1825  - 1849

During this period

The Indian culture swings from a historic Maternal base to a European Paternal based society
The people also lost all their God given rights to Government.

  INDIAN HISTORY 1850 - 1859

INDIAN HISTORY Return to INDIAN 1700 - 1999  INDEX



The last of the Beothuk Nation died

"Europeans when they cannot bend others to their use,
or make them indirectly serve them, destroys them
and makes them little by little disappear before him."

"Please keep your Hell as there will be no room for Indians
as it will be too full of White bad hearts."



Mongozid (Loons Foot) son Obenegeshipequaq and Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth) of Sandy Lake was chief of the Fond du Lac band of Ojibwa from 1825 to 1847.

Kit Carson, Jedediah Smith and William Wolfskill visit the Salton sink in the Imperial Valley of Southern California.  It is noteworthy that by 2000 AD 90% of all wetlands in California are gone.

April 1825:   Nicole Finlawson of Lac Seul reported that when the Ojibwa brought moose and caribou meat to the post that, indeed they are the worst hunters of fur and the rascals will not hunt fur when they can get a living on big animals.  Thomas Vincent of Lac Seul noted that the Ojibwa pride and ambition to excel each other is vanished.  A young man may now be seen wearing an old tattered rabbit skin garment that only a few years ago he would have considered a degrading covering for even a helpless old woman.  Charles MacKenzie reported a large fire from Winnipeg River to Osnaburgh that is destroying much of the moose habitat.  This is an ancient native custom that encourages new plant growth and therefore an increase in wild life.

May 1:   William MacIntosh a Lower Creek chief is found guilty by Council and executed for giving tribal lands to the whites.

August 19:   The Prairie du Chien Treaty of this year is alleged to have divided disputed territory between the Dakota Sioux and the Ojibwa.  Chief Shingabawossin of Sault Ste Marie, Wisconsin who signed the Governor Lewis Cass Treaty Du Chin is of the Businause Totem.  Chief Ahmous (little bee) son Waubishgauggauge (white crow) of the Lac Du Flambeau Band is also of the Businause Totem.  Chief Neokautah a Winnebago of Neenah, Wisconsin was a signer of the treaty.


Some Missisauga Ojibwa of the Bay of Quinte in the neighborhood of Belville, Kingston and Gananoque settled on Grape Island six miles from Belville subsisting on agriculture and hunting.

January:   Nicole Finlayson of Lac Seul reported seven Crane Ojibwa had starved to death and that two years earlier a starving Crane is reported to have practiced cannibalism on his mother and daughter.


Nicole Finlayson reported the Crane Ojibwa Band had not killed a single caribou the whole season, which had once been numerous.  He reports that rabbit and fish staved off starvation this year.  Keatanang and his band are trading furs and copper at the mouth of the Ontonagon River.

The Kwantlen (Qw'?ntl'en) First Nation were recorded in 1827 as the largest group on the lower Fraser River, with a traditional territory extending from Mud Bay in Tsawwassen, through the Serpentine and Salmon Rivers and along the Fraser River, east past Mission. Though the largest village Squaimetl (sx_woyimehl) and Kikait (Qiqá:yt), was located in New Westminister the Kwantlen were also well established up-river. Kwantlen (Qw'?ntl'en) is a hun'qumi'num word meaning “tireless hunters” or “tireless runners”. In 1890 early anthropologist Charles Hill-Tout wrote, “their (Kwantlen) territories extended from the mouth of the south arm of the Fraser up to the present settlement of Hatzic, which is about sixty miles from salt water. They consequently occupied and controlled more than half of the Halkomelem lands of the mainland.”



The Ojibwa of Michilimackinac are divided into two towns based on religion.  The Roman French Catholics separated from their brothers to form a new town encouraged by their priest.  This racist practice is encourage throughout the world by the various religious leaders and is very divisive.

F.P. Wrangle reported the Koliuzh no longer attack the Russians out of fear.  This likely assumes the Russians made a major attack on these People.

September 28:  St. Joseph mission, Lake Michigan, in the Territory of Michigan a Treaty with the Potawatomi.

Land grants to be determined:

Sahnemoguay, wife Jean Baptiste Dutrist, 1/2 section of land.
Waypenahtemoguay, wife Thomas Robb, 1/2 section of land.
Shippeshickquey, wife James Wyman, 1/2 section of land.
Assapo, wife Antoine Gamlin, 1/2 section of land.
Moahguay, wife Richard Chabert, 1/2 section of land.
Meshawketoquay, wife George Ciot, two sections of land.
Mary Prejean, wife Louis St. Combe, one section of land.
Topenawkoung, wife Peter Langlois, one section of land.
Aubeenanbee, a Potowatami chief, two sections of land.
Mechehee, wife of Charles Mini, 1/2 section of land.
Louison, a potowatamie, one section to include his house and cornfield.
Keshewaquay, wife Pierre F. Navarre, one section of land.
Benac, a Potowatami, one section of land.
Pepebeway, a chief, one section of land.
Pierre Le Clair, one section of land
Betsey Ducharme, 1/2 section of land.  This section of land granted by Chicago treaty to Nancy Burnett now Nancy Davis to be purchased by United States.
Madeleine Bertrand, wife Joseph Bertrand, one section of land.
Joseph Barron, a white man who long lived with the Indians, request for 2 sections of land was rejected.

