8000 - 3001 B.C.
INDIAN HISTORY 3000 - 1001 B.C.
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Global warming, retreating waters and drought forced more migrations
The period from 8,000 B.C to 4,000 B.C. is a period of 'Global Warming' that is
called the 'Neolithic Climatic Optimun'.
A young man of Chan Hoi, Mexico was interred 1,800 feet in a cave in the Yucatan. The sea levels rose and the cave was eventually flooded. Divers recently found the ramains.
The Atacama Desert a plateau in South America covering 1000 km (600 miles) of land or 105,000 sq km (40,000 sq miles) west of the Andie's Mountains mostly in Chile. It is considered the driest place on earth receiving between .05 to .02 cm of moisture per year. This desert is estimated to be over 20 million years old. The surrounding mountains rise to 22,590 feet and are glacier free. Some point this out that using glaciation's is not an accurate measure for climate change. Glaciations depends on moisture not only cold. Strong El Nino's cause more moisture that La Nina. Some river beds in the desert have been dry for 120,000 years. Man first appeared in the desert about this time and went on to create over 5,000 geoglypas of prehistoric art. The art is most common on trade routes through the desert and some have been dated through the period of 200 B.C. to 800 A.D.
The potato was first cultivated some 10,000 years ago by South American Indians. In 2008 it was reported that genetic studies by potato experts indicated that all potatoes originated over 10,000 years ago from a single ancestor, Solanum brevicaule, found on the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca. By this time many different varieties of potato are evident in the Andes of Peru.
About 10,000 years ago a tribe of Indians lived in the Florida panhandle at the Aucilla River for a few generations near the present town of Perry. The site was nearly 100 miles inland. Within a hundred years rising water flooded the village and sealed the remains under a layer of clay.
In 2007 workers digging at the future site of a Wal-Mart store in suburban Mesa, Arizona., unearthed the bones of a prehistoric camel that's estimated to be about 10,000 years old.
There is good evidence that the continental crust is capable of some plastic flow, and the rebound is shown most dramatically in parts of the Baltic, the Arctic and the Great Lakes regions of North America where Pleistocene beaches and coastal features are now raised high above sea level and some are tilted. The process seems to have been going on for the last 10,000 years and is still continuing.
Peru, Ecuador and Mexico have evidence of squash seeds.
Between 8,000 B.C. to 6,000 B.C. the Proto-Anasazi People roamed the Colorado Plateau. Some used caves such as Dust Devil Caves, Utah, Danger Cave, Utah for shelter. The caves were occupied during summer as evidenced by fruit seeds and vegetable remains.
Grinding tools from this time were found in 1999 in the Cross Creek site of San Luis Obispo, California. Beads, shells, tools, seeds and carved stone fish suggested that humans came to the area by sea and did not rely on hunting for subsistence.
Pigmy mammoths browsed on the Channel Islands off the California coast.
Between 8,000 to 5,500 B.C. the Alpenaberly ridge was high and dry, and home to caribou hunters. It is now 100 feet below the surface of Lake Huron. The ridge contains a series of stone features, hunting blinds and a 300 yard long wall that was likely used to guide the prey into ambush.
Genetic evidence suggests a forth migration of People to America occurred about this time from Europe. It is believed the first three migrations occurred from Asia, namely #1 at 35,000 B.C. plus, #2 at 20,000 B.C., #3 at 13,000 B.C. This migration of the Druze, Italians and Finnish Peoples of Europe is based on common genes that merged with the Ojibwa Peoples. These genes are not found in Asiatic Peoples. If this research holds true then: some of the Ojibwa are likely located on the east coast of America at this time, and Europeans migrated to America about this time OR Americans migrated to Europe about this time.
North America is completely peopled by Paleolithic Peoples. It is important to remember that Algonquian maintained two or more seasonal sites. A winter site different than a summer site. Fishing and or hunting sites usually represent different locations. Religious, treaty, and trading locations are usually maintained over much longer periods of time. Sault Ste Marie as an example is an ancient ideal meeting location because it is a fishing and trading site favored for its geographic position. These locations usually became known as their point of origin. If a hunting site is analyzed you would assume erroneously they were hunter/gathers.
The Plano People are hunting caribou and other large game in the region of Sault Ste Marie.
The Andean culture existed like a buffer zone between Amazonian and Andean cultures. Manachaqui Cave at the upper edge of Peru's Northeastern Andean mountain forest is being used as a temporary shelter from 8,000 to 2,200 B.C..
A hut and human remains is discovered at the 16,000 foot level east of Arica, Peru. Most People are using fire, have dogs and live in portable structures, and only rarely do they live in caves. Quartzite and flint are being quarried on Manitoulin I, in Ontario. The first people to America are believed to have brought their dog. Various tribes of these people are found all over North America however most are concentrated in the prairies and are now using Folsom points that are called the Llano Horizon. Folsom Man appears to have replaced Clovis Man either in person or by technology. Folsom points are replacing Clovis points in use at Sibbald Creek west of Calgary, Alberta, Charles Lake Cave north of Fort St. John, B.C. and in Nova Scotia. Widespread networks of communication and trading developed early. Lake Minnewanka, Alberta also contains their artifacts. The glaciers had receded from all the Great Lakes leaving a huge Lake Ojibwa-Barlow near Kapuskasing that is as big as Lake Superior and it is draining down the Ottawa River.
