INDIAN HISTORY 1640 - 1659
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The Governor of Kebec attempts to prohibit the eastern Abenaquiois People from trading at Three Rivers because it is not for the good of the Association. The People ignored the ban and immediately went to Three Rivers to trade with the Algonquin who also have been bypassing Kebec in trade. Upon their return the French at Kebec steal some of their trade goods.
The festival of Saint Joseph is celebrated with fireworks. Sieur De Beaulieu manufactured the fireworks and Sieur Bourden the delivery contrivance. The French told the Hurons (Wendat) that the French were more powerful than Demons, they command fire and if they wished could easily burn the villages of their enemies. This statement fortified the growing belief among the People that the French were witches and practiced sorcery.
(I)-Paul Le Jenne (1591-1664) concludes the medicine men of the People who he calls sorcerers have intercourse with the Devil as defined by the French. The People call the Great Spirit (God) as the Good Manitou. We call the Bad Manitou (Devil) as Manitouisiouekhi or sorcerers or medicine man. The People say they have no Bad Manitou or Manitouisiou among them. The medicine man whom we call sorcerers interpret dreams much like the Roman Augurs.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) also called Echon by the Savages, compiled a list of instructions for the Jesuit to gain respect from the Huron. The following is a partial list:
- Never make them wait for you in embarking in a canoe.
- Have a tinder box and a burning mirror to furnish them with fire in the daytime to light their pipes.
- Eat their sagamite and salmagundi in the way prepared, although it may be dirty, half-cooked, and very tasteless.
- It is well to take everything they offer, although you may not be able to eat it all; for, when one becomes somewhat accustomed to it, there is not too much.
- You must eat at daybreak, the day is long and the Barbarians only eat at sunrise and sunset, when they are on their journeys.
- Do not carry sand or water into the canoe. You must have your feet and legs bare; while crossing rapids, you can wear your shoes, and, in the long portages, even your leggings.
- You must conduct yourself so as not to be troublesome to even one of these Barbarians.
- Do not ask many questions, nor make observations on the way. Silence is a good equipment during the work.
- You must bear imperfections, without seeming to notice them. If criticism, it must be done modestly, and with words and signs which evince love and not aversion. In short, you must try to be, and to appear, always cheerful.
- Each one will try, at the portages, to carry some little thing, according to their strength, however little one carries, it greatly pleases the Savages, if it be only the kettle.
- You must not be ceremonious with the Savages, but accept the comforts they offer you, such as a good place in the cabin. The greatest conveniences are attended with very great inconvenience, and these ceremonies offend them.
- Be careful not to annoy any one in the canoe. There is no impropriety among the Savages.
- Do not undertake anything unless you desire to continue it, for example, do not begin to paddle unless you are inclined to continue paddling. Take from the start the place in the canoe that you wish to keep; do not lend then your garments, unless you are willing to surrender them during the whole journey. It is easier to refuse at first than to ask them back, to change, or to desist afterwards.
- Finally, understand that the Savages will retain the same opinion of you in their country that they will have formed on the way; one who passed as an irritable and troublesome person will have considerable difficulty afterwards in removing this opinion.
Complaints are surfacing in
France against the Jesuits.
The Jesuits do damage control by writing to France. The Jesuit say that a few French colonists have written to French relatives saying the Savages (The People) say:
"Thou sayest one must not steal, and yet the French have taken such and such things".
"Thou sayest drunkards will go into the fires of hell, then such and such a one will be damned, for he is always drunk".
All the savages who are not converted believe that the soul is immortal, but
they maintain that when it separated from the body it goes to a beautiful and
fertile land. The Peouaroua Illinois are the single exception they told
Father Gravier that man perished utterly, and that, if the soul survived, we
would see the dead return to earth,
Monsieur De Chevalier de Montmagny is the Governor of Kebec.
Montagnez a Huron Captain says his grandfather previously had a vision that the Black Robes would come and would be the cause of their death. The Jesuits classify the Huron Medicine Men as sorcerers in league with the Devil (Spirit) whom they communicate. The People considered the Black Robes as sorcerers and were bewitched.
The Black Robes report that the whole Savage Country is completely imbued with the belief that the Jesuit were responsible for the contagion. Just seeing a Jesuit walking about, the savages believed they were engaged in witchcraft. The Jesuit are warned that some of the People plan to split their heads.
