1900  - 1999

In the beginning
Nature is good and so is man because he is part of her.
Guests make my house grand.

  INDIAN HISTORY 2000 - to unknown

INDIAN HISTORY Return to INDIAN 1700 - 1999  INDEX



Don't knock a man down and then ask him why he lives in the dirt.
Don't strip a man of his clothing and then ask why he is naked.
Don't filch a man of his authority, his right to rule his home, his dignity as a man,
and then ask him why his culture is substandard.
Chief Dan George 1966

An observer of the Chief Joseph aka Hinmatowyalahjqit Nez Perce saga wrote:

In his long career you cannot accuse the government of one single act of justice.


Frank and Albert Michaud discovered Jewel Cave in the Black Hills of South Dakota and it’s the second longest in the world at 145 miles.  Until 1959 it was only believed to be a few miles long and was going to be dropped as a National Monument.  Mammoth Cave in Kentucky is the longest at 367 miles. 

As we enter the twentieth century let us reflect on some of the infamous quotes of the past century.

William Penn said he knew of no European language that hath more words of sweetness and greatness than theirs (the Indian).  The greatest losers of the trail of sorrow has been the People themselves.

It is believed that only 1,024 buffalo (bison) survived into the 20th century.  It is believed that 70 million bison (buffalo) were killed.  This represents the greatest animal slaughter in the history of man.   At the turn into the 21st century there are 350,000 animals.


Santa Maria, Guatemala erupted killing 6 thousan people.

The entire population of Inuit at Southampton Island in Hudson Bay is wiped out by typhus.


Treaty #9, Northern Ontario is signed by the Ojibwa and Cree.

The American Bison (buffalo) Society is organized to conduct a census on remaining bison (buffalo). Martin S. Garretson was selected to make the count. He found 835 wild bison (buffalo) and 256 in captivity.


Treaty #10, Northern Saskatchewan is signed by the Chipewyan and Cree.

Devils (Bear) Tower is a volcanic neck, in the Black Hills of Wyoming.  It rises 1,267 feet and is the first United States National Monument that was established in 1906


January 1:  The population of the buffalo (bison) was Canada-476, USA-1,116, Europe 130, all in captivity and in the wild, 25 in USA and 300 in Canada. 


Theodore Roosevelt President of the United States (1901-1909) said, I don't go so far as to think that 'the only good Indians are dead Indians', but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth. 


The Alberta Blackfoot surrendered 115,000 acres of reserve land for 14 dollars per acre.


The Indian Act of Canada is amended to allow the Federal Government to override Indian treaties and take Indian lands away from the People.


The Province of Quebec commences a campaign to wipe out all Indian names from the Quebec maps but fails to eliminate Quebec and Canada from the vocabulary.


The Nisga's Nation petition the Federal Government, over ownership of their Nass River Valley, B.C..  Their petition is ignored.

July 13:  Stats Canada reports the Indian population as 104,000 and 5,000 Eskimos.



May:   In Ottawa the Government allows expropriation of any Indian land near a town or city of eight thousand or more inhabitants regardless of any previous treaty or written agreement.  The Ojibwa reserve at Sarnia, Caughnawaga near Montreal and the Sarcee of Calgary are targeted.  Frank Oliver, Liberal Minister of the Interior says resources blocking urban growth must be eliminated.


January 28:  The Manitoba Government allows women to vote in Provincial elections but First Nation women who have had the right to vote since time immortal are refused this God given right as are their Asian sisters.  As of December 17, 1917 women in the armed services, or wives or sisters of serving soldiers are allowed to vote in General Elections but all other woman are still classified as non-persons.

March:   Ishi the last person of the Yahi tribe a branch of the Yana Indians of California died.  They lived in the foothills around Lassen Peak in Northern California.  By 1872 only 12 survived out of a 3,000 people tribe being exterminated by American soldiers and vigilante bands of miners.


May 24:  Every female British subject over twenty one may now vote in Federal elections providing she meets property requirements where they exist.  A six hundred year old aboriginal right and tradition that was taken away from Indian Women is being given to white women but not Indian Woman.

