You (The French) are doomed to a dependence upon your Great King
INDIAN HISTORY 1637 - 1639
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The People noticed that the European religion was spiritualistic in nature, the natural world being inhabited by numerous spirits both good called angles and bad called demons. (The People do not believe in demons but rather in mischievous spirits). Some spirits of which required special treatment. Vision quests to obtain spiritual help was practiced including self flagellation. Their shaman (black robes) professed to cure illness by performing incantations and sprinkling water on the ill. It was also noted that they appear to worship various gods and often strike each other because of their differing gods. (The People only believe in one Great Spirit and do not see a need to worship him, after all he is God why would he need it).
The Black Robe, Society of Jesus, began their missionary activities in earnest among the Savages as they called them and refused to accept that the barbarians already believed in the One Great God called the Spirit. The Spirit lived in all things not just man as the Black Robes would have the people believe. The People the Jesuits called heathen Pagans believed God created all things, lived in the sky and that their immortal soul would live in heaven after death. These French Priests are not interested in the Peoples religious picture writings, their mission is to impose the French and European Christian beliefs and culture on a heathen and savage peoples, not to learn and adapt to a new land and culture. These People held a strange belief that the meaning of existence is to maintain harmony with nature, a fundamental relationship with the universe. They talked of relations between man and earth, man and animal, man and God, good and bad, between sun, moon and earth, between sickness and health. Free trade, free choice, individualism yet collective democracy a form of Sovereignty Association. This type of discussion convinced the Priests that such thoughts came right from the Devil himself. It is noteworthy that most Europeans at this time believed King and Pope are infallible representatives of God and that any talk of freedom or democracy comes from the Devil as it challenges the Divine Authority of the leaders of civilization.
The missionaries would elaborate and play on common fears and become dogmatic concerning differences. The thrust of the Roman Catholic Church, even to this day, is to focus on our cultural difference rather than on the good that binds people together. This philosophy is learned from the Sumarians passed through the Jews and passed to the gullible Christians. Following the European tradition the cultural belief differences are as follows:
Canadian Native beliefs
European Beliefs and Values
Maternal stability Paternal stability
Elevation of women Women are evil incarnate
Freedom Subjection to Church and State
Stewardship Personal ownership
Mobility Sedentary confinement to land
Good and bad Universal guilt
Heaven for all people Heaven only for Catholics\Christians
Natural sex Self-denial
Pleasant after life Hell and damnation
Some of the beliefs held in common are:
Supreme being Supreme being
Guardian spirit Guardian angle
Fasting and visioning Fasting and vigils
After life After life
Supernatural beings Satan and angles
The American People regarded liars, thieves and slanderers with the greatest contempt. This is understandable because animated oral communication is considered vitally important to preserve tradition as accurately as possible. The European especially the Jesuit Order believed the end justified the means. This fundamental cultural difference more than any other value would alienate the People from the Black Robes even into current times. Indeed, the very success of the fur trade depended on this basic native honesty that is later exploited with the use of the credit system introduced by the Europeans.
WENDAT AND ALGONKIAN TRADING PLACE
During the early French trading period the Wendat (Huron) were the middlemen merchants representing the fur trade in the Great Lakes and Northern region. This painting represents a traditional Wendat and Algonkian trading place.
The Canadian People attributed illness to three causes, the first being natural causes, and second being unfulfilled desires and the third witchcraft. The People reasoned that the Black Robes or 'White Shaman' is nurturing great supernatural power for witchcraft due to their unfulfilled desires. Anti-social people are considered witches who could be put to death without compunction or delay. It is not know if this belief is adopted after meeting with the Black Robes and their inquisition philosophy or if it is inherent in aboriginal belief. The beginning of the cultural and religious genocide of the aboriginal people began when Father Lalemant and Brebeuf discovered that they could frighten the People with the torment of hell and play on their basic understanding of the joys of heaven. Lalemant and Brebeuf are probably ignorant of the cause and effect of their blindly following the fanatical and corrupt process of the Church. It is noteworthy that the Jews didn't believe in a hell. They believed the closer to God is heaven and the further away from god is hell. We should recall that Pope Urban VIII is in Rome, the Inquisition, the dreaded Casa Santa of the Holy Office held power and Galileo is on trial for speaking heresy claiming the earth moved about the sun. It is noteworthy to remember that since 150 A.D. many people understood the world is a sphere.