The American Peoples use of a buffalo (bison) jump is believed to have originated
about this time. The hunt required a high degree or organizational skills
as upward of 250 people were involved in the process.
The Shellfish People who are believed to be the Mi'kmaq People occupied Prince Edward Island about this time. It was believed a land bridge connected it to the main land about this time.
About this time some speculate the Algonquian-speaking People began to migrate from the prairies, some evidence suggests they originated on the California coast migrating across the plains into the woods north of Lake Superior as the glaciers retreated. This migration is believed to have occurred over the next 3,000 years.
People are camping at the Dalles (Oregon-Washington) a salmon rich area.
The Jones-Miller site in eastern Colorado is an organized bison kill
site likely using ice-glazed snow banks to contain the animals. Other
evidence at other sites suggests that 150-200 people may have participated
in the hunt.
Some believe the early French route on the Kaministikwia River from Lake Superior to the interior is continuously in use by the Paleo People, Archaic, Laurel and Late Woodland native cultures and their Ojibwa and Cree descendents until 1821.
The horse, rhinoceros and camel has become extinct in North America about this time. The horse that evolved in America, migrated to Asia and lived on to become the base for modern horses. The reason for their extinction in America is unknown.
It is believed the People of the Pacific Northwest (Oregon/Washington/British Columbia) were highly sophisticated at this time with cultural attributes usually associated with city states, like hierarchy of status, Techniques to harvest and store large quantities of food, specialized occupations, a widespread system of trade, large permanent houses. They also had little conflict with neighboring bands.
It is believed that Prince Edward Island has been continuously peopled from about this time.
It is believed that Utah was peopled about this time to 400 A,D, with the Desert Archaic People who were the ancestors to the Fremont People who occupied the area 400 A.D. to 1350 A.D. Some suggest the Desert Archaic are also the ancestors of the Anasazi People.
Klamath Lake basin is occupied by men who witnessed the eruption of Mount Mazama that created Crater Lake, in southern Oregon.
The People in the Channel Islands of California are using boats.
Studies at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru suggest from 8,000 to 5,500 B.C. was a vary wet period.
Research in the Yucatan Cenotes (underground caves), Mexico suggests people were using these caves from about this time, maybe earlier. It is estimated there are more than 3,000 Cenotes in the Yucatan. Some explored contain human remains.
Some believe a drought was extensive on the Prairies of Canada from 8,000 B.C. to 6,000 B.C.
The first known water management system is built in San Marcos, Mexico.
DNA analysis suggests Paleo-Mongolois from Japan visited Chile, South America. A virus associated with T-cell leukemia from the paleo-mongoloids of Japan is found in Chile and the Andeans generally.
The Haida Nation believe they were born between the sea and the land, challenging the strength of the North Pacific. They first settled on the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands). There numbers ranked 14,000 in 1774 to 600 by 1911.
Humans lived in a cave near Oaxaca, Mexico, named Guila Naquitz (White Cliff). Scattered remains of tools, seeds and plants were found in 1966 by archeologist Kent Flannery and some of the seeds were dated to this time. The squash seeds showed signs of cultivation.
Evidence suggests the balance of Lake Agassiz completely drained into the Mackenzie River over the next 3-4 years. It had previously drained into the Mississippi River system.
Some evidence suggests a great drought may have occupied the Great Plains until 5,000 B.C. driving many Peoples from this region. The discovery of California shell beads in Nevada dating 6,700-5,100 B.C. suggest habitation and extensive inland trading. The Proto Dakota Sioux is driven from Saskatchewan about this time. Grinding stones are being used at Medicine Creek in Northern Wyoming. They also fished and hunted. The first verified presence of domesticated dog with humans is at Jaguar cave.
The Illinois River Valley, where humans have lived since this time lost 5-10% of its archeological record in the great Mississippi flood of 1994 AD.
Pre-historic Indians inhabit areas of N. Cascades in Washington state at elevations of 6,600 ft. It appears that the local chert was used to fabricate stone tools.
Others suggest the period of the Great Drought was 6,400 to 3,000 B.C.
The Twin Dutch Site in Illinois is the location of the oldest house in the Midwest US.
Between 7,500 to 6,000 B.C. the Proto-Anasazi People were using sandals in the northern Colorado Plateau.
Yellowstone, Wyoming a volcanoes erupted this year.
In 1998 specimens of sandals were analyzed from a Missouri cave that dated to this time
Gourd and pumpkin is being cultivated in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. The only problem is that the gourd is believed to be native to Africa and how a cultivated species could end up in Mexico is perplexing. The introduction of cotton poses the same problem.
Spirit Cave Man is discovered in Nevada wearing cloths appearing to be made on a loom. The mummy, known as the Spirit Cave Man, was found in Nevada in 1940, but in 1996 was dated to be more than 9,400 years old. The mummy was discovered by archeologists S.M. and Georgia Wheeler in a cave 13 miles east of Fallon. The mummy was wrapped in a skin robe and sewn into two mats woven of a marsh plant called tule. He is believed to be of Australo Melaneslan charestics, same as peoples from Australia, Fiji and Papua New Guinea who arrived America 9,000 B.C. to 5,500 B.C.