Francis Pegahmagabow, an Ojibwa from Parry Island on Georgian Bay, is decorated a first world war hero.  He is a sniper and scout in the second battle of Ypes at Passchendaele and Amiens.  He had a great pride in his Indian culture and heritage and championed the old Indian values and fought to protect land rights of others as well as Indian treaty rights.  Clifford Tobias however obtains an education to work with his people as an Indian teacher.  The Indian Affairs Branch in Chatham on December 1, wrote in response to the Deputy Minister.  Indian Children require to have the "Indian" educated out of them, which only a white teacher can help to do.  An Indian is always and only an Indian and has not the social, moral and intellectual standing required to elevate these Indian Children.


This historic call for unity read in part:  As peaceable and law-abiding citizens in the past and even in the late war, we have performed dutiful service to our King, Country and Empire.  We have the right to claim and demand more justice and fair play as a recompense, for we, have fought for the sacred rights of justice, freedom and liberty so dear to mankind, no matter what their color or creed.  The first aim of the League then is to claim and protect the rights of all Indians in Canada by legitimate and just means.  Second, absolute control in retaining possession or disposing of our lands.  That all questions and matters relating to individual and National well being of Indians shall rest with the people and their dealing with Government shall be by and through their respective Band Councils.

September 2:   Sault Ste Marie, Ontario the League of Indians of Canada held its first Congress.  The President and Secretary Treasurer is Lieutenant F.O. Loft, a Mohawk Chief.


Dr. Peter Bryce reports that between 1901-1920 the death rate at residential schools surpasses 50% at some western Canadian schools.  In reaction in 1920 attendance is made compulsory for native children age 7-16 and the report on the death rate is buried until 1922.


The Indian Act is amended, where any Indian over twenty one who Indian Affairs thinks fit for enfranchisement or for citizenship.  Duncan Campbell Scott, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs says the Canadian Government objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into body politics and there is no Indian question and no Indian Department.  Since 1857 under the Indian Assimilation Act only two hundred and fifty Indians are enfranchised.  The Act is amended to permit Indians off the reservation to be enfranchised without the required land and five hundred are reported to have applied.  The Metis are excluded as are Indian women who married non-reserve Indians.

The League of Indians of Canada met at Elphinstone, Manitoba and the following year at Thunderchild, Saskatchewan.  In 1922 they met at Samson Reserve, Hobbema, Alberta where over 1,500 Blackfoot, Stony, Cree and Assiniboine delegates assembled.  The Saddle Lake Reserve near St. Paul des Metis sponsored later conferences (1931-32) attended by 1,300 delegates.

Treaty #11, North West Territories is signed by the Slave, Dogrib, Loucheux and Hare.  Chief Dan Cranmer and the Kwakiuti near Alert Bay, near Port McNeill, Vancouver Island, despite a Government ban held a major religious Potlatch.  Some participants are later arrested and their property is confiscated.  This religious inspired ban would not be lifted until 1951.

One official this year described living conditions in Indian Residential Schools as a National crime.

April 14: It is reported of the 48 States in the United States 25 bear names from Indian origin, 12 are English, 6 Spanish, 3 French and only 2 have U.S.A. names, Washington, and Indiana.


As a result of growing civil disobedience the Superintendent General at his discretion can enfranchise any person against his will, give title to reserve lands and band money.  The Indians are prohibited from appearing in aboriginal garb and performing traditional dances at fairs and stampedes under guise of entertainment.  This ruling is later amended to include any type of dress, unless prior approval in writing is given by the Department of Indian Affairs.


The William's Treaty, South East Ontario is signed by the Ojibwa and Mississauga Ojibwa.


Virginia tried to legislate natives out of existence by barring marriage between whites and non-whites.  It became a crime to identify yourself as Indian.  This legislation was not overturned until 1967.

An act of Congress finally grants the Aboriginal People citizenship in the United States.  Before this law was passed only those granted citizenship by specific treaties were considered as citizens.  They were classified as Domestic Independent Nations.


The United Church of Canada began operating Indian Residential Schools and would continue until 1975.


The Metis are only one of several protest movements that developed in Western Canada.  Indian parents and children protested against the Residential School System, they sabotaged the operations, pilfered food and anything not nailed down, ran away and even burnt down the schools.  Native political leaders protested the harsh treatment of their children but were largely ignored.

