INDIAN HISTORY

1780  - 1799



Women are still considered the life of the Indian Nation.

The Indians are strangers to frugality, sharing everything, like the early Christians.

 
10/09/2011
  INDIAN HISTORY 1800 - 1824

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The English and Scots are deemed snakes who poison the minds and souls of the people

Usury an European tradition is unknown in America.


  

1780  

A smallpox epidemic spread among the prairie natives beginning with the Ojibwa spreading to the planes Dakota Sioux and crossed the Rocky Mountains, more men than women died and the People estimated that more than half the population is dead.  About 9/10th of the Ojibwa perished, 3/5th of the prairie folks, and 1/2 the Cree and Blackfoot.  The Ojibwa had expanded largely into northern Minnesota, Lake of the woods and Red River while still holding the Sault Ste Marie area.  The Ojibwa are reported cultivating along the Red River and around Red Lake in the Minnesota region.  They had basically developed a symbiotic relationship with the French traders encouraging their daughters to marry these French brothers.

Legend suggests the Sarcee People of Calgary split from the Beaver bands of Peace River near Fort St. John and migrated south about this time.

It was recorded some time in the late 1700's that 'mother earth is held sacred by the peoples of the Andes, Peru.

Ojibwa chief trader Shewequenap traded 1780 to 1805 at Gloucester and later Osnaburgh House and usually had twelve to fourteen canoes in his clan.

The Death River (Nipuwin-sipi), which enters the Red River on the west side below Selkirk, was so named because 250 lodgese of Chippeways were destroyed there by the Sious Indians.

A small band of Iroquois boatmen settled near Jasper House, Alberta and intermarried for generations with the Wood Cree.  Contrary to popular belief the Blackfoot are reported to be cultivating fields of tobacco.

The Iroquois still considered women as the life of the Nation, mistresses of the soil, who bring us forth, cultivate the lands, kindle the fire, boil our pots, make our clothing and fight at our side during the war.

The Kuato a division of the Kiowa of Montana at war with the Dakota planned to retreat when their religious leader said that if they did they would not be acceptable in the hereafter.  The tribe stand their ground and are exterminated.

Saqaunash a Metis of Irish and Potawzatomi is born this year and died September 28, 1841 at Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Saponi a tribe of Sioux who lived in North Carolina and Virgina disappeared from history, due to treaties, wars and disease.

The Dakota, Sauk and Fox joined forces at attacked the Ojibwa at St. Croix River but were defeated.

The Russian traders visit the Eyak and Tlingit People of the Pacific Coast.

Between October 10 to 18 a hurricane swept every island from Tobago in the south east to Hispaniola and Cuba killing more than 20,000 people.

1781  

St. John's (Prince Edward) Island, legislature passed an act declaring that baptism of slaves shall not exempt them from bondage and that all children born of female slaves shall belong to and be the property of the master or mistresses of such slaves.  This did not apply to white slaves held by the Natives because this barbaric practice is against the Peoples tradition.  The Church however condoned this act because they were the single largest holder of slaves and the notion of concubines and ownership of wives and children are part of the Roman Christian tradition.  All the People are saddened by this government and Church declaration.

The Anishinabe is paid three hundred suits of clothing for a strip of land six and a half-kilometer wide on the West Bank of the Niagara River.  Carver reported, "the extension of empire is seldom a motive with these people to invade- to secure rights of hunting-, to maintain the liberty of passing through their accustomed tracks, and to guard those lands which they consider from long tenure as their own, are the general causes of dissentions."

The Chipewyan (Denesuline) in the eastern arm of Great Slave Lake are devastated by a smallpox epidemic that killed 90% of the population.

The Moravian Delaware People of Lichtenau, Muskingum County in Ohio is attacked by the Hurons and then destroyed by the Americans.

Salem a Moravian Delware village is located a mile from Port Washington, Ohio but this mission is abandoned this same year.

