up the Hudson River in the land of the Mahican People. Prior to this time all trade was conducted from their ships mainly in the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. They claimed ownership of all lands from New York to Lakes Erie and Ontario that included the Iroquois Nation.
A Dutch slave trader exchanged its cargo of African slaves at Jamestown, Virginia for food.
May 16: Jens Eriksen Munk (1579-1628) a Danish sailor set out to find the Northwest passage at the request of the king.
August 8: The Munk expedition conducted a Lutheran service at Ice Cove on the Hudson Straight.
September 5: The Mink expedition wintered at Churchill River and conducted trade.
There is some evidence to support the contention that the Cree is on the north shore of Lake Superior at this time and some are possibly on the south shore. The Cree has always had a good trading relationship with the Ojibwa but normally occupied more northerly and westerly locations. Pierre Esprit Radisson at Lac Court Oreille, Wisconsin, observed a 'Feast of the Dead' ceremony among a group of the People. The Dakota (Sioux) had entered into a peace treaty with the Ojibwa this year. A number of Ojibwa from Sault Ste. Marie led the Radisson expedition. At the west end of Lake Superior, probably at La Pointe they came across a village of Ottawa (Odahwaug), refugees from the Iroquois wars, and as they continued north toward Hudson Bay met with a company of new wild men, that lives on fish. These alleged wild men are probably Assiniboine who at this time are living west of Lake Nipigon. Lake Nipigon means a deep lake of clear water. Some contend Radisson may have accompanied these wild men to Hudson Bay. Obviously Radisson embellished the story by calling the People wild men or he lied and didn't travel to the Hudson Bay. The Cree however may have told the gullible Radisson that the Assiniboine is wild men. The Assiniboine is a Siouan-speaking people who are at relative peace with the Algonquian Nation. That they called them wild men and not snakes or evil suggest the cultural value differences is not that great between the two Peoples.
The Wendat (Ouendat) had secured a trading network of most of Ontario and western Quebec to supply furs to the French.
The Massachusetts People an Algonquian tribe living in the Massachusetts Bay area are almost extinct by this date due to a plague. It is estimated that by this date 95% of the American native population has been killed by European diseases.
William Bradford (1588-1657) of the Plymouth settlement recorded one of the last of this Algonquian tribe. A savage boldly waked into our camp. He spoke English, was tall and strait, nearly naked, long black hair in the back but short in the front and no hair on the face. He said all his people every man, woman and child had died from an unknown illness.
It horrified the leaders of Jamestown and Plymouth that scores of English would run off to live with the American-Indians. We seldom hear of these English equivalent of the French Coureurs des Boise. It however is not surprising if you ask most anthropologists, archaeologists or historians if they would rather live in a European culture or a typical North American culture in 1491 they will all say America, the Land of the Free. The L'nu'k ( Micmac) scoffed at the notion of French superiority saying if Christian civilization is so wonderful why are its inhabitants leaving?
The Franciscans (Recollects) open the first boarding school (residential school) for North American Indian children in New France. It closed by 1629 for lack of students.
In Canada a settlement was established at Cupers Cove (now Cupids) in Newfoundland.
January 31: Virginia colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment a form of white slavery. The English called it indenture but was for a predetermined time.
September 16: The Pilgrims sailed from England on the Mayflower, finally settling at Plymouth, Mass. The Pilgrims were actually Separatists because they had left the Church of England.
November 9: The Pilgrims who lived in Holland to escape from English religious persecution returned to England to sail for America. The Pilgrims from England are in Plymouth contacting the Massachusets and Wampanoags People. William Bradford singled out John Billington as a knave and so will live and die, he was hanged for murder in 1630. It is incredible that a colony would be established just before winter with out adequate provisions such as food and shelter. It is no wonder that half of the 102 people on the Mayflower failed to survive until spring. Those who survived did so by by robbing the Peoples graves, ransacking houses looking for underground stashes of corn. William Bradford wrote and sure it was God's good providence that we found this corn for else we know not how we should have done. The Americans had died on heaps, as they lay in their houses. Thomas Morton a fur trader later noted the bones and skulls upon the several places of their habitations made such a spectacle that the Massachusetts woods seemed to be a new found Golgotha like the hill of execution in Roman Jerusalem. Lest you think of the Mayflower colony having a nice comfortable English setting, think again as they were forced to live in an abandoned village. It is noteworthy that a French ship preceded the Mayflower to Plymouth by a few years as when they were grave robbing they discovered a blond hair corpse likely carrying a viral hepatitis that may have killed 90% of the People in coastal New England before the Mayflower landed. William Bradford said that the good hand of God favored our beginnings by sweeping away great multitudes of the natives that he might make room for us.
November 11: Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a "body politick." 102 Pilgrims stepped ashore. 41 men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and 2 were born during the passage. Their military commander was Miles Standish
December 25: Jens Eriksen Munk (1579-1628) and only two of his crew out of 64 returned to Copenhagen.