The Inquisition, 1231 to 1657, intensified making it mandatory for priests to provide instructions of the falseness and folly of witchcraft. The Roman Church approves the use of torture to obtain a confession. Anyone who denied the existence of witchcraft is classified a heretic and therefore not of the Roman Catholic faith. A heretic could be judged in absence or by torture. The Witches Hammer, written in 1486, contains the complete theology of witchcraft and is the governing dogma for three centuries. The torture included whipping, use of the thumbscrew, the rack and these activities are considered preliminary. Cutting out the tongue, the Roman Church considers pouring red-hot iron into the mouth and burning real torture. Witchcraft and sex are combined creating an inbred hatred of women, "A women is carnal lust personified...if a woman cannot get a man, she will consort with the devil himself." Even childbirth is considered evil and dirty where special rituals are performed before the women are again made clean. If the missionaries failed to preach this dogma they themselves would be heretics' subject to death, damnation and therefore loss of heaven. This is some of the fundamental beliefs and values that the missionaries are obliged to teach the savage barbarian pagans as they consistently referenced them in their writings.
Within this historical setting the savage and heathen Peoples are instructed in the European Christian religion and it is small wonder that the People considered the Black Robes as witches, anti social, savage and evil by any human, Great Spirit or Christian standard. The Jesuits firmly believed that the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church. The People thought this belief is defective.
The Wendat having a natural terror of witches held council in absence and condemned the Black Robes as witches. On June 25, Father Nicolas Viel, a Recolect and a Wendat (Huron) named Ahuntsic are executed without warning while traveling to Quebec. The witches' bodies are thrown into the river, the People stated, "We have torn you out of the ground as a poisonous root." This European style execution must have been a learned value from the Black Robes themselves because aboriginal traditional punishment for evil social practices is censure by exclusion.
A lesser-known priest Father Raymbaut struck further north to the Nipissing that is called the little body of water.
Samoset who died 1653 of the Pemaquids of Bristol, Maine gave the use of 12,000 acres to the English. It is noteworthy that the People didn't own the land, they were only the caretakers. The Great Spirit owned the land.
Four Swannekens (Dutch traders) from Fort Orange (Albany, N.Y.) joined a Mahican raiding party against the Iroquois Mohawk and are killed.
The first enslaved African arrive in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (New York City).
Father (I)-Joseph de la Roche Daillon, a Recollet visited the Neutral Nation where he wintered.
May 4/26: Dutch explorer Peter Minuit aka Minnewit (1580-1638) a Walloon from Wesel (a most appropriate name) landed on what is now Manhattan island. Peter Minuit became director-general of New Netherlands. The Dutch tradition claims the Indians sold Manhattan Island for $24 (1839 dollars) in cloth and buttons. The 1999 value would be $345. First the Indians believed only God owned the land, they were but caretakers so couldn't have sold the land, second $24 for the right to use the land was trivial therefore the transaction was not valid by any standards of the time.
A party of Frenchmen journeyed to the Neutral Nation to collect Father Daillon, Recollet because they feared for his life. The Huron were upset fearing they would be by-passed in trade if Father Daillon, Recollet entered into alliance with the Neutral.
James Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian trade in beaver pelts.
Mishawum (Big Spring) a Massachusetts People's village near Boston, Massachusetts also known as Sagamore John's town is displaced by the English about this time.
The Mohawk are victorious in war against the Machican (Mohican) and the Dutch. The Dutch and Mahican (Mohican) were forced to abandon their settlements.
May 1: A May festival in Quincy, Massachusetts, degenerated into an orgy by the colonists with Indian women.
The Black Robes attempted to start schools for the children and introduced the practice of physical punishment that is foreign to the traditional Canadian method of child rearing. The native mothers are horrified and refused to send their sons to these schools. Most people of the world consider this practice barbaric. Many Europeans even to modern times do not see the wickedness of this spare the rod and spoil the child belief. Many consider this European practice of child abuse a root cause of much human atrocity in the world.
(I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) claims to have baptized his first Huron in Huron Country before being forced to leave Canada by the English.