The Jesuit say; troubles, wars, sickness, slander, in a word, all the machinations that can issue from the arsenal of the demons, have been directed against out Holy Enterprise. We see it entirely overthrown and entirely established almost at the same time.
- The contagion caused a great many Huron to die, imagined the French were the cause of their death. An Algonquian reported that Monsieur de Champlain had told Montagnez just before he died, that he would take away with him the whole country of the Huron.
- Epidemics are attributed to the Jesuit vengeance, saying that we only went up to the country in order to sacrifice every one of their bodies to the soul of Estienne Brusle (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1732), whom they had wickedly assassinated.
- The French had bewitched a cloak or robe (infested with smallpox), and had buried it at Three Rivers, but in such a place that they suspected, and rightly, that the Huron, as they were great thieves, would take it away, which they did. Having carried it to their own country, they bore thither at the same time the pestilence and contagion. It is noteworthy that Europeans were aware that blankets used by smallpox patients can spread the disease.
- They die almost entirely through charms and consider the Jesuit as Greater Sorcerers than they themselves. As a result attempts have been made on the lives of the Jesuit, the Councils openly discuss slaying them. The Jesuit were saved by a few who spoke against the execution, namely Taratiouan and Aenon who is believed to be the one who killed Brusle known as (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1732).
The first two of six boys recruited into the first Jesuit Residential School in Kebec died mysteriously. It is said that it is the result of a beating by the Jesuit. The Jesuit admit a blow was struck against both children but not sufficient to cause death. The Jesuits claim they died because of a change of occupation, change of air and overindulgence of good food. One of the boys was Satouta grandson of Tsondechaaouanouan a leader of fishing. Tsiko was the son of Ouanda Koca a great speaker. Three young Huron girls are sent to France and the Huron (Wendat) request some Frenchmen come to the Wendat Country but are denied based on transparent excuses. The Wendat wonder if the Wendat and French are one people like the French so often have said. An Algonquin brought the news to the Wendat of the death of the two boys at Kebec. It would take 350 years of native persecution before the atrocities of the Residential School System would become public and legal action against the Black Robes taken to stop these evil activities.
The Jesuits say the Savage Barbarians (The People) have the law of asses. They are born, live and die in liberty. They do not know what is meant by bridle and bit. The Jesuit's believe they must place a yoke on the Barbarians (The People's) neck. A yoke of obedience and submission like the French peasants. The Jesuit believed if the 'Savages' (People) stopped wandering and gave authority to one of them to rule the others, we would see them converted and civilized in a short time.
(I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) first witnessed the game of baggattaway derived from the Ojibwa word pagaadowewin meaning ball. This Algonquian game was named la Crosse by Brebeuf because of the sticks used, as they resembled a bishops crozier or crosse. La crosse is the oldest organized sport in North America. The game could last for 2-3 days at a time.
The Jesuits are astonished that if you offend one Barbarian (People) the least among them, they consider themselves all equally offended.
The Jesuits are teaching the children of the People that their parents practice ridiculous abominable ceremonies that are demoniac. They say the Wendat practice gluttony. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) however says the food offered by the savages (People) appears too much to eat but when one becomes somewhat accustomed to it, there is not too much. The children are taught that any act of rudeness, they should attribute that action to the Huron (Wendat) culture.
The Wendat noted that before the Black Robes arrived many French died, but since they came they do not die, and, on the contrary, we die. A great number of Wendat die this year claiming the French are the cause of the disease. Some Wendat attribute the sickness to the soul of Estienne Brusle whom they had previously executed. The Jesuit observed that the contagion or epidemic that slaughters the Huron (Wendat) does not effect the French at Three Rivers.
The Black Robes constantly talk about their Oki (the Jesuit God), of what he commands, of what he forbids, of hell and paradise. They however are not interested in out Manitou ( Great Spirit, our God ) and what he desires of us, and about our afterlife.
The Wendat hold Council to plan destroying the Black Robes, the sorcerers who bring pestilence and contagion on the People. It is noteworthy to remember that the Jesuits had instructed the Huron (Wendat); "if a Frenchman used sorcery, he would be put to death, and that the Huron ought to do the same with a sorcerer". The Huron (Wendat) were told that there is a famous sorcerer among them and if they kill him they would recover their health. This is a reference to (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649).