A fifty-year-old Caucasoid man not related to the aboriginal people is discovered near Kennewick, Washington on the Columbia River. Kennewick Man found on the Columbia River is definitely not American Indian some claim and is believed to date about this time and DNA tests appears more closely related to the Ainu of Northern Japan, than Mongolian, Native American or Euro-American. Others suggest he is closer to Polynesian in nature. It would appear this genetic type existed in America for some time. He had a stone spear point buried in his hip. This is a fascinating find as preliminary evidence suggests the remains are not American-Indian in nature and more typically Polynesian or even Caucasian. The Natives of Washington claimed the bones for reburial and are using this as a test case to highlight the history of shabby treatment to earlier American Peoples (Indians) by archeologists and anthropologists in the past. Failure to adequately analyze this significant find would be a loss to understanding our Native culture. In 2004 the Us appeals court overruled the objections of the Colville, Umatilla, Yakama, Nez Perce and Wanapum peoples to study the Kennewick man. It is one of the oldest human skeletons found on the American continent. The Penon skeleton in Mexico dated 11,000 B.C. supports the theory of some that a people, possibly the Ainu people of Japan preceded the Indians to America. However;
A skeleton of about this age was found in July, 1996, by the Columbia River
in Kennewick, Wa. It became known as the "Kennewick Man" or
"Richland Man." The 9,200 year old bones were later studied and
determined to be most closely related to Asian people, particularly the Ainu of
northern Japan. It was concluded in 2000 that he was an American Indian. The
bones were dated to 7514-7324 BC.
Others date the find to 6,900 B.C. and attribute it to Australo Melaneslan peoples. He is believed to be of Australo Melaneslan charestics, and DNA the same as peoples from Australia, Fiji and Papua New Guinea who arrived America 9,000 B.C. to 5,500 B.C.
Two spearheads are discovered dating to this period at Head Smashed in Buffalo Jump in southern Alberta. There are about 100 bison (buffalo) jumps in north America. The use of animal jumps is believed to date back to at least 40,000 B.C. The technology of Bison (Buffalo) Jumps are unique to North America and most common in Southern Alberta. Those descendents of the the users of Bison Jump technology contend they have always lived on the Prairies. The Twin Rivers Bison Jump on Milk River (Southern Alberta) a very warm and fertile region has never been excavated.
Near Chin Coulee in southern Alberta, hunters with spears trapped and killed a bison (buffalo).
70 km east of Calgary, near the Bow River is a medicine wheel with sophisticated astronomical attributes. It is called and open-air sun temple predating Stonehenge and Egypt's pyramids. We continually under estimate the intelligence of our ancestors.
Artifacts are dated to this period at Point Aux Pins, Lake Superior.
The Indians occupied the Black Hills of Dakota
Some American Indian graves in Newport Beach, California., were believed to be this age.
Between 7,000 B.C. to 5,000 B.C. is a great dry warming period in the upper Mississippi River.
Some believe the Wendat (Heron) peoples occupied Southern Ontario between 7,000 to 6,000 B.C. hunting Caribou. Others suggest some first nations people were hunting Caribou as early as 10,000 B.C. in the Great Lakes region.
Romero's cave near the Gulf of Mexico, the people cultivated beans, peppers, pumpkins, squash and gourds about the same times as agriculture is developing in Asia and the Middle East. Squash is believed to have originated between 7,000 to 5,000 B.C in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico.
The Archaic Boreal culture began appearing near the tree line and the retreating ice sheets of the Canadian Arctic mainland. The Maritime Archaic peoples moved up the eastern seaboard and occupied Labrador to become the ancestors of the L'nuk (Micmac), Malecite and Beothuk Peoples. The trading of Chalcedony, a quartz-like mineral, traded from North Dakota, Northern Alberta to Southern Ontario thereby establishing the famous People trading routes of the 18th and 19th century. Established permanent villages based on a fishing industry are colonizing Chinchorro, Peru. Two spearheads dating to this period are discovered at Head Smashed in buffalo jump in Alberta, Canada. Conventional wisdom suggest Head Smashed in Buffalo Jump was not continuously used until 4,000 B.C.
Peru is cultivating beans. Agriculture is likely evident in southern Illinois with indications of squash being consumed. The other option is that extensive trade patterns are well established.
The Camarones Valley, Chile the water supply contains arsenic naturally. Forth five mummies dating
Over fifty percentages of all world cultivated crops come from the Americas. American Natives would cultivate corn, tomato, chocolate, vanilla, tobacco, avocado, peanut, pecan, cashew, pineapple, blueberry, sunflower and wild rice to name a few, in fact their agriculture, and irrigation technology is first rate by any standard. The word tomato comes to us from Aztec People.
Fort Liard, North West Territories has been continuously occupied from this date to modern times. This fishing camp site is on the south bank of the Liard River, about 25 km north of the B.C. border..
Drilling 400 feet below Mexico City area turned up corn pollen dating to 80,000 B.C. Modern or domestic corn is dated to 7,000 B.C. in this same area. The transition of a grass to a corn cob must have taken thousands of years of human intervention. It is believed that the cultivation of corn spread north and south from Mexico City area. It is noteworthy that maize (corn) must be deliberately cultivated from a wild grass called teosinte as it can't grow without human intervention. Some suggest that corn was not developed until 5,000 B.C. in the Mexico City area but it could also be 15,000 B.C. or earlier. What ever the date most agree it would take thousands of years of selective breading to achieve the status of corn vs. grass.