Zuni is a Acoma Pueblo (sky city) in Valencia County, Arizona supposed to be one of the lost Seven Cities of Cibola for which the Spanish explorers were searching. A Spanish mission called Esteban Del Ray, New Mexico is built nearby.
The Dutch armed the Iroquois this year, they said so that they could put fear in their enemies. Their motivation of their instigation of war is to secure more beavers for themselves.
Alonso Benavides of Spain visited Jumanos and Piro pueblos in the southwest.
Feb 22: Indians introduced American pilgrims to popcorn at Thanksgiving.
September 7: The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
September 30: John Billington (1580-1630), one of the original pilgrims who sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, became the first criminal in the American colonies to be executed for murder. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin (1613-1630 following a quarrel.
The Englishman Luke Fox (Foxe) (1586-1635) to explore for the North West Passage. He met Thomas James (1593-1635) near Cape Henrietta Maria. James wintered in the Bay. He explored the west coast of Hudson Bay and reported an impenetrable barrier to the north canceling the last hope of a North West Passage for almost 200 years.
Pieter Heyes of the Netherlands visited the Delawares on Delware River.
October 14: The ship Our Lady of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, Mexico as part of a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
The Narragansett spokesman Miantonomo visited Boston. Later he was captured and turned over to the English at Hartford where he was sentenced to death for his religious beliefs and executed.
October 25: The Huron love their sagamite or sagamiteou which means warm gruel, made from ground cornmeal, seasoned with fat or oil, strawberries and raspberries.
It is reported that the Frenchman Jean Nicolet traveled Lake Michigan and Lake George with the Wendat (Huron) visiting the Algonkin (Alginquins), Nipissing and Winnebago peoples. The Algonkins were spread from the Gatineau River to Sault Ste Marie.
After much debate in Grande Council Etienne Brule is executed in the village of Toanche on Penetanguishene Bay. This is the Abnaki (Wabanakiyak) place of white falling sands. Some French believe it is politically motivated and ordered by Champlain, others believe it is because of his evil ways and his lack of respect for women. The women did have the authority to elect and remove ineffective or evil leaders or other persons and their council is much respected by the tribes. There is evidence to support either contention.
The Algonquian learn the French will not accept presents for the death of a Frenchman (Brule). The Huron who recently killed a Frenchman is in prison under a death sentence. The Jesuit, this year, did not venture into Huron Country for fear the relatives of the imprisoned Huron would kill them. The Huron at this time are believed by the Jesuit to number 30,000.
This year the Jesuits forced out the Recollects who are an offshoot of the Franciscans in New France. Things are not to change for the better as the Jesuit missionaries considered the 'savages' (People) as minions of Satan. Biblical history, as interpreted by the Church, required them to believe that the People of the New World had fallen for their sins, from an earlier higher state of civilization. Referring to the 'savages' (People), the Jesuit stated, "it is necessary to clear, till and sow, before harvesting" and most of their alleged converts are made without consent immediately before their death. The Jesuits are unable to accept the Peoples religious beliefs because the debate in Rome over Chinese belief of one God is thought to have no parallel among pagans and they didn't want their expansion to be stifled in New France as they are in China. The Jesuits are given religious monopoly in New France provided they served to protect the fur trade monopoly. The Jesuits recorded it is a good day because so many 'savages' (People) had died. A grisly tally of saved souls from their perspective.
The three Jesuits attempted again unsuccessfully to reach the (Huron) Wendat country. The Jesuit are not liked by the People because they ridicule the People's behavior, criticize their most cherished beliefs. They only tolerate their presents to preserve the alliance and trade.
The Island People (Algonquain) believe they should be the middlemen between the Huron and French in order to monopolize the profit of the trade. Before the arrival of the French this would be the natural order of things.
The smallpox epidemic of 1633-1634 killed thousands of the Akenakis People on the eastern coast.
All the People of the Americas even down to Brazil cannot chastise a child nor see one
being chastised. These 'savage' (People) men will offer
themselves up for physical punishment to spare even a French child. This greatly
troubled the Jesuit for physical punishment is deemed necessary for education.