The French march against the Iroquois and lost the battle and the Iroquois retaliated by waging war on the French and their allies the Wendat. The Huron build a fort at Three Rivers for fear of the Hiroquois, as they call them.
The English attack and burn the the Mystic village of the Pequot People on the Mystic River near Mystic, Connecticut. This name Mystic meaning 'great tidal river' was given to several villages in New England. The Puritans enslaved the surviving women and children and sold some of the male Pequots to Puritans in Bermuda. The State of Connecticut was named from Quinnehtukguet or Quonehtacut, a Mohican word for long river.
The Niantic People an Algonquian tribe became extinct after the Pequot War of this year. The formally lived in Connecticut and Rhode Island.
The Jesuit make a list of Huron activities that most irritated their God and presented it to the council.
1. Give up their belief in dreams.
2. Marriage should be binding and for life and should observe conjugal chastity.
3. God forbade vomiting feasts.
4. Those shameless assemblies of men and women (conjugating of single people).
5. Eating human flesh.
6. The feasts they called Aoutaerohi, a Demon.
The Council considers this an attempt to overthrow the country, which is based on what we have learned from our God. The Jesuit said the Peoples God and the French God, are one and the same. Therefore there are certain Principles that should be universal, the commandments for example. The Council said the Jesuit logic makes sense but the People are not ready for radical change so fast.
Simon Baron, bled 200, and in a single day 50, but this did not stop the epidemic, including those who were baptized.
Captain John Mason led a band of English from the Plymouth colony on a surprise attack on the Pequot People and in the ensuing massacre 600 to 1,000 men, women and children are murdered.
March 2: "The Huron rejoice more in the birth of a daughter than a son, for the sake of multiplication of the country's inhabitants." The American Peoples cultures are basically built on and around the women. They believe a man leaves his father and mother and joins himself to his wife and her family and they become one in culture. It has been this way since before Genesis 2.24 and their was no shame in nakedness. "The women here are both mistresses and servants", to the tribe. Just as men are both master and servant to the tribe. This equality concept has no role to play in the Principles of the Jesuit, French or Roman Catholic Church.
March: The village of Iahenhouton his hit by a contagious disease and they believe this is caused by the uncle of Estienne Brusle or (I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632), a Coureurs de Bois who is killed by the Huron for unknown reasons. They suspect the uncle in revenge for the death of his nephew, for which no satisfaction had been obtained, had undertaken the ruin of the whole country.
March 17: Father Superior (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Francois La Mercier (1604-1690) visit Iahenhouton with three propositions:
1. Whether they had not at last resolved to believe what we taught, and embrace the faith.
2. Whether it would be acceptable to them that some of our Frenchmen should marry in their country as soon as possible.
3. Whether there was any probability of a reunion between them and the People of Ossosane (The Bear) and some of the surrounding villages.
The first proposition is rejected but #2 & 3 are accepted.
March 17: Father Superior (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Francois La Mercier (1604-1690) visit Iahenhouton to propose whether it would be acceptable to them that some of our Frenchmen should marry in their country as soon as possible. The People said the Frenchmen who had resolved to marry were free to take wives where it seemed good to them; that those who had married in the past had not demanded a General Council for that purpose, but they had taken them in whatever way they had desired. The Father replied to this that it was very true that the Frenchmen who had hitherto married in the country had not made such a stir about it, but also that their intentions were far removed from ours, that their purpose had been to become barbarians (like the People of the country), and to render themselves exactly like them (Coureurs de Bois). He said we, on the contrary, aimed by this alliance to make them like us. This the People said would require a General Council.
The Jesuits admit that Frenchmen have been taking savages as country wives where it seemed good to them and their purpose is to become barbarians (Coureur de Bois). They wish to render themselves exactly like the savages.
The conditions necessary for their daughters to marry Frenchmen They are as follows:
1. They needed to know what dowry the French would give to the wife, any wife's family,
2. And know whether the wife would have everything at her disposal.
3. If the husband returned to France, would he take her with him? If not, what compensation would he pay?
4. If wife failed in her duty and is driven off by her husband, what could she take away with her? And if, on her own free will, the fancy seized her to return to her relatives, what could she take with her?