1782  

Chief trader Caucaukes of Sturgeon Lake who had a great deal of influence among traders had his clothing sent yearly from the Commander at Mackillimakinac, according to John Kipling.  Chief trader Metweash also lived in the same area being between Sturgeon Lake and Lac Seul.

Running Water was an active Cherokee town on the Tennessee River below Chattanooga.  This village was destroyed in 1794.

Santa Barbara Mission is established by the Franciscan's in New Spain (California), the People of the area are Chumashan (Hohan phylum) and Yokuts (Hokan).
A Spanish military fort was established in Santa Barbaria, New Spain (California) to secure the Spanish territory.

Father Junipero Serra of Spain built San Buenaventra mission, Ventura, New Spain (California).  The Chumash Indians occupied this area.

March 8:   Glikhikan a noted Delaware warrior who converted to Christianity was killed and scalped by the whites at Gnadenhuetten. 

1783  

The Treaty of Paris did not involve the the American Native Nations.  They did not enter into treaty.  During the next 7 years 1,500 people died as settlers violated Sovereign Indian Territories.  

The Peoples attempts to persuade the Americans to recognize the boundary of the proclamation of 1763 and as later clarified in the treaty of 1768 proved fruitless because the Americans are determined to open the eastern part of the Indian Territories to white settlers.  Hundreds of settlers had already crossed the established line in violation of the treaty.

The plight of the Iroquois reached the Canadian authorities and they offered lands north of Lake Ontario that the government purchased from the Algonquian being more then three million hectares along the Grand River valley for the Six Nations to enjoy forever.  The Government provided the Native Loyalists with a church, school, sawmill, gristmill, schoolmaster and one thousand five hundred-pound sterling as general compensation for war losses and like the other Loyalists, clothing, tools and provisions.  Jean Baptiste Cadotte reported the Ojibwa from Fond du Lac, Rainy Lake, Sandy Lake and surrounding places are dead from small pox.  The Ojibwa also occupied Leech Lake and Red Lake at this time.

From 1783 to 1790 it is estimated that one thousand five hundred European invaders died in isolated conflicts yet new claims jumpers soon replaced the dead ones.

Oconostota died 1783 a Cherokee was friends with the English but because of poor treatment by the English he changed sides and fought with the French.  At the battle of Fort Prince George in South Carolina he fought against 1,500 soldiers.

1784  

Jean Baptiste Perrault (1761-1844) reported the Ojibwa village of Fond du Lac is again occupied after the small pox epidemic of 1783.  Fond du Lac is located about three miles above the mouth of the St. Louis River.

Joseph Brant aka Thayendanegea (1742/43-1807) led the Mohawk Loyalists and other Aboriginal Peoples to a large tract of land on the Grand River (Ontario) granted them in compensation for their losses in the war.   

The Chipewyan suffered 90 percent fatalities during the smallpox epidemic in 1784.

Much too late the Iroquois finally articulated what the Algonquian is saying for years, the true nature of the English is Nahdoways or snakes in their land dealings, the snake represents people who poison the minds and souls of other people, truly the evil side of nature.  James Sutherland at Lac Seul said the People are feasting all day moving from tent to tent, they are remarkable kind to us, we being always invited the same as themselves and give us a large share.

The English Loyalist refugees from the United States arrived in large numbers on the north side of Lake Ontario and are nearly all destitute.  They are provided with free land and provision like the Native Loyalists.  Four thousand settled along the St. Lawrence Bay of Quinte.

The 'Present du Roy' system of tribute to Indians that officially began in 1648 is now incorporated into the annual treaty money for various treaties of lands surrendered.

Alejandro Malaspina (1754-1810), of Spain was directed to find the western entrance to the northwest passage as mentoned in the report of Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado in 1588.

1785  

Cree trading at Hudson Bay Trading post.
HBC Trading post 1785
The cree is carefully examining the flint lock as the Hudson Bay guns were defective and broke more frequently than the French guns.

The Cree however are impressed with a young David Thompson who expressed a keen interest in the their ability to guide themselves through the forests to any place they desired to go.  The Cree are pleased to instruct Thompson in these survival skills because of his strong desire to learn.