This is the peak of the Residential Schools with 80 institutions running at this time.  About 75% of all native children are in residential schools.  The Roman Catholic Church ran 3/5th of the Schools, The Anglicans 1/4 and the Methodists and Presbyterians the remainder (Most Presbyterians schools became United Church in 1925).   The religious staff lavished time and attention on religious observances while denigrating aboriginal religious traditions.  The teachers were ill prepared and lacked curricula and material to adequately educate the native students.  The overseers were often harsh, many were sexual predators and their emotional frigidity was made worse by their cultural denigration the missionaries inflicted on the children.  Native language was forbidden, aboriginal ways were disparaged and the Euro-Canadian manner is constantly held out as superior.  This European superiority complex would prevail into the close of the twentieth century.


Requests to abolish specific sections of the Indian Treaty of 1876 from the League of Indians of Canada is met with an ill-tempered reply; too vague, what amendments are to be abolished?  They have all been carefully thought out.  Other resolutions are also ignored by the Government.

The American Public Health Department is convinced that blacks and other minorities have lesser intelligence and are more susceptible to diseases than white folks.  To prove their point medical experiments to allow syphilis to run its course among four hundred blacks is not discontinued until 1972.  Even in 1972 most leading doctors in America believe this medical practice is justified.  No one however could provide evidence of benefit from these medical induced deaths and disfigurements.  No medical person is charged or brought to justice.


Many Native people despair as traditional customs begin to fade.  The elders however continue to reaffirm their beliefs at Sun Dance, through Hand Games, at Big Smoke and Singing Practice.  They relived the past beliefs and values in the Sacred Lodge of the Horn Society.  They began applying one ancient philosophy, know your selves by knowing your relatives.  The old people say the Residential Schools are systematically destroying the children, their self-respect, respect for those things they traditionally held sacred.  Many believe a new birth is required or all Indian tradition will be lost.


The Indian Association of Alberta is created from the League of Indians of Canada.   The Federation of Saskatchewan Indians would be created in 1944.  Fortunately the economic crisis between 1933 and 1939 did not allow development of new Indian Affairs Policy and the war would continue the status quo.


A residential school near Tauro, Nova Scotia echoes with the atrocities of that institute.  The native children were incarcerated from age six.  If the parents didn't turn their children over to authorities they were arrested and sent to jail.  These children suffered physical, sexual, cultural and language abuse.  They belittled the children telling them they will never succeed because their ancestors were savages.   


The carving of Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota is completed


Unknown to most peoples the Indian political confederacy is used as a model for the charter of the United Nations.  Veteran organizations that now understand the German treatment of the Jews began to demand a Royal Commission to investigate the administration of Indian Affairs.   Some even begins to question the role of the church, especially the Roman Church.  No Royal Commission is appointed but a joint committee of the Senate and House of Commons is created in 1946 to study Indian Affairs and would make proposals in 1948.


It is estimated that between 6,000 to 40,000 Canadian Indians entered the war.  The numbers are unknown because many are required to give up their status to enlist, ancestry listed as French, Scottish or English.  After the war they are not allowed to quality for low-interest housing loans made available to non-native Canadian veterans.  Many were handed meager gratuity benefits.


April 21:  For the first time in Canadian history a parliamentary committee had consulted Indian leaders for their views on Indian Policy.  Teddy Yellow Fly a Blackfoot from Gleichen, Alberta spoke criticizing this excessive regimentation.


The Indian Affairs Committee proposal restated the Assimilation Goals and for all intent is cosmetic.  The real intent is to buy time for people to forget past transgressions of the Government and Church.  They did not realize that past transgressions are still being practiced into the future.

The carving of Crazy Horse monument in the Black Hills of South Dakota, started and is planned to be 563 feet high in three dimensions, the largest monument in the world.  They have refused and continue to refuse government funding.  It makes Mount Rushmore look like child’s play.

Sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski and family begin the construction of a Crazy Horse commemorial that will dwarf the Mount Rushmore presidents who could easily fit in the head of Crazy Horse.  The statue is to be constructed in the round not just a mural. By the turn of the century over one million people per year visit the Crazy Horse Memorial. Crazy Horse with out stretched arm signifies an answer to a white mans question "where are your lands now" Crazy Horse replied "My lands are where my dead lie buried."  The author has visited Crazy Horse twice, 20 years apart the latest being 2009 and I can say that I was and am impressed.