The Jesuits report that some Frenchmen were more hesitant in entering into a marriage with a savage upon learning the terms and conditions of marriage to these barbarian (country) girls. Most Coureurs de Bois, however, didn't give it a second thought, as they were committed to the relationship.
The Jesuit use sugar water as an excuse to secretly baptize the dying children, although their parents say no baptism, even when discovered in their evil activity they lie and say they didn't baptize. The People know the Black Robes are lying and secretly practicing sorcerer. Only a drop of water is used in this dialogistical activity.
An elder attempted to convince the Jesuit to return to France, and restricted them from giving the dying children sweetmeat as a pretext to baptism. The cry is raised on all sides that our presence is unendurable, and that our heads must be split. The Jesuit don't realize that the greatest sin among the People, is lying.
A Montagnez elder said; before the Black Robes came to this country, many of the French died; but since these came they do not die, and, on the contrary, we die.
March 27: Some countrymen often tell that Father (I)-Le Jenne (Jeune) (1587-1664) is trying to ruin us, that he is trying to command among us, that he dictates the number of wives we are to have. Since I have been preaching among them that a man should have only one wife, I have not been well received by the women, for, since they are more numerous than the men, if a man can only marry one of them, the others will have to suffer. Therefore this doctrine is not according to their liking.
March 31: The People at Teanaostaine asked the Father Superior what was the purpose of a vase full of water at the entrance to our chapel at Kebec. The father told him that, among other uses, this water served to drive away the Devils (bad spirits). The People advised the Jesuit they have a problem with using this as God forbids us to resort to Arendioouane, or sorcerers, in our sicknesses. The father to make the holy water more acceptable compared it to and natural remedies that Arendioouane might prescribe.
April: A war party of Montmagny and Algonkin attack the Hiroquois but are defeated.
April 15: A young man had poisoned himself at Ossossane; and in reference to this some People told us that one of the Principle reasons why they showed so much indulgence towards their children, was that when the children saw themselves treated by their parents with some severity, they usually resorted to extreme measures and hanged themselves, or ate of a certain root that they call andachienrra, which is a very quick poison.
May 18: The Savages (likely the Montagnez) at Three Rivers built a Fort next to the French Fort to protect the women and children. This resulted because it was believed the Hiroquois are massing for an attack.
May 26: Captains John Mason and John Underhill attacked and burned Pequot forts at Mystic, Connecticut, massacring 600 Indian-Americans and starting the Pequot War.
June 5: The English and their Mohegan allies slaughtered as many as 600 Pequot Indians [in the area of Connecticut]. The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots. American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
June 27: A battle between the Algonkins and Hiroquois resulted in 13 Hiroquois prisoners who are put to death with fearful tortures. Another account says the Iroquet (Algonquian) Nation and the Hiroquois took place upon the water. The Algonquian canoe is lighter and more maneuverable than the heavy Hiroquois canoe and they are more expert with the canoe, so the Algonquian carried off the victory, bringing back 13 prisoners who they caused to suffer horrible tortures.
July 3: The mortality prevailed everywhere, but especially in the village of Angoutenc, 3/4 leagues away from us. The doors in this village are however closed to us. We are believed to be the cause of this misfortune.
August 4, the Wendat held Council to determine the cause of the terrible disease ravaging the people. The Council again blamed it on the Jesuit sorcerers who practice witchcraft.
August 27: The epidemic continued to ravage the Huron country.
October: Disease continues to ravage the Huron country.
October 3: A dream revealed that to stop the disease he must burn his robe; that furthermore, the Black Robes who live with you have evil designs, having resolved not to return to France until they had killed everyone in the country. The Jesuit cabin burned and they believe it is caused by the People.
The Wenrohronon People from Cuba, New York State told the Wendat (Huron) that the Dutch had told them that the Black Robes are truly evil men. The Black Robe smallpox epidemic killed some 10,000 Wendat this year. The Maspeth an Algonquian People are living on Long Island, New York.
Sweden claimed territory along the Delaware Bay from 1638 to 1764. Others suggest it was only from 1638 to 1654.
The Pequot (destroyers) an Algonquian People of Connecticut are considered the most dangerous tribe in New England. Their villages are located near Groton, New London and Stonington. Sauquonckackock one village of Pequot was located on the Thames River near Mohegan, Connecticut. They lost their war with the settlers and are forbidden to call themselves Pequots.