Settlement of debts:

Thomas Robb, $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
McGeorge $300, for provisions sold to Indians.
Jean Baptiste Godfroy $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Jean Baptiste Hedgens $200, for goods heretofore delivered to the Indians.
Joseph Allen $145, for horses stolen from him by the Indians while he was surveying.
Jean Baptiste Bourre $700, for goods furnished the Indians , a part in relation to this treaty.
Thomas Forsyth $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
S. Hanna & Co. $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Gabriel Godfroy, jr. $500, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Timothy S. Smith $100, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
W.G. and G.W. Ewings $200, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
Joseph Bertrand $2,000, for goods heretosold to the Indians.
Jean Baptiste Comparet $500, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
C. and D. Dousseau $100, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
P.F. Navarre $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Francis Paget $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
G.O. Hubbard $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Alexis Conquillard $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Eleanor Kinzie and her four children, by late John Kinze $3,500, in consideration of attachment of the indians to her deceased husband, who was long an Indian trader, and who lost a large sum in the trade by the credits given to them, and also by the destruction of his property.  The money is in lieu of a tract of land which the Indians gave the late John Kinzie long since, and upon which he lived.
Robert A. Forsyth $1,250, in consideration of the debts due from the Indians to his late father, Robert A. Forsyth, who was long a trader among them, and who was assisted by his son, the present R.A. Forsyth.  The money is in lieu of a tract of land which the Indians gave to the late R.A. Forsyth, since renewed to the present R.A. Forsyth, upon which both of them heretofore lived.  

The signors included 69 Indians and 9 for the government.

July 28:  Major H.C. Darling proposes the first formal policy on the 'civilization program' better known as a cultural genocide progam of the native peoples.



Nancy Shawanahdit, the last of the peace loving Beothuk Race (Red Indians) died at St. John, New Brunswick.  It was noted that she had previously suffered two gun shot wounds from earlier encounters.  The English had used her people as sport hunting targets.   The genocide war against her people by the French and English had ended.  The first Canadians to encountered the migrating Europeans are now extinct.  Many more cultures and species are to follow the wanton invasion and their disregard for the environment, the animals or its people .

The Old Spanish Trail is established by Spanish traders from New Mexico to California .


New York, Tocqueville noted that Europeans when they cannot bend others to their use, or make them indirectly serve them, destroy them and makes them little by little disappear before him. 

The Americans began their Civilization Strategy (Indian Removal Act) that is to create Indian Reservations in isolated areas.  Some believe this strategy is a compromise between protectionism and civilization.  One such settlement began in the township of Sarnia near the head of the St. Claire River and it contained over then thousand acres.  By 1842, 220 adults are admitted to this reservation run by the Wesley Methodist Society.  Lieutenant Governor J. Colborne collected three bands of Ojibwa under Chiefs Yellowhead, Aisance and Snake.  Included is a band of Pottawatomies (those who keep fire) from Drummand Island and they numbered about 500.  They are forced on to a tract of land on the north west shore of Lake Simcoe where they cleared a road to Lake Huron.

The American Congress passed a bill permitting the exchange of Indian Lands east of the Mississippi for lands in the West known as the "The Great American Desert".

The American Indian removal Act order by President Andrew Jackson, a former Indian fighter, resulted in the relocation of 70,000 Indians from their ancestral lands east of the Mississippi River to the prairies. The Americans considered the plains desolate, fit only for Indians and the Federal Government did its best to put them there. The Indians would be squeezed onto smaller and smaller reservations. So many deaths resulted from the forced removal that it became known as the 'trail of tears'.  Ralph Emerson said the name of this nation will stink to the world.  Others suggest on the 'Trail of Tears' 100,000 People were forcefully removed and 25,000 died on the forced march.

President Andrew Jackson, the Indian Fighter, said "What good man would prefer a country covered with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages to our extensive Republic?".

The US Congress authorized Indian Land Clearance from all States to be relocated to the Western Prairies.  The American Government starting about this time began to attempt to separate the Metis from Indians.  Prior to this time the British considered the Metis as the same as other aboriginal people.

The Cherokees refused to give up their lands in Georgia and adjoining states that they had made into a progressive Indian State.  They took their case to the American Supreme Court who supported their rights.  The State of Georgia ignored the Supreme Court decision and by a series of unprincipled laws, overthrew Cherokee tribal law and turned the Indian Lands over to white squatters and speculators.  Their appeal to President Jackson replied that he was helpless to force Georgia to comply with the Supreme Court of the United States.  It is noteworthy that Andrew Jackson won fame and fortune by claiming Indian Lands after chasing the Indians off and killing those who remained.  The People learned that American was not a democracy and the people had no rights if you aren't white.