One sea otter pelt was worth ten beaver pelts.  The ship a 60 ton Harmon is renamed the Sea Otter commanded by James Hanna and is likely the first ship devoted to the fur trade.

1786  

James Sutherland reported the Metweash sons (Ojibwa) brought a large black bear to the Lac Suel camp that they shared to everyone.  Such strangers are the Indians to frugality that they vie with each other who shall give the most away.  This is very much like early Christian tradition. It is reported that Metweash and others engaged the Poat (Dakota) southwest of Lac Seul because they are encroaching on their lands.

A volcano at Mount Shasta, New Spain (California) erupted this year.

December 4;  Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen established a mission at Santa Barbaria New Spain (California).

 

 

1787 

The French Canadians trading on the Saskatchewan followed the Peoples tradition of open air present giving and added the French dimension of a dram of brandy before official trading began.  They would sometimes leave small articles such as needles about so that the People might steal them and so come easily and sweetly to the actual trade.  The English system did not allow the People in the Trading rooms and trading is conducted through a hole in the wall.  This action made it very clear the People are second class citizens in their own land.  The Hudson Bay Company system is suspicious and unattractive.

The People are considered shrewd traders knowing the formal standards of both Canadians and English systems.  Usury an European tradition however is unknown in America. They also understood the double standard of measurement.  They accepted some variation but would not stand for arbitrary changes or exploitation and the laws of supply and demand did not apply.  Their priority in trade is powder and shot, then came tobacco, spirits, gay cloth, beads and caps with articles such as ice-chisels, snow-glasses and hatchets varying in priority.

Their philosophy is that no people should go without the necessaries for want of furs when goods are at their door.  Necessaries to the People are defined as goods for immediate consumption.  Foodstuff is for gift exchange not trade, a pleasant and friendly interchange of surplus.  The sharing aspect of Peoples culture is still not understood by Europeans and led to much misunderstanding and conflict, even to present times.  The People are by profession traders but did not follow the European definition of buying cheap and selling dear thereby to exploit their neighbors.  They are more inclined to a fair and just exchange of resources, a truly free people who will go where they find best usage.  They also knew how to exploit competition but only traded what they needed.

An Ojibwa family is murdered by a Cree from Fort Severn and such incidents are common in the records at this time but there is never a skirmish reported at a tribal level between the Ojibwa and Cree despite great effort by the English and French to create such conflict.

Wapello a Fox was born Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin this year, died March 15, 1842 Otummwa, Iowa.  He and his people were removed to reservations in Iowa in 1804. 

Benjamin Logan, an American burns the Shawnee village at Mackachack to the ground and Hugh McGary, murders and scalps Moluntha Shawnee, an elder among the people.  The Shawnee Nation goes to war as a result.

1788  

The Anishinabe had made a tenant arrangement with Canada for use of their land during good behavior. The British believed they had bought the entire Niagara Peninsula and the whole North Shore of Lake Superior, except for a large tract between Hamilton and Toronto.  The Ojibwa Tinnawabino with his three wives and seventeen children arrived at the Hudson Bay post Osnaburgh to trade with Robert Goodwin.

Black Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak) (1767-1838) became chief trader of the Sauk and Fox tribe in Illinois succeeded his father.  They had a long and friendly trading relationship with the Spanish.  This is noteworthy as becoming a chief (Leader) was not hereditary before this time.  Leadership was based on ability not birth.  The European method of governing is slowly corrupting the Peoples democratic process.  The People are slowly being led from the light into darkness.

1789  

The American Congress passed a bill making Indians foreigners in their own Sovereign Lands.  The USA entered into treaty with the Creek Nation recognizing that a large tract of land was theirs.  They promised to secure the border but immediately failed to do so..