The Jesuits considered the savage's (The People's) culture is based upon superstition, error, barbarism and consequently sin. In short a Statanic culture. It is noteworthy that the main Savages they interface with are the Huron (Wendat), Algonquin, Montahnais and Iroquois.
The Jesuit used their knowledge of an eclipse of the moon to give themselves credibility with the People. Had they explained the celestial movements they might have achieved some credibility but they choose to act as the sorcerer by jugglery.
Two Swedish vessels arrived Delaware and established Fort Christina. This angered Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherland who asked the West India Company to take the fort which they did in 1655.
August 4: A Wendat General Council is conducted to discuss the conduct of the Black Robes. The Jesuit say they were bitterly attacked as the authors of all the miseries that affected the nation. No action is taken because of the importance of trade with the French. After the General Council the Wendat sent a trade group to Three Rivers.
We tend to place too much emphasis on the Huron or Wendat Nation, because of the Jesuit Relations, as they only occupy a country of 20 to 25 leagues east to west, its width from north to south never exceeds 7 or 8 leagues. They occupied this territory (1400-1649). They are composed of four tribes, Attighawantan, and Attigneenongnahac are the original tribes with the Arendahronon joining about 1589, and the Tohontaenrat joined about 1609.
The Jesuit founded a permanent center for missionaries and trade called Saint Marie near the mouth of the Wye River of Georgian Bay, Ontario. The Wendat (Huron) called their location Wendake meaning land apart. The People are not pleased but have little option if they want to retain trade relations. The French smallpox epidemic killed thousands of Huron (Wendat), more than all the previous epidemics combined. The People believed it is a sign from the Great Spirit confirming the Black Robes are unclean and evil. The Black Robes after all loved death and are constantly praying for their own martyrdom. The dissatisfaction spread throughout the known world. When the Black Robes (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) and (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) approached the Tobacco peoples (Petun), who are of the same origin as the Wendat (Huron), they are not hospitable. This is abnormal behavior for these normally friendly people. Upon seeing the Black Robes the women cried out that famine and disease are coming and the women and children went to hide. A Jesuit survey of the Huron (Wendat) population of 32 villages suggests a reduction of 18,000 people as a result of European contact and associated diseases. Jesus warns a young Christian Huron ( Wendat) in a vision that a scourge will hit his village unless the Black Robes are expelled.
The Jesuit attribute all customs, banquets, etc. as veritable sacrifices to the Devil. It is noteworthy that the People had no belief in the Devil or Hell before the arrival of the Jesuit, nor did most of the world, for that matter. A lot of ceremonies center around unfulfilled desires before death. They are called 'andacwander' and the entire villages attempts to fill these desires and restore good health. As an example a request by a dying woman consisted of 50 persons to conduct a special dance lasting 3 hours. Usually a number of dogs are selected for a feast. The Principle of most ceremonies is the concept of caring and sharing that is so inherent in Indian tradition. The Black Robes attribute the various ceremonies as being inspired by the Demon (Demon to the People is like a Ascwandics or familiar Spirit) but to the European Demon is the Devil.
The villages under Jesuit control contain Montagnais, Algonquian and Huron. Some have been given to us as slaves, and are reared with certain families, on account of their youth; others lived with us, in order to be instructed in the faith and in Christian virtues, some have thirst for liberty. An elder said, it seems to me, that thou art not right to prefer children to grown men or women. The Christian or Catechumen as they are called are now considered no longer as Huron having renounced their culture and country. The People can't exercise severity, nor harshly extract a service from their countrymen but the Jesuit would require the Christian People to violate these beliefs.
The Jesuit focus on the baptism of sick children and adults who were near death; mostly they encounter mockeries and threats as their services are not requested or desired. The Jesuit were surprised to discover that all Savages (People) believe in the soul and that it is immortal. The Huron believed heaven was westward and a Prophet visited there and discovered that no Black Robes are in their heaven.
The Jesuit wonder whether we could hope for conversion of this country without the shedding of blood; The Principle received, it seems, in the Church of God, that the matter is the seed of Christians, made me at one time conclude that this was not to be expected, yea, that it was not even desired; considering the glory that rebounds to God from the constancy of the martyrs, with whose blood all the rest of the earth has been so lately drenched, it would be a sort of curse if this quarter of the world should not participate in the happiness of having contributed to the splendor of this glory. Some contend the Jesuit instigate war to reap souls.