Maritime Archaic Indians moved into Labrador from the south shore of the Gulf of St Lawrence.
Archaeological information indicates that Algonquin people have lived in the Ottawa Valley for at least 8,000 years before the Europeans arrived in North America.
Graves of three dogs are uncovered in Illinois near human burials. This evidence of the careful burial of domesticated dog pushes back the belief that dogs accompanied man to America and is highly regarded by early man. In the graves is also found metate stone used for grinding corn or seeds.
The El Reigo (Irrigation People) are living
in caves and were growing corn, squash, chili peppers and amaranth 6500 to 5,000
B.C. in the Tehuacan Valley, (Place of the Gods) New Mexico.
Dutch scientists (Marc Hijma and Kim Cohen) suggest the glacial ice dam
holding Lake Agassiz (Manitoba, Canada) broke this year sending a massive
freshwater pulse into the Atlantic ocean causing the Noah's flood. Other scientist
suggest Lake Agassiz drained a few thousand years earlier. They suggest
the Noah flood dates to 6,450 B.C. +/- 44 years. Noah lived (3,529-2,579)
however the flood is a Sumerian legend
and has a number of dates, 5,540 B.C. Geologists confirm that
the Black Sea rose about 460 feet in less than one year leading to the Noah
story to explain this event. Others suggest it took 30 years to fill the
Black Sea Valley. Prior to this time the Black Sea was a small fresh
water lake. This massive flooding caused the world oceans to drop one
foot. Others suggest the release of Lake Agassiz resulted in the release
of 163 trillion tons of water. The first record of this great flood is in the Epic of Gilgamesh
(2,900 B.C.). Ruins 312 feet below the Black Sea have been discovered. 2,835
B.C. The Earthly Sovereign of China is said to be Nuwa
(2,835-2,736 B.C). China at this time was a matriarchal society.
During her reign a Great Flood covered China. She is said to have mended
the heavens and firmament after the Great Flood killed most of the people.
This legend is the same as the Noah legend of the Jews. It is said she
repopulated the world by taking clay and making people by breathing life into
them. Similar to the Genesis legends. Dr. Immanuel Velikovasky
b-1895, in his 1950 book's 'Ages in Chaos' and 'Worlds in Collision'
concluded a global cataclysm had taken place. It speaks of a wall of water
coming over the mountains into China. The bible speaks of a time when the
sun 'Stood Still', the heavens were in disturbed. 2,929 B.C. The
great flood or deluge occurred at this time according to the historian Josephus
(37-100 A.D.). Geologists suggest the flooding of the Black Sea occurred
about 5,540 B.C. The patriarch of the Shem tribe (?-2329) is a descendent
of the tribe of Noah (3529-2579) according to the historian Josephus (37-100
A.D.). 2,240 B.C. During this period of Yu the Great (Xia)(2,205-2,198)
everywhere in China tremendous flood waters are wreaking destruction.
Spreading afar, they embraced the mountains and rose above the hills. It
inudated the Valley of Huangle (Yellow) River. The people are groaning.
All the houses and crops are submerged and the people had to move to places on
the highland. This legend is similar to the Great Flood of Noah alias
I believe it is highly unlikely the Lake Agassiz freshwater surge was connected to the Noah flood legend.
Some place this as the Great Drought (6,400-3,000 B.C.) in the southwestern
United States and northern Mexico (
Corn is growing in Peru.
The hydrological cycle (world wide water-circulation system) slowed down, stopped and started again resulting in wide spread drought in Western North America, Asia, Europe and Africa.
The development of irrigation in Mesopotamia at this time seems to coincide with a cool dry period.
An ice dam in Hudson Bay, Manitoba broke and rapidly drained the largest lake, Lake Agassiz, ever to exist on the planet. The remains are Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is believed to have caused a mini ice age for 300 years, caused by this injection of fresh water into the ocean thereby lowering the salt content. It is believed this adversely affects the Gulf Stream. The glacial lake Agassiz-Ojibway, body of water so vast that it covered parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Ontario and Minnesota, massively drained, sending a flow of water into the Hudson Strait and the Labrador Sea. The sudden flood of fresh water diluted the saltiness of the Gulf Stream weakening its flow.
Modern models suggest the CO2 levels of the planet should drop about this time but they did the opposite and began rising.
Carbon levels began to rise about this time and caused a deviation in the climatic patterns called the Milankovitch cycles. These cycles were regulated by the Earth's orbit and angle towards the sun.
The Algonquian culture is well established in the Ottawa Valley about this time. It is noteworthy that some of the major Algonquian speaking nations are; Abenaki, Blackfoot, Malecite, MicMac, Mississauga, Montangnais and Ojibwe to name a few. This covers the territory from Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. The Algonquian speaking culture is truly the first major Canadian culture.
The first Native Americans are believed to have settled Newfoundland about 6000 B.C.
The first Native Americans are believed to have settled the Grand Canyon about 6000 B.C. The early peoples carved hand and foot holds into the canyon walls.
The Hokan Indians preceded the Miwoks in Northern California
The Wappo Indians settle in the area northern California around Mt. Konocti 8,000 years ago. The eruption of Mt. Konocti millions of years earlier left a fissure in the earth through which ground water reaches the hot magma at 4,000 feet, and resurfaces as Indian Springs' three thermal geysers at 212 degrees. The water rises through old sea beds adding rich mineral and salt traces.