The Chippewa had followed the fur trade to Red River and Chief trader Manomine reported his band had come from Leech Lake and the Mississippi.  Sucre alias Shesheraskut said his band came from Red Lake River La Biche (Red Deer River).  There is also the Forest River Band and Rat River band of Chippewa (Ojibwa) in the Red River area at this time.  Goose River, North Dakota marked the Dakota Sioux and Ojibwa boundary at this time, the Dakota Sioux seldom crossed this boundary.
(II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1763-1820) claimed that Chipewyan medical use of herbs and roots is unknown except for the bark of willow (aspirin).  The Cree and especially the Ojibwa have a greater knowledge than other tribes of the medical qualities of the bark of trees, herbs, roots and other things.  They charge high fees to members of other tribes who frequently call upon them for their professional services.  Daniel Harmon would later record that their medical skills frequently would baffle the skill and the drugs of a scientific physician.

(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) was taken on a conducted tour to the Arctic Ocean by his tour guides, local Indians.  He was fearlessly led by his guides through occupied territory, marked at times with signposts.  The initial party consisted of seven Indians, four French Canadians, likely Metis, one German and Mackenzie.  Two wives of the Indians and two wives of the Metis were along on the tour.  The guides did the hunting and the women paddled, mended garments, made moccasins, gathered berries and made the meals.  Mackenzie did very little work on the trip and was easily fatigued.  Mackenzie noted that there were abandoned lodges upon every part of the land that we came near.  The Mackenzie River to the Beaufort Sea was occupied by people.  The Eskmeaux (Inuit) had told stories to the local Indians that 8 or 10 years earlier (1779 to 1781) of trading with large canoes of white men to the west.  It was noted that Mackenzie compensated the native women who shared their beds at night..  On his return trip the natives along the Mackenzie river shunned him and he hardly encountered them.  He sent some men to forcibly get them but they just fled.  This is likely because he captured some of their people forcing them to be his guides and likely because Mackenzie and crew abused their women.  Mackenzie didn't realize that news spread about the Arctic very quickly.  McKenzie fathered a child by Mary Inuit which would not sit well with the Indians.

The people of Albert Head (Sooke) discovered the Spanish Explorer Manuel Quimper on their beach, claiming the land in the name of the King of Spain.

 

1790  

Many Ojibwa (Chippewa) during this decade migrated between Red Lake and Red River and the Rainy River Ojibwa are manufacturing canoe for the fur trade.  Red Sucker of the Beaver Band (Ojibwa) departed Red Lake for Red River.  The Willow or Parkland Cree originated about this time.  They claim to be descendants of George Sutherland who had a number of Cree Wives and sired 27 children.  They have a reputation for being aloof.
The Eagle Lake people at Lac Seul are trading corn for trade goods.

Edward Umfreville wrote that the Assiniboine were notable fur trappers.  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) however wrote that the Assiniboine are not beaver hunters but confine themselves to hunting bison (buffalo) and trapping wolves.  The Ojibwa and Cree attend fur hunting.  John MacDonald N.W.C.(1793-95)  wrote in 1797 that the Assiniboine were the worst hunters of any Indians.  Their whole hunt consisted of bison (buffalo), wolves, foxes, and kitts.  The Assiniboine and Cree had changed from fur hunters to food suppliers in a very short time. 

The Blackfoot Nation of Southern Alberta numbered 9,000 down from 15,000 in 1775 and this was after the smallpox plague of 1780.

President George Washington (1732-1799) lived an aristocratic life style, mostly out of touch with reality.  He lived through the seven year French Indian wars of (1754-1761); the American revolution (1775-1781); and only knows war as the way to resolve problems.  As as result he ordered the American Army to resolve the Indian Question once and for all. 

President George Washington (1732-1799) ordered Josiah Harmer with an army of 1,400 soldiers from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky militia, including 300 Federal Regulars to put the Indians down and secure the Northwest frontier.  Little Turtle (Michikinikwa) died 1812 and his People's army of Miamis, Shawnees, Ojibwa, Delawares, Potawatomis and Ottawas sniped at Washington's army, burned their own villages to feign panic, and lured the American army deeper into Indian Country.  This and earlier humiliations likely is the basis of his racist attitude towards the Original Peoples of America.  Kentucky is believed derived from the Iroquois word ken-tah-ten meaning Land of Tomorrow.