The Huron transfer the name of the dead to some other man, and lo, the dead is raised to life; and he who accepts the name binds himself to take charge of the family of the deceased, the children call him father. Some gain a second wife in this manner. However if a Person loses a mate to death, he must wait more than three years before remarrying unless the relatives of the spouse agree that the waiting period is sufficient. It is noteworthy that in New France the women remarry sometimes before the dead husband is in the ground. A Person can marry two sisters at any time but not if one dies as then the other is considered a niece. Among the Algonquian, if they leave their husband without cause their hair is cut short making them despicable and makes it very difficult to find another husband. The same is true if a woman backs out of a promise to marry after her family receives the man's gifts. This would imply that the exchange of gifts confirms a marriage has taken place.
The Huron accuse the Jesuit of the sole cause of their troubles, the Huron words are considered blasphemies against God, and their mysteries by the Black Robes.
The Huron say, we did not attempt to impose our culture on the French, why would the Jesuit try to impose a French culture on the People?
The Elders and Captains say, if the Black Robes undertook to change the culture and traditions of the People, they would soon see their villages abandoned, and that each one would infallibly retire where he could see the customs of the country observed. The Jesuit, due to the hardness of their heart, will not listen to reason and continue on their genocidal path, ignoring basic rules of dedicate. As an example the Jesuit consider the dying children as prey for hidden baptism, using any devious means to gain entry to their cabin, to rescue them from Satan's hands. It matters not that the People have never heard of Satan.
Captains are those who lead wars, those who debate tribal policy, those who preserve culture and are usually different person and not to be confused with elders or the European concept of chief. They are of two types, those by right of birth, and those be election. The son of a Captain must have a talent for leadership, above all, if he has natural eloquence, he will hold his father's place without opposition. The least hint of opposition results in a vote. If he violates women's rights he is deposed. Later many Captains are Metis because they speak many languages, understand the trade and work as guides to the Voyagers.
The persecution against the Jesuit is again commencing; the smallpox or some similar disease having broken out among the People and they claim the Black Robes are the cause.
The Jesuit mission at Ihonatiria is closed, on account of its lack of inhabitants.
The Huron and Algonquin captured 17-18 Hiroquois subjecting them to the cruelties of slow tortures to death. It is significant that the Jesuit didn't speak out against these cruelties. It is likely because each prisoner being executed is a potential baptism for the Jesuit?
Christians are allowed to marry Savages (non-baptized) as they are not sufficient baptized women willing to marry them. They however are not allowed the Sacraments.
The name Sorcerer (medicine man) is given by the Jesuit to certain jugglers, charlatans or imposters who consult Devils (Spirits), and killing men by their charms, to render themselves popular or to make themselves feared. It is noteworthy that the Jesuit created this term sorcerer and that the People used it to describe the Black Robes.
At this time the Iroquois began to trade with the English for guns in the Connecticut Valley and still maintained trade with the Dutch on the upper Hudson River. William Kieft Governor General of New Netherlands established a policy of Indian harassment and extermination. He began by imposing an extortion tax on all Indians payable in corn, furs or wampum.
The Patuxent an Algonquian People in Calvert County, Maryland became good friends with the European settlers.
May: Twelve more captured Senontouerhonons (Iroquois) are baptized and cruelly put to death by the Huron.
September 3: The first case of adultery in Plymouth Colony, involving Mary Mendame and Tinsin, an Indian, was sentenced in the court on September 3. Mary was sentenced to be "whipt at a carts tayle" and "weare a badge vpon her left sleeue." However, Tinsin was to be "well whipt with a halter about his neck at the post."
According to Eugene Aubrey Stratton, "whipping at a cart's tail while the cart was drawn through town was considered a more severe punishment than whipping at the post." Stratton cites only two other instances of this particular punishment, one for committing "uncleanes" and one for whoredom.
The "lighter" sentence for Tinsin was rationalized "because it arose through the allurement & inticement of the said Mary, that hee was drawne therevnto." This is reminiscent of the lighter sentence inflicted on Sam and his apparent rape of Sarah Freeman in 1682. Was Tinsin given a break because he is "but an Indian" with "an incapasity to know the horiblenes" of his actions?
INDIAN HISTORY 1640 - 1659