A little known fact is that Black Americans owned slaves.  As an example Charleston, South Carolina 407 Black Americans owned slaves.


Charles McKenzie in his Lac Seul District reported the Indian Life has become a most miserable life.  The procuring of the means of existence keeps the best Indian in constant employment every day of the year and not to live as Indians are want to live twenty years ago but merely to exist.

Indians who refused to wear European clothing were called Blanket Indians.  They however would use Mackinaw Blankets.


Hundreds of Sac and Fox evicted from their Ancestral Lands in Rock River, Illinois are massacred by 4,000 savage army soldiers on the banks of the Bad Axe River some twenty miles south of La Crosse, Wisconsin.  Four hundred men and 1,000 women and children were almost annihilated.  Never one to pass up an opportunity, the American Government forced the Sauks and Foxes to cede a strip of land fifty miles wide on the Iowa side of the Mississippi as punishment for trying to return to their Ancestral Lands.  The People represented by Chief Black Hawk received a formal apology by the State of Wisconsin for this massacre that included their women and children.  

The French report a war party of forty Mandan attacked the Ojibwa near Pembina.  They are repulsed and are eventually slain by the Dakota Sioux.  This report does not appear consistent with the defensive nature of the Mandan a branch of the Dakota Sioux.

The Rev. Boutwell conducted an Indian School at LaPointe, Wisconsin.  The Ojibwa of La Pointe could not understand why Europeans had so many different religions in the worship of the same God, or why each claimed they are the only true course to salvation.  They all claimed the other religions are evil and that they will all surely go to hell.  The also claimed all Indian tradition, practice and belief in God is from the devil and against civilization.  The black book is a good book I am sure but why does the Whitman not follow it?  Why do the Methodist, Baptist and Black Coats all fight each other?  I do not want your heaven when I die.  Please keep your hell as there will be no room for Indians as it will be too full of white bad hearts.

Charles Darwin in 1832 sailed around the Cape Horn of South America and observed 3,000 Yahgen People who are totally extinct by the 1990's.

The People rarely hunted for pleasure alone. One of the first Europeans to go west for the pure excitement of the kill was Washington Irving. He went with Henry L. Ellsworth, Count de Pourtales from Switzerland and his tutor Charles J. Latrobe. They traveled by steamer from Cincinnati to St. Louis, overland to Independence, Kansas, and Fort Gibson into Indian Territory. The acquired Pierre Beatte as a guide. Many more pleasure killing parties would follow.

The Potawatomi People had a village called Little Rock on the Kankakee River in northeastern Illinois.

Raritan (stream overflows) a group of the New Jersey Delawares who lived on the Raritan River, N.J. sold their lands to the European and moved to Green Bay, Wisconsin.

July 18:  American Fur Trappers battle the Grosventre at Pierre's Hole, Idaho.



Charles McKenzie reported the sighting of a single moose in northwest Ontario, the first sighted in many years.

September 26:  Chicago, in the state of Illinois, a Treaty with the United Nation of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians.

Special annuity included:

Billy Cadwell $400/year
Alexander Robinson $300/year for life
Joseph Lafromboise $200/year 
Shabehnay $200/year, for life

Signing for the Indians numbered 77, signing for the government numbered 46 

September 27:   Chicago, in the state of Illinois, a supplementary to the Treaty with the United Nation of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians dated September 26, 1833.



The Ojibwa of Newcastle District, about 114 in number settled at Rice Lake on the northern side about twelve miles from Peterborough.

Jumping Badger of the Hunkpapa Teton Sioux is Born South Dakota.  He would in 1857 take the name of Sitting Bull.  He was murdered in prison on December 15, 1890 by Indian Policemen Tomahawk and Bullhead.

The Red Lake Indians arrived Lac Seul including Chief Little Boy, Squirrel, Marten, Fish Hawk, Donald, Baptist Vincent's Son, and White Head, Wawkyish including a swarm of women and children.  It is noted that Chief Little Boy always maintained a large winter group, an indication of prosperity.  This Red Lake is likely the Canadian rather than the larger American Red Lake clan.


The Seminole of Florida prepared for their second war against the invading Americans.  The war lasted eight years and many Seminole were forced into Oklahoma and those who stayed in the Everglades never officially made peace with the American Government.  These genocidal wars resulted in 1,500 dead Americans.  The Seminole were never conquered nor did they sign any treaties. 

Osceola (1804-1838) one of the Seminole war chiefs was placed in chains to humiliate him by General Wiley Thompson (1781-1835) because Osceola refused to sign a treaty agreeing to the Seminole People to leave Florida.  This infamous General fully supported the land clearance policy of the government, by legal or illegal means.

December 28:  General Wiley Thompson (1781-1835) is executed by 50 Seminole outside Fort King, Florida.  He was shot 14 times and scalped for humiliating one of their war chiefs, Osceola.  This started the second Seminole War lasted to 1837, the first being (1817-1818). 