July 22:   The infamous President George Washington (1732-1799) of Virginia passed the first act governing the relations between the Indians and whites.  The act provided the right of the President to arrest any Indian guilty of theft, murder or other crimes.  The act however failed to provide the right to arrest any white guilty of theft, murder or other crimes.  

October:  The American Army marched out of Fort Washington on the Ohio River determined to put down the Shawanee. 

October:  Brigadier General Josiah Harmer (1753-1813) Americans best sent 400 soldiers under Col John Harmer to put the savages down.  The People struck, routed the enemy army, killing 183 men and wounding 94 more, 14 officers died.   St. Clair.  

October:   Little Turtle (1752-1812) war leader of the Miami of Indiana with 1,100 men defeated General Harmer on the Miami River.  He led the Miami in two major battles that defeated the United States Army.  He later advocated peace through diplomacy but his people wouldn't accept this council.  President George Washington and the American people were so humiliated they ordered a second army of 2,000 men to march on the savages under Arthur

 

1791  

Thomas Procter visited Nondas a village of Senecas People near Nunda, Livingston County, New York.  Nondas means high or steep hill.

October:  St. Clair the Governor General of Indian Territory (NWT) and also a Major General marched into Indian territory with 2,000 of the finest.  They traveled in style with 200-250 camp followers, wives, children, laundresses and prostitutes.  The savages employed a different type of  warfare, snipping and running, drawing the army deeper and deeper into Indian territory.  As a result St. Clair couldn't maintain order and desertions became a big problem as 500 soldiers departed.  .

November 2:   The People's army defeated General Arthur St. Claire, the Governor of the North West Territories, on the banks of the Wabash River, Indiana, killing 623 regular American army and wounding another 258 (some say 600) thereby forcing, one thousand four hundred to flee for their lives, some even before the fighting started, across the Ohio.  The 200-250 camp followers were also killed or captured.  It was estimated that the Indian wars so far had destroyed 25% of the American Army.  President George Washington (1732-1799) was humiliated, a second time, and resolved not to lose the next assault.  He assigned Mad Anthony Wayne to assemble a well trained and equipped army of 3,000 men, taking over two years to assemble.  The war was a direct result of Americans not living up to treaty by allowing settlers to steal Indian Lands.  The other complaint was the injection of liquor and European diseases among the People.

The Kootenai an Algonkian nation is displaced over the mountains by the Blackfoot who are also an Algonkian people.

Punkapog a village of 'Praying People' live near Stoughton, Massachusetts is one of the few "Praying People' left after the King Philip's War.

In December 1792, Peter Fiddler reported that the Piegan People on the banks of the Oldman River are playing a game by rolling a small hoop of 4 inch's diameter and darting an arrow through the hoop.  Upon questioning the People said that a white man many years earlier had built this for the People to play at, that are different nations who he wished to meet here annually and bury all animosities between the different tribes by assembling here and playing together.  They also say that this person made the bison (buffalo), on purpose for the People.  They described him as a very old white headed man and several more things very ridiculous.  Ridiculous or not the game persisted into the 1880's and the place was called the Old Mans Playing Ground.

1793 

Word is spreading throughout the prairies that the French and English are desirous of finding Indian maidens for wives.  When the braves are on raiding parties they began capturing young girls with the objective of using them as trade items for the voyagers or servants.  The Masters or Chief Factors are still presented with the Peoples Chief Traders daughters as Country wife.   It should be remembered that many trading Chiefs took young  girl slaves as their own daughters and then offered them to the Chief Factors.  The People at this time have changed the reverence of women into a perverted European custom of female slave trading.  The People from this period forward adopted many detestable European practices.  

Waubojeeg (white fisher) a great Ojibwa spokesperson died at an advanced age.  John Johnson had asked for his daughter Oshawousgodaywaygua in marriage.