The Jesuit however would slowly bring the People to reason to administer
physical punishment as a penance for what they deemed as wrong doing, not only
to children but to women as well.
The French people love only their own children, but we love all the children of our tribe.
Wild rice is called mano min, meaning good berry by the
Algonquian. The Menomini nation, found on the shore of Green Bay by (I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1742)
in 1634 have always been known as the Wild-rice Indians.
The Jesuits first recommend creating Residential Schools for what they called the 'wild savage children' thereby giving the instructors the greatest freedom of discipline.
The Jesuit believe that in order to convert the Hiroquois (Iroquois) we must make them fear us.
The Montagnais treat their sick by carrying or dragging them as long as they eat, when they can't eat anymore they are mercy killed.
The one who gives a feast and who serves it never takes part therein, but is satisfied in watching the others, without keeping anything for himself. However, when there is scarcity of food, as soon as the meat is taken from the kettle, his neighbor or friend chooses the best pieces for politeness and puts it aside, then when all is distributed, he presents them to the distributor himself, saying to him, here is thy meat.
The French are called crackling geese because they talk so much at meals. The People eat mostly in silence having separate times for talking.
The Jesuit say the Montagnais never steal but the Huron are masters of theft especially against the Jesuit who are unwelcome guests..
The People at Three Rivers are all sick and dying in great numbers. The Jesuits plan to build a brewery at Three Rivers.
Arnet Van Curler visited Onekagoncka a Mohawk town near Fort Hunter, Montgomery County, New York saying the houses are full of corn but many of the people had smallpox.
The Jesuits are only successful in reaching Huron (Wendat) Country when the French again insisted they are an integral part of the Fur trade. Jesuit Father Le Jeune wintered with the Montagnais and noted the tribe splintered and reunited several times according to the facility with which moose are obtained. The first action taken by the Jesuits is to prohibit any Coureurs de Bois from living among the People. The Jesuit believed these free traders moral behavior is prejudicial to the success of the missions. Robert le Coq. a Jesuit Donnes d-1650, also went to the Huron mission.
The Jesuit say, the Montagnais, their
only thought is to live, they eat so as not to die, they cover themselves to
keep off the cold, and not for the sake of appearance. They are dressed
properly when they are dressed comfortably.
WENDAT PALISADE VILLAGE
The Wendat (Huron) are an Iroquois speaking peoples. The Wendat (Huron) are more culturally aligned with the Algonquin speaking peoples than the Iroquois. These longhouse were some 300 feet long, a domed roofed structure supported by frame construction. This is the same construction technique employed by the Ojibwa. The Wendat (Huron) usually maintained their villages for 10-15 years until the resources of the area are depleted. The Ojibwa usually relocated twice a year and only built long houses for special occasions, no more than once a year. The Wendat (Huron) were more intensive farmers.
A skin coat of the Naskapi of Northern Quebec and Labrador.
The Montagnais and Naskapi of Labrador instructed Father Le Jeume that the People would not endure in the least those who seem desirous of assuming superiority over others. This aboriginal belief appears common among most northern peoples. It is also a belief of the Middle American Peoples but not religiously followed. Father Le Jeume is instructed that authority is derived from the ability to make useful suggestions and knowledge of tribal practice and culture. The Inuit called this Authority Leadership 'Isumatag' meaning he who thinks. Europeans at this time believe truth and right are governed by blind faith in God and King. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit had to make an absolute commitment of loyalty to the Pope and his dictates without question. If ordered to kill by his superiors he must joyously carry out the task. The interpretation of belief is God ordained through Pope and King not logic or worldly debate by ordinary people.
There is no word for sin in the aboriginal languages. Evil deeds require compensation to the offended party. The taking of animals without first asking permission of the spirits is unthinkable. Transgressions of this type are usually punished by the animal spirits that cause poor future hunts not as punishment by the Great Spirit. The Great Spirit is only offended if the People do not observe his teaching passed down through tribal tradition and ceremony. The Great Spirit doesn't issue laws to the people but rather suggests guidelines to follow in the Peoples quest for truth and understanding. The Great Spirit is considered a loving, patient understanding God not one of anger, vengeance and intolerance as presented by the Black Robes.