The Canadian Federal Government conducted health experiments on First Nation Children in residential schools during the 1940's and early 1950's. Native children were denied basic dental treatment and scientists also tinkered with the children's diets. The doctor who headed the study tried to defend the validity of the experiments on the children that lacked parental consent, so reports the Anglican Journal in May 2000. The number of First Nation persons suing the Churches and Government stands at about 7,000.

Native leaders continue to demand that Residential Schools be taken away from the Churches and given to the State.  A constant theme for the past twenty years has been to get the Church out of the Native System.  The Government proposed they be integrated into the Public School System.  This is viewed as a lesser evil.

The Blackfoot Nation is now confined to Gleichan, Cardston and Brocket, the Stony are at Morley, Lake Wabamun and Lac Ste Anne and the Sarcee at Calgary.  The American Government placed the Turtle Mountain Reservation as the number three target for elimination.

November 20:  The Supreme Court over-ruled the Ontario Courts that restricted the sale of land to white gentiles.  The covenant had been designed to bar people of Jewish, Hebrew, Semitic, Negro or colored race or blood from owing land.  Bernard Wolf, a Jew, had overturned these long-standing policy that had also been successfully used against the Indians.


Largely because of growing Indian pressure the Indian Act is revised in June.  The Government realizes they are on quicksand and in a bold act to spread the massive injustice begins the process to transfer responsibility and quilt to the Provinces.  The Provinces refuse to accept responsibility.  It is however no longer necessary to obtain permits before selling Indian products or livestock.  Women's historic rights to vote in band elections is restored but women still lose Indian status rights if the marry non-treaty Indians.  Indians have the right to vote in National Elections but not Provincial elections.  The 1927 prohibition to pursue land claims is lifted.  Religious ceremony such as the potlatches are no longer illegal after seventy-five years of persecution.


August 29: “Greenland's polar climate has moderated so consistently that communities of hunters have evolved into fishing villages. Sea mammals, vanishing from the west coast, have been replaced by codfish and other fish species in the area's southern waters.” – New York Times, Aug. 29, 1954


The Indian movement began to expose the terrible conduct of the Church run residential School System.  The Roman Catholic Church immediately removed support from the Indian Movement and created a counter organization called the Catholic Indian League.  Under Church pressure the Government forbid the use of band funds or money belonging to a reserve as contributions to Indian Organizations.  The Government followed the Church lead and created counter agricultural and economic development conferences where all expenses are paid out of Indian funds.  They however are told they represent no one and are not allowed funds to solicit ideas or communicate results.  As a compromise the half day of forced labor of the children in the fields is removed.  This however did not silence the growing resentment against Church and Government.


The people of Nutak, Labrador are relocated by the government against their will.  The move was to make it easier for the government to provide schools and health service.  In December 24, 2005 $63,000.00 in compensation is paid to the survivors. 

The Sinixt, a Salish speaking People, who were considered the mother tribe is declared extinct by the Canadian Government.  Their home lands for thousands of years included the head waters of the Columbia River north of Nakusp, to Kaslo in the west, Revelstoke in the east, and down to Washington State.  Despite what the Government says these people are not extinct.


James Gladstone is named the first Canadian Indian Senator, actually a Metis Cree of Scottish ancestry.  Forty Inuit, one fifth of the local population of Garry Lake, N.W.T. starved to death and the Government is indifferent.


The people of Hebron, Labrador are relocated by the government against their will.  The move was to make it easier for the government to provide schools and health service.  In December 24, 2005 $63,000.00 in compensation is paid to the survivors. 


March 10:  After more than 50,000 years Indians get the full right to vote but many are suspicious and skeptical fearing loss of their land claims and special status.  Aboriginal persons (First Nation People) are granted the right to vote in federal elections, only 360 years after they allowing the English and French on their lands.


The average age of death for Indian males is 33.31 years and Indian female’s 34.71 years.  Contrast this with white males as 60.5 years and white females as 64.1 years.  The medical profession is well aware that the Indians have been chronically, desperately sick for over one hundred years.  They considered this normal for their race.


The Indian Advisory Councils came to an end when the Indians realized they are a sham.