Upper Canada abolished slavery only months after Denmark did the same.  Existing slaves however are not freed only their descendents. The slave trade would use another term called indenture and this form of slave trade would continue into the twentieth century.

Donald McKay reported that ammunition, cutlery and cloth was useless at Brandon House, the only thing which was necessary for trade is a good supply of rum.  George Sutherland  concurred with McKay in 1794 but said there was still a good demand at Shell River for powder, beads and knives. 

Captain George Vancouver (1757-1798) sights Trinity, New Spain (California) but did not land.

July 22:  (II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1763-1820) arrived Pacific Ocean and the Bella Bella Indians reported being fired upon by white men in a large canoe.   It is known that one of Captain George Vancouver's (1757-1798) Discovery had been in Dean Channel six weeks previously.  The Indians reported that two of the white men were called Macubah and Benzins, likely referring to Macubah and botanist Archibald Menzies (Benzins) (1754-1842). 

1794  

The Jay treaty guarantees the Mohawk and other Indians, the right to unrestricted travel between Canada and the United States.  It reads in part:  "Nothing in this title shall be construed to affect the right of American Indians born in Canada to pass the borders of the United States, but such right shall extend only to persons who possess at least fifty (50%) per centum of blood of the American Indian race."

The British, French Indian war of (1754-1763) had not been really resolved and just continued into the Northwest Indian war

The Americans had suffered a humiliating defeat in the Northwest Indian war of (1785-1795) especially during 1790-1791.  The lost 25% of their standing army.  The Indian Confederation of United Indian Nations was led by war chiefs, Blue Jacket, of the Shawnees and Little Turtle of the Miamis.  To complicate matters the British had refused to abandon their forts under the Treaty of Paris in the NWT and were supplying arms to the Indian Confederation.

The United States appointed 'Mad' Antony Wayne (1745-1796) to end the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795).  He formed the "Legion of the United States" of 3,000 men taking 2 years to train his army.  He established Fort Recovery as his head quarters.

June 24;  A mission is established at San Juan Bautista, New Spain (California).

June 29:   The People's army tested Mad Anthony Wayne's army by attacking Fort Recovery but was repelled.  Little Turtle died 1812, based on intelligent reports, realized the extent of Washington's resources and intent to crush the People no matter the cost counseled his people for peace.  The People's army spurned his advice and selected a new leader, Turkey Foot.

August 20:   The American surprise attack at 'Fallen Timbers' near  (Maumee, Ohio) the western shore of Lake Erie saw hundreds of People die in fighting as compared to only 38 Americans.  The British at near by Fort Miami refused to get involved.  Mad Anthony Wayne (1745-1796) then went on a rampage throughout the region burning and killing for a year.     

1795  

Many Europeans have the allusion that the Native people only traded furs for European goods.  The following is from the Hudson Bay records of account:  The Ojibwa trade items included venison, rice, fish, maple sugar, canoe, sleds, snow-shoe, tents, fur pack wrappers, fat for candles, sturgeon oil for lamps, goose and duck feathers for mattresses and blankets, quills for pens, birch bark for shingles, spruce gum to seal roof cracks and to patch canoes.  The women provided snowshoe netting, the making, mending and cleaning of cloths, making of nets from twine for fishing.  The men also provided services such as guiding and freighting.

At San Francesco about 203 Indians died and 200 escaped from slavery this year.

April 24:   Fort George, North Saskatchewan River Duncan M'Gillivray encountered the Circees, Crees, Piegans and Blood People.  We clothed 22 Chiefs, a greater number than was clothed before in one day at any settlement in the North West.  Eventually every family head would call himself a Chief.  The English Indians complained bitterly at Buckingham House say they are scarce of goods and they may not return due to poor treatment.

August 31:   The treaty of Greeville forced the People to give up the Ohio and a good part of Indianna because the Jay treaty caused Britain to withdraw all support to the Peoples land claims and they say this as a no win situation.  The treaty was with the Confederation of United Nations, Wyandot (Huron), Delawares, Shawanoes (Shawnees), Ottawas, Chipewas (Ojibwa), Putawatimes, Miamis, Ell-River, Weea's and Kickapoos, Piankashawa and Kaskaskias.