The Aborigines Protection Society concluded this year that:

    1. The attempt to make farmers of the Red Man has been, generally speaking, a complete failure.

    2. The congregating of them for the purpose of civilization has implemented more vice than it has eradicated and consequently,

    3. the greatest kindness we can perform towards this intelligent, simple-minded people is to remove and fortify them as much as possible from any communication from the whites.

This stance suited the Government desires to get rid of the Indian Problem, the missionaries desire to isolate and indoctrinate them into model Christians and the General Public desire to keep them out of sight, out of mind.  Sir Francis Head obtained 1,600,000 acres leaving the Ojibwa 450,000 acres at Sangeen, between Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, north of Owen's Sound.

Reports reached Sault Ste Marie that the Chippewa (Ojibwa) and Metis are taking eight to ten thousand bison (buffalo) a year at the head of the Red River.  It is said the Indians form into companies and take their carts with them on the hunt.  One report suggests that the arrow is still in use by some of these bison (buffalo) a hunter.

The savage Americans burnt Negrotown a Seminole village to the ground for helping black Negro slaves to escape slavery.  The Seminoles village of Withlako meaning Great Lake or water in Hernando County, Flordia is destroyed by the Americans.

Some suggest the Seminole War (1836-1842) started this year at a cost of twenty million dollars and the death of 1,500 soldiers.  The only effective method used to capture the Seminole was to lure small groups in for parley under the sacred immunity of a flag of truce, then seize them.  They sent 4,000 captured Seminole on the Trail of Tears.  The Americans called off the war as only a few hundred Seminole remained in the swamps.  

The Roman Catholics, a Jesuit established Saint Paul, Oregon.

January 16:  Fort Simpson, B.C., the Indians are stealing the square pickets of the fort for their own construction.  The fort is losing about 15 per day and they are raiding our potato patch once the pickets are removed.  We hired the natives to protect our fort and since then have not lost a picket.

March 28:  Washington in the District of Columbia, Treaty with the Ottawa and Chippewa Nations.

The Indians are desirous of making provision for their half-breed relatives, and the President having determined, that individual reservations shall not be granted.

The Ottawas and Chippewas, feeling a strong consideration for aid rendered by certain of their half-breeds on Grand River, and other parts of the country ceded, and wishing to testify their gratitude assigned:

Rix Robinson, Metis, in lieu of a section of land on the Grand River rapids allocated $36/acre.
Leonard Slater, Metis, in lieu of a section of land above said rapids allocated in trust for Chiminonoquat $10/acre
John A. Drew, Metis, in lieu of 1 3/4 section to his Indian family at Cheboigan rapids at $4/acres.
Edward Biddle, Metis, in lieu of one section to his Indian family at the fishing ground, at $3/acre.
John Holiday, Metis, in lieu for 5 sections, at $1.25/acre.
Elizabeth Cook, Sophia Biddle and Mary Holiday, one section each at $2.50/acre.
Augustin Hamelin, jr. Metis, two sections at $1.25/acre.
William Lasley, Metis, Joseph Daily, Metis, Joseph Trotier, Matis, Henry A. Levake, two sections each for their Indian families at $1.25/acres.
Luther Rice, Metis, Joseph Lafrombois, Metis, Charles Butterfield, Metis, Charles Butterfield, Metis, being of Indian descent and to George Moran, Louis Moran, G.D. Williams for haslf-breed children under their care and to Daniel Marsac, for his Indian child, one section each at $1.25/acre.

September 3:  Cedar Point, Fox River, near Green Bay, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Treaty with the Menomonie Nation.

Relinquish all rights and provisions of the treaty of 1831 and 1832.
The Indians are desirous of making provision for their mixed blood relatives, and friends 



Kahnindumawinjo/Kanandawawinzo aka Le Brocheux son Obenegeshipequaq Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth) (1750-1828) and  was chief of the Sandy Lake Ojibwa from 1837 to 1852.

Ninety four Ojibwa settled at Mud Lake 16 miles North West of Peterborough, possessing twenty houses with sixteen stables.  The American Government for treaty purposes recognized a cultural distinction between the Chippewa of Lake Superior and the Chippewa of the Mississippi.  Two villages of Mandan of the upper Missouri declined from 1,600 to 31 during the smallpox epidemic that hit this year.  Four Bears, a dying Mandan Chief, summarized the state of his people.  Four Bears never saw a white man hungry, but what he gave him to eat, and how have they repaid it!  I do not fear death but to die with my face rotten, that even the wolves will shrink at seeing me, and say to themselves, that is Four Bears, the friend of the Whites.

The American Fur Company dispatched the steamboat St. Peter from St. Louis to its post of Fort Union with the annual outfit of trade goods.  The steamboat reached Blacksnake Hills, 60 miles upstream from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas when a deckhand became ill with smallpox.  This was the first sign of the virulent epidemic of 1837-1838.  Jacob Halsey the new commander for Fort Union contacted the disease.  An inoculation program was immediately begun but because they used a live virus, those inoculated became carriers of the disease and thereby served to spread the disease throughout the north and west.  Everyone at Fort Union contracted the disease including the well-known American trader Edwin T. Denig.   A party of 1,000 People visited the fort in trade and only 150 survived.  