Remains of a probable human structure in Hells Gap, Wyoming, were dated to this time
Large grazing mammals like mammoths, mastodon, twenty-foot sloth, saber-toothed cats, large lions, camel and the prehistoric horse became extinct. Some speculate it is probably a result of over killing by the Paleolithic Peoples. The forests are retreating north creating the great Canadian prairies. bison (buffalo) hunters have been camping on Nose Hill, Calgary for the past 300 years.
The early Peoples attacking a Wood Bison (buffalo) and a Mastodon or Mammoth in the background. A mammoth is an extinct elephant with long tusks. A mastodon is a large, extinct mammal resembling the elephant but larger. Some contend the common Prairie Bison (Buffalo) is not a different sub species to the Woods bison (buffalo). The buffalo or water buffalo is not found in the Americas.
Agriculture especially of gourds and squash is evident in southeastern U.S.A. during the middle Archaic period (6,000 to 4,00 B.C.). At this time the culture of the eastern woodlands people from the Carolinas to Labrador is quite similar. This suggests that extensive trading patterns are already well developed.
Humans are evident in the
Canyon of the Ancients, south west
Some believe the Shield Archaic people migrated to the Barren Grounds between Hudson Bay and Great Bear Lake from California. The Paleo People followed the ice sheets as they retreated northward. The Shield Archaic people made spear points of the Agate Basin type, derived from the Plano tradition of the northern Plains. They hunted caribou and moose trapped smaller animals in the winter. They fished extensively in the summer. The Shield Archaic people are the ancestors of the Algonquian Nation including the Algonkin, Cree, Ojibwa and Montagnais People. A similarity between the Algonquian languages and the Yurok and Wiyot languages of the California coast suggests this location as an origin for the Shield Archaic people. The Yazoo, Tunica, Tiou, Patiri, Opelousa, Natchez, Koroa, Griga, Chitimacha, Chawasha, Bidai, Atakapa and Washa of the southeast (Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana) also originated in California. The state Arkansas is named after the Ugakhpa or Quapaw mraning downstream people. Maritime Archaic Peoples replaced Paleo Peoples in Labrador, the first Eskimo would not arrive until 2,000 B.C. Others believe these Proto Algonkians are well established for some 2,000 years and the Proto Cree differentiated about this time in Ontario then migrated northwest into Manitoba. The Cree called themselves Nehiyan meaning The People. The Ojibwa also called themselves The People.
The People moved into the Lake of the Woods area a remnant of Lake Agassiz. The Lake of the Woods covers 3,150 square km. over northwestern Ontario. It includes an amazing 14,542 islands. Europeans are believed to arrived in this area in the late 1600's. Some believe this area was peopled from 14,000 B.C. but evidence is considered as not conclusive.
The Peet Bog People in Florida have an advanced culture where they cared for a totally handicapped 18-year-old. Fifty generations of these people resided in this area and analysis suggests they originated in South America.
The People of Ancash, Peru are cultivating lima bean (Langenaria siceraria) at this time.
Researchers in 2007 reported that evidence for the use of chili peppers date back to this time in Ecuador. Botanists if general agreed that chili peppers originated in Bolivia. Evidence for early use was also found in the Bahamas, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
The milodon, a giant sloth, became extinct in South America
Between 6,000 to 5,000 B.C. the Chinchorro in Northern Chile began mummifying their dead
Lake Agassiz that drained out to Hudson Bay leaving Lake Winnipeg to mark its passing. At its peak Lake Agassiz was 1,500 km long (930 miles), 1,100 km wide 684 miles) and 210 m deep (689 feet). The lake was originally created in 9,500 B.C. and drained down the Mississippi and/or into the Great Lakes depending on the time frame.
A burial site at L'Anse Amour in southern Labrador contains copper and slate tools as well as stone tools.
L'Anse Amour, Labrador site suggests that Maritime Archaic People (Red Paint People) have an advanced marine-based technology. These Maritime Archaic People are found as far south as Long Island, New York and to the northern tip of Labrador. They also provide us with some of the earliest burial mound building sites. Ivory was used for tools about this time.
The Chinchorro peoples occupied the northern Chilean coastal region until 500 B.C. These people used mummification and stored their dead in the Atacama Desert long before the Egyptians conceived of such a notion.
Seven miles south of Cottonwood in Grave's Creek Canyon, Idaho is a cliff recess that has had almost continuous human occupation to 1400 A.D.
The Iceman of Austria-Italian boarder has a very rare HLA-DRB1*1402 allele, which is extremely rare in Europe, but some say is common among Eskimo's and South American Indians. They speculate the Eskimo didn't confine themselves just to the Arctic regions.
In 2001 evidence in Mexico was reported for corn cultivation from sediments of this time.
The peoples of the Pacific Coastal region of Peru and Chile began the practice of mummification. The earliest example is in the Camarones Valley, 60 miles south of Arica, Peru. American mummification ritual differs from the later Egyptian ritual of 3,000 B.C. In Egypt only wealthy or important people are mummified whereas in America children, infants and fetuses are mummified along with all adults. Some experts suggest mummification in Peru may have begun 7,000 to 10,000 B.C. or even earlier. The Peruvian people believed the dead stayed among the people whereas the Egyptians believed the dead traveled far away.