Signing for the Wyandots

Tarhe, Crane
J. Williams, Jun
Teyyaghtaw
Hardenyou, Half King's son
Tehaawtoren's
Awmeyeeray
Stayetah
Shateyyaronyah, Leather Lips  
Daughshuttayah
Shaawrunthe

Signing for the Delawares

Tetabokshke, Grand Glaize King
Lemantanquis, Black King
Wabatthoe
Maghpiway, Red Feather
Kikthawenaund, Anderson
Bukongehelas
Peekeelund
Wallebawkeelund
Peekeetelemund, Thomas Adams
Kishkopekund, Captain Buffalo
Amenahehan, Captain Crow
Queshawksey, George Washington
Weywinquis, Billy Siscomb
Moses

Signing for the Shawenees

Misquacoonacawm Red Pole
Cuthewekasaw, Black Hoof
Kaysewaesekah
Weythapamattha
Nianymseka
Waytheash, Long Shanks
Weyapiersenwaw, Blue Jacket
Nequetaughaw
Hahgooseekaw

Signing for the Ottawas

Augooshaway
Keenoshameek
La Malice
Machiwetah
Thowonawa
Secaw

Signing for the Chippewas (Ojibwa)

Mashipinashiwish, Bad Bird
Nahshogashe, from Lake Superior
Kathawasung
Masass
Nemekass, Little Thunder
Peshawkay, Young Ox
Nanguey
Meenedohgeesough
Peewanshemenogh
Weymegwas
Gobmaatick

Signing for the Ottawa

Chegonickska from Sandusky

Signing for the Pattawatimas of the River St. Joseph

Thudenebu
Nuwac and his brother Etsimethe
Nenanseka
Keesass, Run
Kabamasaw and his brother Chisaugan
Sugganunk
Wapmeme, White Pigeon
Wacheness and his brother Pedagoshok
Wabshicawnaw
La Chasse
Meshegethenogh and his brother Wawasek
Hingoswash
Anewasaw
Nawbudgh
Missenogomaw
Waweegshe
Thawme, Le Blanc
Geeque and his brother Shewinse

Signing for the Pattawatimas of the Huron

Okia
Chamung
Segagewan
Nanawne and his brother Gin
Marchand
Wenameac

Signing for the Miamis

Nagohquangogh, Le Gris
Meshekunnoghquoh, Little Turtle

Signing for the Miamis of Eel Rivers

Peejeewa, Richard Ville
Cochkeroghtogh

Signing for the Eel River tribe

Shamekunnesa, soldier

Signing for the Miamis

Wapamangwa, White Loon

Signing for the Weas and Piankeshaws

Amacunsa, Little Beaver
Acoolatha, Little Fox
Francis

Signing for the Kickapoos and Kaskashias

Keeawhah
Nemighka, Josey Renard
Piakeekanogh

Signing for the Delawares of Sandusky

Hawkinpumiska
Peyamawksey
Reyntueco

Signing for the United States of America

H De Butts
Wm H. Harrison
T Lewis
James O'Hara
John Mills
Caleb Swan
Geo Demter
Vigo
P. Frs La Fontaine
Ant Lasselle
H. Lasselle
Jn Beau Bien
David Jones, Chaplin
Lewis Beaufait
R. Lachambre
Jas Depen
Baites Coutien
P. Navarre

Interpreters

Wm Wells
Jacques Lasselle
M. Morins
Bt Sans Crainte
Christopher Miller
Robert Wilson
Abraham Williams
Isaac Zane

1796
 

Red Bird a prominent Cherokee chief in Kentucky is tomahawked to death by two white fur traders.