A longboat was sent from Fort Union to Fort McKenzie on the Maris River in upper Missouri River region.  The fort was warned but a quarantine could not be maintained.  The disease spread to 500 lodges of Blackfoot and Piegan (some 5,500 people) at Fort McKenzie.  In this way the disease spread throughout the Missouri River Valley.  The People believed they could run away from the disease and the Assiniboine, Cree, Blood, Blackfoot and Piegan fled north and spread the disease into Canada.  By year end smallpox was every where on the Canadian Prairies, Carlton House, Fort Pelly (Saskatchewan) and Edmonton House.  

Metutahanke a Mandan village on the Missouri River, four miles below the Knofe River, North Dakota is nearly wiped out by smallpox.  These Mandan People who helped the Louis and Clark expedition are all but wiped out by a smallpox epidemic this year. Fewer than 125 Mandan of Bismark, North Dakota survived and joined the Hidatsa tribe marking the end of their culture. The Four Bears a Mandan Chief said he never saw a white man hungry, but what he gave them to eat, drink and a bison (buffalo) skin to sleep on in time of needs...and now they have repaid it! With ingratitude.

It is estimated that 75% of the Plains People died 1837-1838 from smallpox.

The Ojibwa are removed from Saginaw, Michigan that was previously the home of the Sauk who called it Saginaw meaning mouth of the river. 

Jean Baptiste Chalifoux a French Canadian trapper appeared in California with 30 men and stole between 1,400 - 1,500 horses and mules and returned to New Mexico .  He eventually settled in southern Colorado

October 21:  The Seminole War chiefs approached Fort Peyton (South of Augustine), under a flag of truce to discuss peace proposals.  The infamous General Thomas Jesup (1818-1860) ignored the flag of truce and seized the chiefs including Osceola (1804-1838).  They were taken in chains to Fort Marion at St Augustine and thrown into prison.  As a result of this action General Thomas Jesup (1818-1860) was held in disgrace for this dishonorable act, by the general population, and lost his chance to be president.  The army however held him in high regard which doesn't say much for the military.  Osceola (1804-1838) however became an instant American Folk Hero.  


The Ojibwa complained bitterly to Charles McKenzie that their coats, blankets, cloth and guns do not last out over half the year.  The blankets are thin and in holes from the hands of the manufacture.  The gunlocks are as brittle as common brass and seldom a gunlock stands a month without some part giving way.  Charles McKenzie would retire with his native wife to Red River in 1853.  

Six hundred lodges of Assiniboine died of smallpox this year.

January 5:   Carlton House, (Saskatchewan) on the Saskatchewan River a Metis named Piere Le Rocque died of smallpox carried by the Indians from Fort Union on the Missouri River.  William Todd a physician at Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River used a cowpox virus to vaccinate the Fort and the Indians.  He taught the Indians how to vaccinate their own people and those who were vaccinate were spared a high mortality rate.  Chief Chocah of the Qu'Appelle Crees learned how to vaccinate and is credited with saving many of his people.  Vaccine was sent to all other Houses and Forts.  Those who refused vaccination like the Cree and Assiniboine, the death rate was staggering.  Half the Slave, Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan, Circees and Fall (Gros Ventre)  Indians died this season.  


The United State first proclaimed the Manifest Destiny. this year, that assumed the Americans, a naturally superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, was divinely destined to expand across North America (Canada, Mexico, Cuba and Central America) to the exclusion of Indians, Black and Hispanic Peoples.  The American Constitution did not apply to non-Anglo-Saxons in practice until the late 20 century.   It was and is an ingrained ideology in American political to achieve their ambitions through 'might is right'.  They used this philosophy to annex Indian Nation Lands throughout the U.S.A., Canadian lands in Washington, Idaho. Montana and Oregon, Mexican lands of Texas, New Mexico and California.  They attempted to take Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia.  The Spanish exploration of central North America accounted for nothing, not even respect.  The threat of invasion was always present for 200 years in North America. 

Indian Lands, including reservations, are declared as Crown Land upon which settlers are forbidden by law to encroach.  Few Europeans took these laws seriously nor did the Governments provide encroachment protection.  These new people do not appear to understand sharing of resources nor respect for the rights of others.

The Mississippi Ojibwa usually received treaty payment at Lake St. Croix but due to Dakota conflict received payment at La Pointe, Wisconsin. D.P. Bushwell, Sub-Agent at La Pointe reported 290 Ojibwa, 70 men, 90 women and 130 children live at Red Lake. He reported a total of 2,914 Ojibwa for all of Minnesota.

The Cayuse of Oregon say the Christian God is stingy, since baptism there has been no improvement in the prowess in the hunt, in war, or in love.  The Missionaries description of the torments of hell led them to believe that these laws are from man not God and we do not honor these laws.  Finally they witness the antagonism between the Protestants and Catholics and concluded the Christians do not believe or practice brotherly love.