Peru abolished slave trading this year.


The Liberal Trudeau Government proposed that aboriginal rights are so general and undefined that it is not realistic to think of them as specific claims capable of remedy.

The Niska People again renew their specific land claims for title to the Nass River Valley.

December:   Harold Cardinal, President of the Indian Association of Alberta, has written a Canadian best seller, the Unjust Society, the tragedy of Canada's Indians.  He attacks Pierre Trudeau and Jean Chretien as proposing a blueprint for cultural genocide.  The Governments own report concluded that the Residential School System didn't work.  The Oblate Order is more critical, they said the African's accomplished more in thirty years than Canada achieved in one hundred years of Indian education.  The white paper on Indian Affairs that would absolve central Government from the mess it created brought such a protest from the Natives that the proposal is withdrawn in 1973.  A decision this year however is to close all Residential Schools.  


An earthquake hit Ancash, Peru resulting in 66 thousand dead.

One Bishop however declared that all Indians are like retarded children, and they have to be treated as such.  Another Oblate suggested that what the Indians need is a good army sergeant to kick their ass with his heavy studded boots.  The Dene complained that the Oblate is striping their dignity, their language and their pride in their own culture.  The Government began to stop listening to the Church.  They began the process of phasing out the Indian Residential School System.  The real activities of these schools would take another twenty years to surface due to shame and fear.  The Secretary of State for Canada still denied that the Metis existed as a group.

The Liberal Government however still chooses the path of we did nothing wrong even when the Supreme Court of Canada begins to rule against their systemically evil systems.  The Native momentum will not abate as court case after court case is painfully and slowly pushed forward.   

An estimated 100,000 children of mixed-blood Australia children were taken from their parents from 1910 to 1970 based on the premise that Aborigines were a doomed race.  It is called the "Stolen Generation" as many of the children were sexual abused, neglected and cruelty was evident, leaving a legacy of pain and shattered lives.  About 13,000 people identify themselves as members of the 'Stolen Generation' in 2008 when the Government plans to give it's formal apology.  Sounds like a blue print of Canada including Residential Schools, monkey see monkey do.

At a minimum 12,000 children were sexually abused in Indian Residential Schools, that is one in every five wards.  This was conducted under the guise of assimilation into European Culture.  The Schools used violence and intimidation to silence those who complained.

February 23:  The Canadian Wheat Board refused to grant permits for transfer of surplus wheat to five thousand starving Metis in northern Saskatchewan.  Perdue, Saskatchewan farmers are so furious they defied the Government, ground the wheat, stating surely it is not a crime to feed hungry people.


October 8:   A Canadian court ruled that, under the Bill of Rights, an Indian woman could not be deprived of her Indian status because of her marriage to a non-Indian.



The last Residential School , which were the scene of terrible acts of physical and sexual abuse, was closed in Manitoba

The Dene Nation claim that 10% of Canada's North West Territories was no included in treaties 8 and 11.

March 15:   Alberta Indians won $190,000 settlement in back payments of ammunition money. A sum of $2,000 was to have been paid to them annually according to an 1877 treaty.

March 22:   The Saint Lawrence Seaway Authority granted $1,500,000 and 795 acres to the Caughnawaga Indians as compensation for 1,300 acres of land expropriated for the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1955.

July 12:  The Supreme Court of Canada ruled against historic Indian common law that gives women central rights and responsibilities within society.  The court rules women lose their status when they marry non-status Indians but men do not lose their status when they marry non-status Indians.  This ruling finds its basis in erroneous Church teachings that still exist in present times.  The ruling however made a historic judgment saying the Indian Act discriminates against a racial group in Canada and is therefore inoperative.

July 13:   The Ontario Supreme Court ruled that the Federal Indian Act was inoperative.  The Supreme Court of Canada quickly upheld the Indian Act on August 27.

August 8:  The Federal Government sets up an office of Native claims to consider comprehensive claims based on non-treaty areas, British Columbia refuses to participate.  The Federal Government provides money to research and legally present their claims.

August 30:   Some 200 Indians occupied the Indian and Northern Affairs building in Ottawa to protest 'youth liaison' programs and to demand a halt to the James Bay power project until land claims are settled. 