Native people were traveling through the Barrens, northwest of Canada's Hudson's Bay
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act gives large portions of prime bear habitat to the Alutiiq people, who have hunted and fished on the island since this time.
Mt. Mazama in what is now Oregon blew up about this time and left what is now called Crater Lake. It is very impressive.
The People are settled in Cypress Hills between Alberta and Saskatchewan at this time. The Cypress Hills are the highest point in Canada between Labrador and the Stony Mountains. Saskatchewan is a Cree word Saskadjiwan meaning "running of the thaw" or "swift current." Elaborate burial rituals are being practiced in Canada providing indications of religious beliefs of an after life. Early natives held a conviction of the immortality of the soul, that follows, he who lives in the sky where they would feast and dance through all eternity. Mount Mazama in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon blew its top creating a six-mile wide Creator Lake.
Between 5,000 B.C. and 1,500 A.D. many Indian tribes traveled the Bow Valley region of Banff National Park. Some include The Besant people, the Shuswap, Kootenay, Blackfoot and Stony. The oldest habitation site is at Lake Minnewanka dated to 9,000 B.C. Only recently have the Besant Culture who were believed to be a prairie people been discovered to pass through the Bow Valley near Banff on a regular basis. It is noteworthy that it has not been determined when the Bow Valley in Banff was ice free.
Between 10,000 B.C. and 5,000 B.C. the Great Lakes were 200 to 300 feet lower than modern times. The lakes were not linked and the Niagara River and falls were silent and dry. They think this might have been caused by Global or Regional warming and drought. The lakes began to refill starting about this time. Oh of interest they think the Indians occupied this region and made caribou fences but they are still trying to verify this.
The Red Paint People are at Blue Hill Bay, Maine.
The spear throwing using a atlatl is being
employed on the Great Sage Plain of Colorado.
Stone axes are found in the Black Hills of Dakota.
The Olmec People of Mexico and Central America are creating sculptures from jade. Some believe they originated in West Africa.
Thunder Bay is occupied at this time. The earliest surviving petroglyphs or rock carvings are located at Mud Portage, near Lake of the woods.
The Shield Archaic People of Lake Superior are mining and making metal tools out of copper. They used fire and cold water, to break the ore into smaller pieces which was processed using stone hammers. It is estimated that between 5,000 B.C. and 1,200 B.C. that 1.5 billion pounds of copper were mined. This culture is evident until 500 B.C. They are using the bow and arrows, dugout canoes and are fishing and hunting. It is known that they had an extensive trade network. Some believe the Shield Archaic People are the ancestors of the Ojibwa, Cree and other Alkonkian speaking peoples.
Between 6,000 B.C. and 5,000 B.C. most big game species became extinct in the Americas for unknown reasons. This included the mastodon, woolly mammoth, lion, saber toothed tigers, tapir, ground sloth, bighorn bison, camel, giant armadillo and native horse.
Marine technology is evident off Venezuela with artifacts being recovered on Trinidad. Evidence also suggests the people of the Yucatan visited Cuba and Hispaniold. The Encinitas culture of California lasted until 1,000 A.D. in the San Diego area.
The People in Labrador are killing walrus up and down the sea coast. They used red ocher and buried their dead face down with a boulder on their back. This is likely to prevent animals from digging up the body.
South of Mexico City in the Valley of Tehuacan the El Reigo (irrigation) People are cultivating corn, squash, chili peppers and amaranth.
The Ute Indians are camping near Frisco, Colorado about this time.
Windover Pond, on the east coast of central Florida has been occupied from about this time. They are differed from the Paleoindian cultures that existed until about 9,000 B.C. They were buried within 48 hours of death, fetal position on their side, head facing north with tools
There are villages in western Ecuador who are involved in agriculture especially corn.
An indigenous agriculturalist in southern Peru developed the modern potato from a wild variety.
The Aymara People on the Titicaca Plateau of Bolivia/Peru at 10,000 to 15,000 feet above sea level developed over 200 varieties of potatoes. They also invented an elaborate process to make 'chuno' which could be stored for up to 4 years. It is noteworthy that the domesticated potato has 24 pairs of chromosomes whereas the wild potato has only 12 pairs. You would think it would take thousands of years to achieve this condition by selective breeding. It is also possible that the development of 200 varieties of potatoes may have taken centuries. The Aymara People or their ancestors invented the chuno, the product of a freeze drying process that allows the storage of potatoes for up to four years. It is noteworthy most writers attribute this process to the later Aztec culture in error.
Pinto Man, a Native American nomad, left arrow points in the desert basin near Twenty-Nine Palms in Southern California between 5,000 and 3,000 B.C..
In the Camarones Valley, Chile the water supply contains arsenic naturally. Forth five mummies dating from 5,000 B.C. to 1400 A.D. showed arsenic levels to make them sick.
Mount Mazama, Oregon, a 12,000 foot volcano blew its top to become Crater Lake, in southern Oregon. It released 12 cubic miles ( 50 cubic km) of magma sending rocks as far away as Saskatchewan, Canada. The People called Crater Lake the home of Llao an evil spirit so the place was avoided. Ash was deposited over a wide area including Cypress Hills (Alberta/Saskatchewan) killing the berry crop and driving the People from the Hills and they did not return for 600 years. The eruption caused about 3 years of extremely cold weather. Cypress Hills is believed to have been occupied since 9,000 B.C., maybe earlier. Others suggest it occurred 4,650 B.C. and ejected over 100 cubic km of ash into the atmosphere.