April:   Yonaguska aka Drowning Bear a Cherokee died who lived near Bryson City, North Carolina read part of a missionaries bible and said "Its a good book, but its strange that the white people are not better, having had it so long."    He was also extremely suspicious of missionaries. 


The United States  developed the Manifest Destiny during the 1840's for control of North America.  This was fueled by their inability to manage their own affairs which manifested itself by their depressions of 1818 and 1849.  The cry became 'Boundaries of Freedom' but it excluded those people who they perceived as being incapable of self-governing, such as Indians, Canadians and Mexicans.   The fact that they continue to refer to themselves as 'Americans' speaks to this failed destiny.

European scientists discovered the ruins of the Mayan culture in Central America.  This society of people had achieved astonishing feats of astronomy, science and mathematics as well as inventing writing independent of the Old World.  There could be no doubt these ancient people are an advanced civilization equal to the early Egyptian Civilization.  These people predated the Inca who horrified the Spanish Roman Catholic Priests with their religious practice and therefore systematically destroyed their libraries.  They attempted to eliminate what they believed is a history of paganism to replace it with their own violent civilization.  Many Europeans still refused to believe these discoveries are Indian adhering to the lost tribe of Israel theory.

The Sarnia Wesley Indian Reservation expanded to some 700 people owing to emigration from Saganaw Bay, Michigan.  The Gos Ventre retreated from the Missouri Coteau Country (North Dakota) and the Plain Cree occupied their territory after they departed.

An Indian party in Paris is flabbergasted to see the way the women treated their dogs while the orphanages are filled with unwanted children.  They noted that 639 women are walking their dogs.

Young Joseph Hin-mut-too-yah-let-kekht is born Wallowa Valley, Oregon son Old Joseph Tu-eka-kas of the Numipu (Nimipu) meaning we People aka Nez Perce meaning pierced nose.  Some would come to call Young Joseph as a chief, diplomat and warrior of his people.  Others would see him as a mild, gentle manner, deeply religious man who attempted to lead his people to freedom with 300 warriors against 5,000 of the United States Army.  The Nez Perce failed to reach the safety of Canada.


The Ojibwa still occupy the shores of Lake Huron, Michigan and Superior.  A large band is reported to be located on the upper Mississippi above the Saint Anthony Falls.  Some Ojibwa are still cooking with birch-bark pots using heated stones to boil fish and game.  Observers believe they are protesting the growing dependency on the European trade goods.  Many are still active in the tradition of growing corn.  The Ojibwa women, during menstruation, followed the ancient Jewish custom of living a short distance from the main camp, in a little hut, until her period is over.  It is not know when or why this tradition originated in America or if it is learned from the Europeans.  The unfortunate implications are that women are somehow unclean during menstruation.  About this time Native women began to lose their historic and special status in their own culture.

At the Bay of Manetouawning, meaning Spirit Hole, near Manitoulin Island an Ojibwa village of 40 to 50 log-houses is established.  It is noteworthy that Manito is an Algonquian word for magic or an unseen force.  Two thousand Ojibwa are camped nearby waiting for their annual presents from the Government.   The principle Chief is Signennok, meaning blackbird, and he has been chief since before 1812.  The attending Ojibwa are from Lakes Huron, Nipissing and Superior.  Six miles from Manetouawning is another Ojibwa village called Wequimecono composed of 50 to 60 houses.  They fish for salmon and whitefish, make maple sugar for trade, raise wheat, corn and potatoes.  Captain Ironsides, a Metis and Chief of the Wyandots, arrived for a visit as the successor to Captain Anderson as Superintendent of Indian Affairs.  Ironside, which means walk in water, is a descendent of Tecumseh.

The Ojibwa used totem, a heraldic device to identify themselves or their clan on trees or rocks so that others will know who passed.  They are also used on birch-bark when sending messages to other tribes.

At Mackinaw 2,600 of the People arrived to receive their pay of twenty five thousand dollars for lands ceded to the United States.  These People are mostly classified as Ojibwa with some Ottawa (the trading people).  It is noted they have a great number of dogs used to draw their sleds in winter.

The chief of the Delawares in Dallas County, Idaho is attacked by the Dakota and only one survived to tell the story.  In retaliation an army of 500 Sauk and Fox tracked down the Dakota war party and killed them all at Des Moines, Iowa.


Father Jean-Baptiste Thibault (1810-1879) in Alberta said "These Indians (Blackfoot). . . are very clean, and very well-disposed towards the whites; but their number, their warlike qualities, and particularly their rapacity make them the terror of their redskin enemies.

The first Mission at Red Lake by Rev. Frederick Ayres who left Brainerd Spencer in charge. It was abandoned in 1859. The Red Lake Ojibwa raised a significant surplus of grain and vegetables enough to feed fifty families from other bands who wintered 1842-43 at Red Lake to escape starvation in their home areas.