October 4:  John Diefenbaker disputed a Supreme Court ruling that made it legal for an Indian woman, but not a man, to be denied Indian status if married to a non-Indian.  The Supreme Court demonstrated they are sexist by their ruling.


February 13:   The Quebec Court of Appeals refused to allow and Indian-Inuit coalition to proceed in their request for a permanent injunction against the James Bay hydro-electric development.

March 1:   The B.C. Court of Appeals ruled that an Indian child could be adopted by  non-Indian parents without losing Indian status.

November 12:   The Metis Association of the N.W.T. offered $160 million for the Government's one-third interest in Imperial Oil's Norman Wells operation.



The Dene Declaration of Independence states in part:  We the Dene of the North West Territories insist on the right to be regarded by the world and ourselves as a Nation.  What we seek then is independence and self-determination within the country of Canada.  This is what we mean when we call for a just land settlement for the Dene Nation.

The United Church of Canada closed the last of its Indian Residential Schools that operated between 1925 to 1975. The number of lawsuits of sexual, physical and cultural abuse against the Church passed the 1,500 mark and threatens to bankrupt the Church. Some say the Church began a slow slimy slide into senility about this time. By the turn of the century 80% no longer attend service.

November 11:  James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, Cree and Inuit win major concessions to allow hydroelectric works 


Do we still have a racial discrimination problem in Canada?  Canadians were asked to rank 26 ethnic and racial groups in Canada, Canadian Indians ranked 24th, Negroes 25th, not much has changed in 400 years.  The study concluded that visible minorities were held in lower esteem.

Parliament rejects a request by the Inuit for a political territory in the north.

The United Nations Committee on Human Rights criticizes Canada for taking away Indian status from women who marry non-status Indians.

October 31:   The James Bay natives surrendered aboriginal rights to about 60% of Quebec territory for $255 million and community ownership of small areas of land but they retained exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights over large areas.



April:   The Oblate Superior General stated that we must resign ourselves to this fact: Latin America is not France, the missionaries must first be evangelized by the people.  Some Oblate believed this also applied to Canada.

June 30; before the United States Supreme Court in 'United States vs. Sioux Nation of Indians' proposed a settlement of $122.5 million for lands illegally taken by the Americans.  The Sioux refused payment and demanded return of their lands.


After nearly four hundred years on January 30, the Aboriginal (Indian, Inuit, Dene and Metis) treaty rights are recognized, the start of a long process to right centuries of illegal and immoral decisions and actions.

November 19:   Indians across Canada staged demonstrations, including 3,000 on Parliament Hill, to protest the exclusion of aboriginal rights from the constitutional resolution.

December:   The Government announced its intention to set aside $4 billion and large tracts of land in the Yukon and N.W.T. to settle native land claims by 1985.



The Agreement on Aboriginal rights in the 1982 constitution explicitly included the Metis and Non-status Indians.  This will support the 1870 Manitoba Act that conferred on the mixed blood populations of Red River a claim to land based on their share of Indian blood.  Section 35 of the Constitution Act defines "the aboriginal peoples of Canada" as the Indian, Inuit and Metis Peoples.  The three groups however do not share equal rights and responsibilities.  The Government also does not accept equal responsibility in dealing with the three groups.  

January 29:   Canadian Indians were refused permission to take their case, of greater entrenchment of their rights in the new constitution, to the British House of Lords.



One drunk Dene said that he knew he is killing himself with drink.  He said that's the only way he knew how to say 'shit' too white people, to show them that their system doesn't work.  I don't have any skills all I can do is get drunk and be a living condemnation of their ways.



Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia erupted killing 23 thousand people.
Father Van de Velde an Oblate missionary in the Arctic for forty-eight years said the power of the white man is destroying the Native's pride and consuming their culture.  He could not accept the transformation in his lifetime of a once proud people into a troubled people.

The Canadian Indian Act from 1869 to 1985 seriously discriminated against Native women by stripping them of their treaty and aboriginal rights if they married non-status Indians.  The bases of this ruling was that women are not persons and therefore are property.  Bill C-31 reinstated 76,000 women who had lost 'Indian Status' through marriage resulting in 100,000 people being added to the Registered Indian population of Canada.  It is noteworthy that the non-Indian authority returned an ancient Indian Woman's rights.  This bill caused great resentment of both those on tribal lands and those off tribal lands especially with the Second-Generation Cut-Off rule.    