James Sutherland at Osnaburgh noted the Ojibwa demonstrated much resistance to accepting the idea of individual ownership of resources.  This year he is forced to borrow trade items from some of the Ojibwa to give to others, a cooperative pattern apparently acceptable to the Ojibwa culture.  Osnaburgh served Lake Winnipeg, Lake of the Woods, Eagle Lake, Nipigon River and Trout Lake.  John Tanner had migrated to Red River with a small band of Ottawa (Odahwaug) from Michigan.  He noted some Ojibwa went on warring parties as far as the Rocky Mountains against the Atsina or Fall People (Gros Ventre).  John Tanner also recorded that the Ojibwa, Swampy Cree (Muscagoe), Assiniboine in alliance with the Mandan are warring upon the Hidatsa or Minitari who are a Siouan peoples.  The Ojibwa Utchechagu arrived with his family of 15 to trade at Osnaburgh with James Sutherland of the Hudson Bay Company.

Salt Lick is a village of Delawares People located at Warren, Ohio who traded salt and the site was taken over by European settlers about this time. 

November 20:   Carlton House, North Saskatchewan River, James Bird noted that the North West Company those Canadians had improved the quality of their trade goods and H.B.C. trade goods no longer tempt the Indians to trade. 

1797

An earthquake struck Quito, Ecuador resulting in the death of 40 thousand people.

(I)-John Peyton (1749-1829), a prominent fur trader and fisherman of Newfoundland,  the butcher of the Beothuk people, married December 12, 1788 Ann Galton, d-1812 of England, they had a daughter, d-1812 and son (II)-JohnPeyton, (1793-1879).  John the elder was infamous for his brutality toward the Beothuks during the period 1780 to 1797.  Magistrate John Bland said he "rendered himself infamous for his persecution on the Indians".  “The stories told of this man would shock humanity to relate.” He recommended that Peyton be expelled from the Bay of Exploits, Newfoundland.

The Ojibwa women are always consulted and possess a very considerable influence in business decisions with the Europeans.  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) also noted that the women equally partake in the rewards of trade.

The Arikara People had a village named Lahoocat on an island in the Missouri River, North Dakota.  It was abandoned by 1800 and the site visited in 1805 by Louis and Clark. 

A mission was established at San Luiis Obispo, New Spain (California).

 

1798  

The Ojibwa village of Fond du Lac has a population of some 210 persons.  Chief spokesperson Shesheshepuskut with his six lodges at Red Lake entertained David Thompson.  The Blackfoot are well-established ranchers having as many as 40 or 50 horses apiece.  The Piegans have even greater numbers, one man is reported having 300.  The Piegan traveled 1,500 miles south to the Spaniards to get their breeding stock.  The Sarcee seem content to rearing their own horses rather than entering into the sport of horse stealing.

1799  

The People observed that to the English speaking people money is nearly everything and scarcely anything else will induce them to risk their lives.  The French and Metis in contrast delight in the dangers in running rapids and cataracts in their canoes caring little about their lives or cargo and with little thought of gain.

The cultural conflicts between the People and English cultures began to intensify because;

The People believed time is unimportant, that work, meetings and dances begin when enough people arrive.

The People live in the here and now and want to enjoy Gods resources while they can.

The People cherish patience and understanding.

The People have open extended families often calling distant cousins or friends as brother and sister.

The People respects age as wisdom and seldom attempt to conceal signs of old age.

The People believe it is more important to give than receive.

The People try to live in balance and harmony with God and nature.

Many people would consider the English-speaking people as being socially retarded but politeness restricted the People from making a major issue of these imported cultural failings.  The relentless march of the European, the imposition of their values and beliefs would intensify in the next century.  The European pushed westward with little regard or respect for the people who have been on the land for thousands of years.

The Sarcee Peoples are believed to be centered at Elk Island Park region, Alberta at this time. 

May 5:   William Sturges, a British trader, met the Chebbaska who enquired if they were Boston Clue or King George Clue.  Sturges captured Scotseye, his brother and son demanding the scalps of six white men for their exchange.  I assume it was the scalps of the Spanish.  Scalping to this time was not known among the People.
 

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