Two bands of Ojibwa one from Sandy Lake, northwest Ontario and the other from Red Lake, Minnesota met and merged with the Ojibwa near Sault Ste. Marie. They claimed their ancestors are from the East, this is according to tradition that was passed down to the year 1834 before finally being recorded in the European tradition. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Daniel living with the Wendat (Huron) near Lake Huron became aware of a large Ojibwa Nation to the west.
They by right of birth enjoy liberty (freedom).
They render homage to no one, except when they like.
The authority of a leader (chief or Captain) is in his tongue's end. It is noteworthy that the term chief is not from the People but a European creation.
They pass life in eating, laughing and making sport of each other.
They are genuine children, who ask only to laugh.
They openly talk about their private parts of their body, the children also exhibit this openness.
They are tolerably chaste.
Slander and mockery is jest it does not come from malicious hearts or from infected mouths.
They are harmonious among themselves.
They are slow to anger and have great patience. You don't see disputes, quarrels, enmities or reproaches.
Women manage the household with no interfering from men. The wife can give away as they please with no anger from the husband.
Women perform their tasks gently and peacefully without dispute.
These savages treat each other as brothers even those from distant tribes.
One of the greatest insults to a savage is to say: "That man likes everything, he is stingy".
The Jesuit's however freely admit they don't know when the savages are speaking seriously or when they are jesting. This is significant as they continually pass judgment on the People's beliefs and values based quite often in jest or analogy. The Jesuit's black and white view of the world restricts their ability to understand the People's culture. The Jesuits assumed the People were governed by chiefs like the Europeans were governed by Kings and Pope. They could not understand a society governed by a democratic process.
Nicollet encountered the Winnebago at Green Bay, Wisconsin. The name means Winipyagohag or people of the filthy water. These People also lived along the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. These are a woodland and forest Siouan Peoples.
At this time the only guns in use by the People are traded from the English.
February: It is noteworthy, the Jesuits wrote, the savages count years by the number of winters and days by the number of nights.
May 31: Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
July 1: Five hundred Huron aka Wendat were moving to war on the Hiroquois. The Hiroquois being forewarned assembled 1,500 warriors against the Huron. They reported that 200 Huron are killed in battle, and 100 prisoners are taken. Most of the prisoners are killed but many are returned for the sake of peace.
October 20: (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) reports he departed Huron Country for the Tobacco Nation.
The beaver in the Wendat (Huron) Country is nearly exhausted. The Wendat (Huron) turn to the neighboring Algonquin as a new source of supply thereby increasing their dependency as distributors or intermediaries in the fur trade.
The Jesuits first introduced the term barbarians this year when making reference to un-baptized Savages meaning the People. This consistent pathological need for the Jesuit to attempt to demean the People through words and actions speaks volumes of an inferior culture. We only put people down in an attempt to raise our own self-esteem. The Jesuit say, the Huron pay no attention to the indissolubility of marriage.
The Jesuit believe that the pioneers who found churches are usually saints.
The Jesuit say, "The joy one feels when he has baptized a Savage who dies soon afterwards, and flies directly to heaven to become and angel, certainly is a joy that surpasses anything that can be imagined." The Jesuit believe those children not baptized go to hell. The People believe that God is not evil, is not vindictive, loves children and immediately gathers them to heaven upon death. The People do not understand the pathological fixation of the Jesuit on children rather than adults.
Maringoman's Castle a palisade village of the Waoranec was located on the Murderer's Creek in Ulster County, New York.
The Algonquin claimed that Monsieur de Champlain had said to a Montagnez captain shortly before dying (death 1635-1637 but most likely December 1636) that he would take away with him the whole Country of the Huron. It is noteworthy that a barbarian custom is a wish to procure others in their death, at their own departure.
A slave ship from west Africa ship wrecked near St. Vincent, Central American coast. They began mixing with the local Caribian-Indians and the mixed blood descendents became known as Black Caribs or Garifuna. These peoples coexisted peacefully with French settlers who came later into the region. The English arrived, demanded land and war broke out. By 1796 the French and Garifuna surrendered. The Garifuna were exiled to the Island of Baliceaux where 50% of the population being imprisoned, died. They would later be classed as a World Heritage Culture.