The Archaic peoples are preserving meat by turning it into pemmican a process used until the late nineteenth century. This may have been the result of the great drought that held the Prairies for the next two thousand years. The bison herds are thinned developed smaller in size and are driven north into Canada and into the forests. The Plains Archaic people followed the herds.
In two mounds in Peru between 4,500 to 2,000 B.C. shows that Peruvians liked their corn popped and ground into flour. Among the finds were starch grains, husks, kernels, stalks, tassels and cobs of species that leant themselves to popping or grinding.
The Saqqaq culture migrated from Siberia to the Canadian/American Arctic between 4,400 to 2,400 B.C. These people were independent of Native Americans and Inuit's. DNA evidence suggest their blood type was A-positive, dry earwax and a tendency to go bald.
The period from 8,000 B.C to 4,000 B.C. is a period of 'Global Warming' that is called the 'Neolithic Climatic Optimun'
It is believed the Inuk or Saqqaq culture arrived the Canadian Arctic about this time from Northern Siberia and migrated until 2,400 B.C. to Greenland. DNA studies suggest they were A-positive blood type, were dark skinned with brown eyes. The researchers are uncertain why they migrated West to East rather than North to South. They were however sea food eaters and it was a Global Warming Period.
The Desert Archaic Peoples of Utah and Arizona began to assume village like, living in pit house with a focus on agriculture.
The Shield Archaic people differentiated into the Laurentian Archaic in Southern Ontario. A copper culture is active on the south shores of Lake Superior and on the Isle Royale; they found and quarried deposits of pure metal, both sheets in rock fissures and float nuggets in the soil. They began by chipping the copper but quickly developed annealing techniques, crafting beautiful tools and ornaments that traded widely throughout the eastern region. By 1960, 13,000 copper artifacts have been discovered in Wisconsin alone. Some believe the natives manufactured millions of copper items. Ramah silica of northern Labrador is traded to Montreal through the St. Lawrence river system, into Nova Scotia and into James Bay by way of Hudson Bay.
Some suggest there is a single distinct widespread culture in the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Valley regions of Canada at this time.
Studies suggest El Nino where the normal upwelling of deep cold Pacific water is slowed causing global warming started for the first time this year. This could be the cause of the great drought in America this year.
Studies at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru suggest from 4,000 to 3,000 B.C. was the driest period in 25,000 years.
The ocean water levels are 10 meters (33 feet) below modern levels and rising from a historic low of 142 meters (466 feet) since 16,000 B.C. All evidence of ancient costal cities are under water. Confusion reigns in these measurements because lands are constantly rising and falling relative to sea levels.
Research suggests the Sioux People began migrating out of the Ohio Valley about this time. This people are the source of the word tipi. Some suggest the term Sioux should be sanitized to eastern Dakota, as some tribes tag the meaning 'snake' and 'enemy' to the name. That's like saying we shouldn't use the term American because some people tag the meaning 'ugly' as 'Ugly American' which is ridiculous. I don't attempt to be politically correct.
A great drought hit the American plains but the Canadian plains did not appear to suffer the same fate. The drought drove the Dakota and Wyoming Mummy Cave people north into Canada. Wanuskewin immediately north east of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan has been continuously occupied from this date as a wintering site. Some suggest this is the time the Iroquois migrated toward the Atlantic region.
The Head Smashed in Buffalo Jump in southern Alberta is believed to be continuously in operation until 150 A.D. The bones at the bottom of the jump are some 36 feet deep. It is one of the richest archaeological sites on the North American plains.
Some suggest the Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak People arrived Alaska and Yukon.
Genetic studies suggest southern and East Asian genes are traced to this time period in Canada, California, Central America, the West Coast of South America as well as Polynesia.
According to some genetic studies the Celts (Ireland & Wales), Armoricans (France), Berbers (Morocco) and Basques (Spain) returned from America about this time as accomplished seafarers. Others are very doubtful.
Evidence suggests the Archaic peoples of the Mississippi, Ohio, Cumberland and Tennessee river valleys are living in small towns of 100-150 people. They live in wooden post cabins that are caulked with clay and are preserving fish and meats for winter use. Some burials included red ochre and male, females and children burials include similar artifacts suggesting equal status in the tribe.
The Supe people, a maritime farming community, was established about this time along the coast of Peru.
Archeologists found ears of popcorn in the Bat Cave in New Mexico in 1948. When or where popcorn was developed is not known.
The Supe people, a maritime farming community along the coast of Peru, disappeared about this time. In 2009 researchers found their disappearance coincided with earthquakes and landslides followed by massive flooding.
Pottery fragments are discovered in Valdivia, Ecuador of a style used in Japan known as Jomon Pottery. Others suggest it was 3,000 B.C.
Artifacts of the pre-Dorset peoples
began appearing in Alaska and would spread across the Canadian north.
The Mummy Cave people from Wyoming used Head-Smashed-In buffalo jump for the first time. There are indications this site is previously used at a much earlier age. Using buffalo jumps required elaborate planning and highly coordinated execution to be successful.