June 6:   The Indian Act is changed to allow 16,000 Indian women, who lost their Indian Status and band membership because they married non-Indians, to regain their status.  Indian men who married non-Indian women did not lose status.



January 1:   Frobisher Bay, N.W.T. is officially changed to Iqaluit; meaning where the fish are, in the Inuktitut language.



The last two Indian residential schools in Canada are closed this year.  The cultural atrocity against the native peoples is beginning to unfold.



December 8:   The Federal Government settled a long standing land claim in the Northwest Territories.  The Canadian Inuit received 100,360 sq miles in land, the largest land claim ever negotiated.  Its about 1/5th of all Canadian lands.  The 17,000 Inuit (Eskimo) were represented by the Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (meaning Our Land)..



The Indian and Metis belief in free trade would begin entering into main line Canadian thinking.  This may mark the end of British and French Imperialism.  More fundamental it may mean the end of the Roman Empire Religion.

June:  Archbishop Alphonsus Penny (b-1924) resigned in St. John's, after a report, by Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Wismer, blamed the Roman Catholic Church officials for ignoring and covering up sexual abuse by priests, at Mount Cashel Orphange in Newfoundland.

June 15:   Manitoba New Democrat Elijah Harper, a Cree, refused to consent to the Meech Lake Accord because it failed to recognize the rights of aboriginal peoples.  It required unanimity for its introduction.

July 18:   The Roman Catholic Church is blamed for ignoring and covering up sexual abuse by priests at Mount Cashel Orphanage in Newfoundland.  Archbishop Alphonsus Penny b-1924 resigned in St. John's, Newfoundland.



The classification of Aboriginal Languages provokes lively debate.  Language is a dynamic evolving classification of People.  It should only be used to help us understand our evolving cultures and the migrations of the Peoples.  Language is for communicating not an anchor for culture nor a badge of belonging.  The anchor for culture is our Principles, Beliefs and Values.  It is noteworthy that the People of America as they expanded their trading range also developed a trading language.  A common language improves productivity, decreases misunderstanding and minimizes exclusion of others.  A fundamental principle of the People was brotherhood and different languages are a  disintegrator of brotherhood.  Different dialects however are required for people in specialty occupations like doctors, engineers, computer scientists or the Inuit who have 50 words for ice/snow.  Language should be used to earn a living not as an introverted attempt to keep a culture pure.  To keep a culture or language pure is to stop growing.  Language and culture should be allowed to be dynamically evolving.

Let us hope that the People will not repeat the errors of out European brothers and adopt an exclusive pure language dogma to the detriment of the People.

There are some 51 or 52 distinct indigenous languages spoken in Canada.  The aboriginal population represents some 800,000 people.  463,000 registered status Indians, 93,000 nonstatus Indians, 200,000 Metis and 41, 000 Inuit or about 3% of the population of Canada.  These statistics are based on only a 20% sampling of population.  These languages fall into 11 separate families of languages.  Eight of the eleven languages are found in British Columbia alone.  This suggests the west is linguistically older than the east and supports successive migrations of speakers to the south and east.  The following is from the 1991 census in Canada and is likely not accurate but suggests a trend.  Some reserves were incompletely enumerated and some choose not to participate in a truthful way because they felt it was an intrusion.   People were asked to identify their mother language that they still could speak well enough to use in conversation.  

Algonquian speaking people number 150,000            

Blackfoot            Piegan, Blood   
Cree                   Plains, Woods, Swampy, Attikarnek, 
Delaware             Munsee
Ojibwa               Algonquin, Ottawa, Saukeaux, Severn
Malecite              Maliseet-Passamaquoddy
Micmac               (number some 18,000 people on 25 reserves)

Athapaskan (Na-Dene) speaking people number 27,500    

Slavey-Hare,  Bearlake, Hare, Mountain, Slavey

Eskimo-Inuit-Inupiaq speaking people number 26,800  
            (Only American language link to Asia, Chukotan, Siberia)  

Inuit-Inuktitut         Aivilik, South Baffin, Tarramuit, Baffin-Iglulik, Itivimmiut, Labrador
Inuit-western          Siglit, Cooper, Caribou, Netsilik