June 13: An unusual and intense drought prevailed throughout Canada. No rain was received this year by June 13. The Huron Nation was threatened with a total crop failure but last minute rain saved the crop.
August 10: It is reported the Hiroquois destroyed 7 canoes of the Petite Nation of the Algonquains. It is believed this is being instigated by the Traders to cause war and divert the trade to considerable injury to the Associated Gentlemen of the Company of France.
The Huron believed woman was created first, then begot man and that heaven existed before women entered the world.
Le Jeune the Jesuit made note that the Indians made ceremonial wine and he tasted it and said it was good. The Indians said they have been making wine long, long, long before the white man came. The French didn't start making wine until 1811.
The Huron believe animals have souls and are possessed of reason. Many rituals surround this belief to show respect to animals.
The Huron have a faith in dreams which surpasses all other beliefs. The Jesuit say, if Christians were to put into execution all their divine inspirations with as much care as the Huron carry out their dreams, no doubt they would be Great Saints. The Huron look upon their dreams as ordinances and irrevocable decrees. The Jesuit, understand this being one of the major tenants of the Huron faith began a campaign to undermine it say it is from the Devil not God as believed by the People.
The Huron dance many dances and an unusual exhibition of nakedness some times slips in, not through lewdness. The Huron say Manitou their God like this but the Jesuit say he who makes all (the French God) hates these indecent acts.
The Huron consider sex as a natural activity and not an impropriety as the Jesuits do. The Jesuit noted that virginity is a very rare quality among the young women. The Huron believe the Jesuit fuss over this issue because of their own unfulfilled desires.
The People make it very clear they prefer trading, Three Rivers rather than Kebec. The Jesuits also begin to refer to the People as Beasts. These Jesuits are spending much effort to discourage the Peoples most sacred belief in visions and dreams.
Warfare, between the Savages, at this time, consists of small ambushes, one side against the other, in retaliation of some previous killing. It is true the Barbarians do not usually harm the women or children, except in sudden attacks. Many young men will not hesitate to marry a prisoner.
The Ihonatiria said they believed in the Jesuit God, in order to get free tobacco.
The People asked four questions of the French:
A deadly epidemic of influenza spread this year and in 1637 from the St. Lawrence Valley killing many Wendat (Huron). They deduced correctly that the French Black Robes are responsible for spreading the disease. They also believed the Black Robes are still practicing witchcraft. The Jesuit would bleed their patients allowing the life forces to spill. The Jesuit had little use for the traditional People's medicine of roots, herbs and potions to ward off the influenza. The Jesuits are baptizing in secret, the dying and little children, who can't protest and the People viewed this act as sorcery and many villages began to bar the White Shaman. The Algonquian Grand Council again debated the Black Robe issue. Many called for their death, others for their banishment back to the St. Lawrence valley. The Council is reminded that the French had threatened that unless the Wendat (Huron) became Christian within four years their trade would be cut off. There are only sixty professing Christians among the Huron (Wendat) at this time. Most claim they are Christian to secure more favorable trade positions with the French. It is decided at this time to do nothing for fear of disrupting the trade.
The Pouteouatamis began to migrate from the eastern parts of Michigan to the Bay of Puans, in Lake Michigan (Puttowatomie Island), they were well established by 1638. They shared a hatred against the Iroquois. The Pouteouatamis savages were considered the most docile, and most friendly to the French. Their natural politeness and their kind attention extended even to strangers. In fact they welcomed any peoples who hated the Iroquois.
March 28: Twenty three Huron are killed by the Iroquois and a request for the Huron Bear Clan and the Algonquian to go to war is rejected. The Huron Nation, Clan of the Bear is accused of killing Estienne Brusle and Father Nicolas, the Recollect, and his companion. Earlier they had killed eight of their men.
May 13: The Iroquois attacked a sleeping troop of Huron, killing 12 without resistance, the balance fled.
Jully 20: John Oldham, (1592-1636) trader in Massachusetts, was murdered by Pequot.the Indian on Block Island. He arrived America 1623 but was banished from the colony.
September 2: The Huron attacked 25-30 Hiroquois who were fishing at the Lake of the Hiroquois, they captured eight, killed one and spread the balance among the villages for a savage ritual of killing.
INDIAN HISTORY 1637 - 1639