October 4:  La Pointe of Lake Superior, in the Territory of Wisconsin Treaty with the Chippewa Indians of the Mississippi, and Lake Superior.

Unceded lands belonging to the Indians of Fond de Lac, Sandy Lake, and Mississippi bands, shall be the common property and home of all Indians, party to this treaty.  

The Indians have expressed a strong desire to have some provision made for their half-breed relatives.

Signing for each band:

Crow Wing River - Po-go-ne-gi-shik, Son-go-com-ick, 
Sandy Lake          - Ka-non-do-ur-uin-zo, Na-tum-e-gaw-bon
Gull Lake              - Ua-bo-jig-, Pay-pe-si-gon-de-bay
Red Ceder Lake   - Kui-ui-sen-shis, Ott-taw-wance
Po-ke-gom-maw  - Bai-ie-jig, Show-ne-aw
Wisconsin River    - Ki-uen-zi, Wi-aw-bis-ke-kut-te-way
Lac de Flambeau  - A-pish-ka-go-gi, May-tock-cus-e-guay, She-maw-gon-e
Lake Bands          - Ki-ji-ua-be-she-shi, Ke-kon-o-tum,
Fon du Lac           - Shin-goob, Na-gan-nab, Mong-o-xat
La Pointe              - Citchi-waiskey, Mi-zi, Ta-qua-gone-e
Onlonagan            - O-kon-di-kan, Kis-ke-taw-wac
Ance                    - Pe-na-shi, Guck-we-san-sish
Vieux Desert        - Ka-she-osh-e, Medge-waw-gwaw-wot
Mille Lac              - Ne-qua-ne-be, Ua-shash-ko-kum, No-din
St. Croix               - Be-zhi-ki, Ka-bi-na-be, Ai-aw-bens
Snake River          - Sha-go-bi
Chippewa River    - Ua-be-she-shi, Que-way-zhan-sis
Lac Courtulle        - Ne-na-nang-eb, Be-bo-kon-uen, Ki-uen-zi

Signing for government:

Henry Blancford - interpreter
Samuel Ashman - interpreter
Justin Rice
Charles H. Oakes
William A. Aitkin
William Brewster
Charles M. Borup
Z Platt
C.H. Beaulieau
L.T. Jamison
James P. Scott
Cyrus Mendenhall
L.M. Warren  

October 14:   Nagonub born 1815 an Ojibwa chief of Fond du Lac at La Pointe, Wisconsin signed a treaty for his people, he was a favorite of the white ladies of this time. 


There was still a surplus of grain available at Red Lake as $100.00 worth was purchased by Alfred Brunson, Sub-Agent at La Pointe, Wisconsin for distribution to the Ojibwa of other areas.

William Sublette, fur trader, led a party of pleasure hunters out into the plains from St. Louis. Among the party was the Scottish nobleman Captain Sir William Drummond Stewart and William Clark Kennerly with eighty men. They left the prairie strewan for miles with the bodies of dead bison (buffalo). They only took eighty pounds of meat from one animal taking only the back strip, hump and tongue. The remainder was left to rot.


Bishop George Mountain reported from Red River that native cult objects represent tangible proof of imposture, delusion and darkness.  Father LeJeunne believed the wicked liberty of the savages needs the yoke of god to prevent them from following their inclination.

Ojaouanon a Chief of Walpole Island debated with Jesuit Superior Pierre Chazelle.  The Great Spirit sees and knows everything, taught the elders who teach the people and we keep it in our hearts and will never renounce our faith.


An Indian encampment on Lake Huron by Paul Kane Indian encampment





At Sault Ste Marie on the American side lives seven to eight hundred People whereas on the Canadian side there are only a few Metis and many Ojibwa.  A census by J.P. Hays, a sub agent from La Pointe (Wisconsin) placed the Red Lake clan as 1,200 being located at Pembina, Red Lake and Winnipeg Lakes.  He said their main substance is agriculture producing 2,000 bushel's corn.  No mention is made of the other crops.  In winter they hunt bison (buffalo) west of the Red River.  In the summer they join the Red River Metis in their bison (buffalo) hunts.  Wawushkinika or Crooked Arm is the recognized Red Lake Chief but the American Government chooses to recognize Wawanjeguon as the top chief.  This failure to accept the Chief of consensus is a very common practice during the formation of the Northwest.  Maun-gua-daus (George Henry) is considered the Chief of the Ojibwa nation 1846-1848.

New Mexico copper miners invited some Apaches to dinner and then killed them in cold blood.  Mangas Cojoradas (Red sleeves) died 1863, killed some copper miners to avenge the killings.

The Modac people first encountered settlers this year.  They occupied the Lava Beds NE California


An Ojibwa when asked by Charles McKenzie why the Ojibwa would not work as laborers like the Cree replied, we are poor it is true but we shall not be slaves.  The Northern Ojibwa by this time had changed from a maternal to a paternal structured clan.  The fur trade over the past hundred years changed the focus for clan stability from the women to that of a male dominated Company clan.  This new Company Totem focus resulted in violation of century old traditions.  Close relations as an example could inadvertently marry as a result of the destruction of the Maternal Totem system.  Inheritance changed from mother to daughter to the European system of father to son.