Unidentified speaking people number 5,020    

Siouan Dakotan speaking people number 4,540  (some suggest this is Iroquoian related) 


Wakashan Kwakiutlan & Nootkan speaking people number 3,840 (some suggest this is Algonkin related)    


Salishan speaking people number 3,350 

Bella Coola                
Comox                       Sliammon

Iroquoian speaking people number 730  out of some 48,000 people on 8 reserves

Mohawk (some suggest there are 1-2,000 speakers of Mohawk alone)

Tsimshian speaking people number 500  


Haida speaking people number 220


Kutenai speaking people number 170   (some suggest this is Algonkin related) 

Tlingit speaking people number 160   (some suggest this is Athapaskin related) 

TOTAL Native speaking people 222,830 as listed in 1991 Canadian census.
(Home language, most often spoken and understood at home)


Over one million Canadians reported native ancestry.  Those reporting Indian ancestry numbered 783,980 and those reporting Metis numbered 212,650 and Inuit numbered 49,255.  Alberta statistics are 99,650 Indian, 56,310 Metis and 2,825 Inuit.  This rapid rise in people claiming their aboriginal origins is attributed to the lifting of the stigma attached to a native identity.
Since 1970 the American courts and Congress have returned 4.5 million acres of Indian land that had been confiscated by white men during the past century.  They also paid one billion dollars compensation for land that can't be returned.

An act of parliament created Nunavut (our land) for the Inuit of Canada.


This year 2/3rd's of Canadians believe that some groups in Canada are discriminated against, this compares with 50% in 1980. 


The 9 story high face sculpture of Crazy Horse is completed on Thunderhead Mountain in the Black Hills of South Dakota and work is continuing on the body and horse in three dimensions.  It already surpasses Mount Rushmore and it is being accomplished without government funding.   It stands as the world largest monument to United States Government atrocities against the Indian Nations of America.


The World Health Organization reports that Canada's 750,000 native people suffer poor health conditions and are at greater risk of tuberculosis, diabetes, suicide, violent death and alcohol-related illness and injury than other Canadians. In many areas, health conditions are worsening said Whillie Littlechild, Chief of Canada's Four Cree Nations. The Cree have the highest suicide, substance-abuse and violence rates in the World. The Cree are now beginning to lead in the occurrence of diabetes because of a change to a non-traditional diet.
The diet proposed by Health Canada and the Canadian Diabetes Association of Canada has caused the diabetes epidemic in Canada. They were told in 1972 if they continued to promote the high carbohydrate diets it would cause a diabetes epidemic.
Rev. Bill Phipps the moderator of the United Church of Canada suggests settling native lawsuits. More than 200 lawsuits seek damages for physical and sexual abuse suffered at the hands of church employees in residential schools. Phipps said the church should willingly move forward and fulfill its legal and moral obligations and this could lead the nation out of its racism.

The Aboriginal languages spoken in Canada are:

Cree                          76,475
Inuktitut                      26,840
Ojibwa                       22,625
Montagnais-Naskapi     8,745
Micmac                         6,720
Dakota/Sioux                 4,020
Blackfoot                       3,450
Salish                             2,520
South Slave                    2,425
Dogrib                            2,030

The Nunavut Act is passed to establish the New Inuit Territory of Nunavati (meaning our land).

May:   The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Indian Act violated the Charter of Rights in not allowing off-reservation First Nation People to vote in band elections.  At least 200,000 people were denied basic justice.  The case was raised by the non-reserve First Nation People of the Batchewana Band near Sault Ste Marie.  Sixty eight percentage of 1,426 of the band live off-reserve.  They have been fighting for this basic right for ten years.  All Indian bands in Canada are to comply by November 2000. 

December:  A mudslide at Vargas, Venezuelia resulted in 20,000 dead.



March:   Indian Treaty No. 8 promised tax exemption to the Cree and Dene Nations, according to Federal Court Justice Douglas Campbell.  He condemned Canmada's suprisingly negative and disrespectful attitude towards this constitutional right.  Judge Campbell also lashed out at the Canadian taxpayers federation accusing it of unfairly playing a race card to gain publicity.  He said they were ill-informed, misguided and inflammatory.

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