Other studies show that Mayans, Incas and Auracanians are all virtually 100% group O, with 5-20% of the population being rhesus negative. This was the blood of the original Europeans, traditionally called the blood of royalty (blue blood) and stems from Cro Magnon man. The races that possess this blood are races of the Americas, the Canary Islands, the Basques, Scandinavians, Celts, as well as some Polynesians. The Rhesus positive Asians arrived in America 5,500 years ago. This would have proved disastrous, for the already decimated population of Red Heads, as a rhesus negative mother who gives birth to a rhesus positive baby develops antibodies against rhesus positive blood and is then unable to successfully have any more children without the help of modern medicine.
In 2008 a team of German and Peruvian archaeologists reported the discovery of a ceremonial plaza near Peru's north-central coast dating to this period of 3,500 to 3,000 B.C..
The people in the Tehuacan Valley, New Mexico were domesticating the dog.
Liamas were being domesticated in South America.
Maze is being cultivated in the Peru highlands but this is not considered revolutionary as agricultural practices used for many centuries before this time. Some believe that the cultivation of maze originated in the Andes before Mexico.
The beginning date of the Mayan calendar (Tzolkin) is August 11, 3114 B.C. and end date is December 21, 2012, winter solstice. Some believe the start date was 3,113 B.C. and the end date December 12, 2012. The Mayan's believed at the end date the present world age will end and a new world age will begin. Winter solstice is actually December 21. The Mayan Tzolkin calendar is believed to have been inherited from other Mesoamerican cultures. the Maya well understood a linear (past-present-future) conception of time.
Mayan writings place this year as the
beginning of their great civilization. Science
suggests the culture started 2,600 B.C. I
tend to agree with the Maya folks. Their
culture supported the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies of
the world, at this time. They had
developed writing and invented the concept of zero. Others
place the start of the Long Count calendar as August 11 or 13, 3114 B.C.
Two other calendars are the Tzolkin, a 260 day cycle that may be aligned with
the duration of human pregnancy and the Baab calendar that approximates a solar
year. The Mayan not only tracked the sun and moon but Venus as well.
In the mid-sixteenth century, Franciscan missionaries burned nearly all of the
Mayan written records, called codices, only three or four survived. The
Tzolkin a 260 day cycle is maintained to modern times by the 'Daykeepers'.
Others place the start of the Long Count calendar as August 11 or 13, 3114 B.C. Two other calendars are the Tzolkin, a 260 day cycle that may be aligned with the duration of human pregnancy and the Baab calendar that approximates a solar year. The Mayan not only tracked the sun and moon but Venus as well. In the mid-sixteenth century, Franciscan missionaries burned nearly all of the Mayan written records, called codices, only three or four survived. The Tzolkin a 260 day cycle is maintained to modern times by the 'Daykeepers'.
It is interesting that about this time there is a great uplifting that dramatically altered the Peruvian coast. Extensive flooding and famine is reported throughout the lands.
It is suspected by Earth scientists that the sun shone particularly brightly about this time. This episode is called the Altithermal, and may have contributed to the rise of the early civilizations and the destruction of others. Another similar high heat episode occurs around 1000 AD.
Scientists say that the weather changed about this time and that the first El Nino Pacific Ocean temperature flip occurred. Analysis of Peruvian coastal middens of this period indicated a diet change from tropical mollusks to cold water mollusks. The idea was first proposed in 1983 and evidence was added from Japan and Greenland. Skeptics claim that the change was due to mollusks harvested from now vanished warm water lagoons.
The Osceola mudflow from Mt. Rainier, Washington, struck. It was estimated to have been 60 times as massive as the 1985 mudflow in Columbia that killed 23,000 people.
Modern models suggest the methane levels of the planet should drop about this time but they did the opposite and began rising. Without these unpredicted rise in CO2 and methane our world would be in the grip of global cooling some 3-4 degrees Celsius below average.
A sub-Boreal period of cooler moister climate
The Chaco Canyon of New Mexico is occupied but they are living in caves.
The Desert Archaic people of Arizona are cultivating corn, beans and squash. They planted all three in the same patch, the beans climbed the corn stock. provided nitrogen and the squash provided shade to the roots in the hot desert conditions. This agricultural method originated in Mexico and Central America and spread to the four corners region of America.
The Mochican and Nazca Peoples of coastal Peru are cultivating beans.
of human habitation in the Yosemite Valley of California.
In California radiocarbon tests indicated human habitation at the San Francisco bay side foot of San Bruno Mountain back to this time.
"Bison Hunter" villages around Middle Lake in Modoc County, California., were carbon-dated to this time. I wasn't aware that bison roamed the California area, interesting.
An earthen mound at what later was known as Watson Brake, Louisiana in the US was dated to this time. Some suggest the date is closer to 3,400 B.C. but the owner will not allow public access because many mounds in the area have been destroyed by the government. The mounds were believed abandoned by 2,800 B.C. The builders did leave about 30 unidentified fired "earthen objects" that are undecorated "cuboidal, rectangular, spherical, and cylindrical" blocks forms. They said about100 complete blocks have only been found in the area of six Northeast Louisiana mound sites - in Ouachita, West Carroll, Morehouse, Lincoln, Richland and Jackson parishs..
Maize and other crops were introduced in the lowlands of what is now northern Belize, Honduras.
The use of coca in Bolivian culture can be traced back to at least this time. It is commonly called hoja sagrada, or sacred loaf.
Indians had moved to the Island of Newfoundland about this time but disappeared
by 1,200 B.C.
INDIAN HISTORY 3000 - 1001 B.C.