August 2:  Treaty with the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior included the following clauses:

Peace and friendship to be perpetual
Cession of lands by the Chippewa of the Mississippi to Lake Superior to U.S.A.
Half or mixed blood of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) to be considered as Chippewa

November 29:   The Cayuses 120 miles from the Nez Perce at the Cayuse Mission reached a breaking point with the outbreak of measles believed to be spread by the missionaries.  The Americans are relentlessly, fraudulently and treacherously dispossessed the People of their hunting, fishing and grazing grounds to satisfy their greed.  In final frustration the Cayuses rebelled killing Dr. Whitman and fourteen other whites including Mrs. Whitman.  Those spared and taken prisoner are mostly women and children.  Fear swept the Oregon Territory assuming this was the start of a major uprising.


Maskepatoon a Cree explained to Paul Kane the three paths to heaven via (missionaries) Rundle, Hunter and Thibault who said the other two are wrong.  He suggested the three call a council among themselves and when they agree then he would follow (their advice).

The veterans of the American/Mexican war of (1846-1848 were likely the first Americans to see Montezuma Castle, Arizona

The last trade caravan  to use the Old Spanish Trail was this year


The so-called Pillager Chippewa occupied the lands about Ottertail Lake, Red Lake and the Pembina Territory.  They claimed to be from the Awause Totem of Ojibwa.  At this time they had no treaty with the American Government.  The European traders report they disregarded the European exhortations to the habits and pursuits of civilization.  They have received no annuities from the United States.  They sustain themselves on game, fish, wild rice, and potatoes and make large quantities of maple sugar.  The Ojibwa named the place Pembina meaning summer berry after a kind of cranberry.  It is said the Pembina clan could assemble 150 warriors.  The Red Lake clan is raising corn and potatoes.  Five to six hundred Chippewa occupied the Pembina to Turtle Mountain region of North Dakota and usually joined the Red River Metis on the annual bison (buffalo) hunt.  Most of these Peoples originated from their historic bases of La Pointe and Sault Ste Marie on the Grand Kitchi Gami (Lake Superior).

Robinson's Lake Superior Treaty, and the Huron Treaty, are signed September 7 and 9th at Sault Ste Marie by the Ojibwa inhabiting the North Shore.  The Chief's signing the treaty are:

    Joseph Peandechat
    John Iuinway

The People effectively lost all rights conceding the Government holds their lands in trust.  The pretext of being given special status from trespass, by non-Native and by being freed from seizure for nonpayment of debt or taxes are cited as the justification for loss of rights.  A ban on sale of liquor to Indians is also legislated.  Lower Canada defined an Indian to include all persons of Indian ancestry and all persons married to such persons, belonging to or recognized as belonging to an Indian band and living with that band.  Subsequent Legislation would modify this definition to the male line and marriage only if a non-Indian woman married an Indian.  It is estimated the Ojibwa lost four hundred men to the Dakota Sioux in the last ten years in battles from Red River settlement to the Wisconsin River south and from Lake Superior to the Mississippi River.  In April, a war party of Dakota Sioux, is led by the son of Chief White Fisher, whom last fall scalped his own wife.  The party is from the village of Little Crow and Red Wing.  They attacked a small encampment of Ojibwa engaged in making sugar.  They killed three men, six women and four children, taking one small boy prisoner.  He claimed the attack is to remove the disgrace of killing his wife and the punishment that followed.  Governor Ramsey said measures would be taken to bring the offenders to justice so that the Dakota Sioux and Ojibwa war does not break out again.

Bishop Tache noted that the Plains Cree is warlike and contrasted them with the peace loving Woods Cree.  The Plains Cree and Woods Cree only difference is their method of livelihood.  There is no evidence to support this misconception.  Tache is probably applying this perception to imply it is the result of English Protestantism.

The Wapiti, a majestic elk with a heavy dark mane dwindled out of existence in eastern Canada and not long after became extinct.

A battle between the Red Lake and Pillager Ojibwa and the Dakota is reported by J.E. Fletcher, the Winnebago Agent. The battle was in the vicinity of Crass Lake, Leech Lake and Winnibigoshish Lake that resulted in the last withdrawal of the Dakota southward and westward.

The Territory of Minnesota is formed.

The infamous James H. Carleton and Kit Carson alias Christopher Houston (1809-1868) entered Canyon de Chelly to start a six month massacre.  Carleton said; "This war will be pursued against you if it takes years...until you cease to exist or move."  They started the campaign by destroying homes, livestock, crops, irrigation and orchards.  Finally 6,000 Navajos surrendered and are forced marched 400 miles to prisoner of war camps and hundreds died on the trip.  During their incarceration the army continued to destroy their homes and property to ensure those who may have escaped and found their way back would find nothing.. 

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