The Dutch West India Company is chartered, the fur trade intensified, and the Iroquois are to learn very nasty habits from their new Dutch allies.
Opechancanough of the Pamunkey tribe attacked the English settlement of Jamestown killing 350 colonists nearly driving the remaining settlers back to England. Hostilities persisted until 1632 when a peace accord was finally agreed by both sides.
The Spanish built a fortress-like church with
eight foot thick walls in
March 21: The Mayflower pilgrims at Plymouth Rock were astounded when they met Squantum, an English speaking savage who learned the language in Newfoundland.
July 4: Virginia colony ordered a "scorched earth" policy against the Tanx Phwhatan, Weanocs, Appomattocx, Chicahominies, Warrisquojacke, Nansemonds and Chesapeakes tribes.
The colonists at Plymouth, Massachusetts were starving. Aspinet died 1623 of the Nauset People brought corn and beans to save the colonists. The ungrateful colonists drove the Nauset into the swamps.
March 22: The Powhattan Confederacy killed between 347-350 colonists in Virginia, a quarter of the population. About 300 were killed Good Friday in and around Jamestown. The war started after an African immigrant servant killed one of the People in retaliation for the killing of their master by Powhatan. The Powhattan War lasted 22 years. The killings was led by the Powhatan chief Opechancanough and began a costly 22-year war against the English. Opechancanough hoped that killing one quarter of Virginia’s colonists would put an end to the European threat. The result of the massacre was just the opposite, however, as English survivors regrouped and pushed the Powhattans far into the interior. Opechancanough launched his final campaign in 1644, when he was nearly 100 years old and almost totally blind. He was then captured and executed.
September 6: The Spanish ship Nusetra Senora de Atocha sank on the Florida Keys being driven by a hurricane, she carried copper, 35 ton silver, 161 pieces gold and tobacco. Only 5 of a crew of 265 survived. A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; during the hurricane and thousands died. The Santa Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a hurricane in 1622.
The Dutch however did initiate the principle of common law in America for the Europeans. The Dutch position is that there be no expropriation without compensation. The English at first considered this principle ridiculous but later would see the economic advantages. The English would adopt the Dutch law as a standard practice to defraud the aboriginal People of their historic land rights. The American People considered compensation for wrongful or peaceful trespass an integral part of their common law. Being only custodians of the land, American common law had no precedent for expropriation of land, as only the Great Spirit owned the land. Most property is used in common and essential goods are freely shared. Only nonessential goods are traded and subject to compensation laws. The French Seigniorial system although less absolute is also alien to the Algonquian way of life. Binding people to land and one man lording it over another is considered a great evil. The American People considered this a form of primitive slavery that they found a very strange practice.
The Montagnais plundered a French vessel in response to a trader breach of protocol. The opening gift to the Erouachy at Tadoussac is too small. The trader realized his mistake, made restitution and friendly relations are resumed. The giving of gifts is in recognition of the rights of the guardians of the land and waterways. The French would perfect the ritual of gift giving that would serve them well as the trade expanded over the continent. The English never understood the idea of guardians of the land, the ritual or its cultural importance. The ritual of gift giving is a universal value. It would appear that the Coureurs de Bois understood and perfected the French Canadian tradition. European tradition is historically based on a value of might is right. Authority comes from a King-god who speaks and his word is law. The natives knew that the Great Spirit gave the People all things not a God-King from across the sea.
The French threatened disruption of trade unless the Wendat suffer the imposition of the Priest-god among them. Father de la Roche Daillon taunted the Wendat by leading a mission into Neutral Country to led them to trade. The Neutral had historically traded with the Wendat. The Wendat frightened this potential Neutral trade rival by spreading the word concerning the diabolical nature of the French Black Robes who did not believe in the Great Spirit. The Wendat at this time firmly believed the Black Robes are out to destroy their religion, culture, trade and way of life. The Black Robes believed they could evoke the protection of their gods the father, son and spirit through the cross that they wore at all times. The People suffered the evil Black Robes only because of their love of the Business of Trade.
The Neutrals and Tabacco People report that French traders are among them. These are likely Etienne Brule and Vignau.
Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) reported that Antonio Galvao (1536-1549) that tha people of China sailed the B.C. west coast to 70 degrees north or the Bering Straits. He noted that the Squamish People reported that the Chinese visited before the Europeans. He said the Chinese claim to be Lords of the Pacific coast of America.
June 9: The Chiskiack People on the Pontomac River near the British Colony of Virginia concluded a peace treaty. The Britis said the brandy symbolizes eternal friendship. Two hundred Chiskiack celebrating the peace died being given poisoned brandy. The English soldiers killed the remaining women and children.
Six Dutch soldiers were killed while conducting a raid on the Mohawk in the Hudson River Valley.
The Iroquois and Huron made peace this year. As a result the French missionaries had access to both peoples.
INDIAN HISTORY 1625 - 1639