1000 B.C. - 999 A.D.


  INDIAN HISTORY 1000 - 1449

INDIAN HISTORY Return to INDIAN 1000 BC - 1599 AD  index




The Canadian Peoples began to settle into more recent territorial regions,
as the weather stabilizes, so also the people.

1,000 B.C.  

Great Lakes American Indians were Mackinac Island's first summer visitors. These Woodland-period (1,000 B.C. to 1650 A.D.) people paddled to Mackinac Island every summer to fish for trout, pike, sturgeon, herring, and whitefish. So plentiful were the fish at Mackinac that the native people called these waters "home of the fish".

The fertile bottom land of the Copan River valley in Western Honduras attracted agriculturists to the region about this time.

The Ojibwa are believed to have created rock carvings in Petroglyphs Provincial Park, Ontario starting about this time.   Joe Lister suggests; "Actually, the glyphs were made by the Iroquois peoples who inhabited the area long before the Ojibwe arrived.  The Ojibwe from Curve Lake Reserve help to caretake the area, and hold ceremony there, but they do not know any of the stories that the images represent.  The Iroquois, on the other hand, do know the images, and can tell the stories behind most of them.  For instance, our creation story is there, with Sky Woman birthing her twins."  I did visit the Petroglyphs and found them very interesting.  (Dick the author)

Some believe the Beothuk natives of Newfoundland originated about this time from Labrador.  They are an Alkonkian speaking people and might have been the Skraelings the Viking encountered?  The Beothuk were responsible for the People being called Red Skins.  They used red ochre mixed with fat on their exposed skin to project against insects and sunburn.  They traded the St. Lawrence area and as far south as New England.  Others contend the Beothuk are the Skaelings so named by the Viking meaning barbarians.  Its noteworthy the Viking were themselves barbarians.  The Beothuklanguage is unique with only traces of Algonquian and this could be the result of intermarrying.  Another unique feature was their lightness of skin color that separated them from conventional Indians.  Their towns consisted of lodges that held up to 20 people in the winter.  They had a different home in a different location for summer.  They used bit storage for surplus food.  They constructed deer stockades some 30 miles long.  Their manufactured canoes were unique requiring ballast in their use.  They created fire using iron pyrite. They lacked the domesticated dog and pottery.   Some of their unique attributes suggest possible earlier European contact?  They were hunted to extinction by the early 1800's

The Iroquois are believed to have penetrated as far north as the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec).  They are using pottery and are growing corn, squash and beans.  The Adena Peoples began developing pottery, practiced agriculture and lived in multifamily dwellings.  They cultivated sunflowers, pumpkin, gourds and goosefoot as food sources.  They made a wide range of stone, wood, bone and copper tools as well as pottery and cloth.  This culture radiated from the Ohio River Valley to southern Lake Ontario and Erie and they are mound builders.  The culture lasted until the year 200 B.C. and probably evolved into the Hopewell Culture.

Some contend the Chinese influenced Mexican Mayan and Aztec (meaning shallow land where vapors rise) architecture and painting.  They both have common use of jade especially in burial practices and the presence of the Asian hookworm infestations among American Peoples are most conclusive of cultural exchange.  Evidence of pottery in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan also first appeared about this time.  The Old Copper Culture of the Great Lakes appears to have disappeared about this time.   About this time the Dorset culture emerged gradually spreading across the Canadian Arctic Region onto Newfoundland.  They used the bow and arrow as well as the harpoons.

The Mystery Hill ruin in New Hampshire suggests people of the Mediterranean may have established a city in this location.  Some suggest the Phoenicians (Sea People) who traveled the Mediterranean and west African coast are responsible.  Some suggest the Celts called Iargalon established a colony in a land beyond the sunset.  They claim evidence from New England to as far west as Oklahoma and Colorado support their theory.  Some suggest the evidence suggests the Celts are from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).  They claim the Celts made frequent trips to and from America, and point to numerous artifacts in America of Celtic origin, including the Mystery Hills of New Hampshire.  European trade goods have not yet been found in America to support this claim of frequent trade.   The state Oklahoma is named from the Choctaw ford meaning the Red People.  

It is noteworthy that some Native Americans in California and the Great Basin exhibit an unusual amount of facial hair suggesting some Caucasoid genetic connection.

The oldest verified teepee ring in Alberta dates to this time.

'Indian Writing-on-Stone', Alberta is a sacred spiritual place believed by some to be used as a vision quest site.  Some suggest it is a temporary burial site including the use of totems representing their significant life deeds.  Totems are firstly used to identify bands and clans.  A woman of the Wolf clan could not marry a Wolf clansman in any tribe however far removed.  A man of say the Bear Totem from any tribe no matter how far removed is treated as family by another Bear Totem.  Honor made them duty-bound to help one another.  A second totem or name is acquired when they become older and a complete person sometime after a vision quest or major accomplishment that is usually validated at sundance or other community celebrations.

The South Carolina People are cultivating sunflowers.

It is believed the bow was introduced to the Oklahoma People about this time.

The Blackduck culture is in Northern Minnesota about this time.

Corn from Central America is introduced into the Anasazi culture along with textiles and basketry.

The early Olmec nation (1150-1000 B.C.) at Canton Corralito is washed away as the Coatan River destroyed their city.  The great Olmec Ceremonial Center, in Tabasco, Mexico, was built about this time. It continued to be used till about 600BC

It is believed the Olmec People of Central America fist harvested and processed into a drink cacao (Chocolate).  The Olmec kings are thought by some to be responsible for the invention of the ancient Mayan ballgame that often left the loser dead.

The settlement at Canton Corralito on the southern Mexico-Guatemala border covered at least 60 acres by this time and was believed to be a colony of the Gulf Olmec people.

The Atacama Desert and the Palpa Valley, Peru had vegetation, deer but about this time the climate became steadily drier turning the area into the driest place on earth.

In Peru the tomb of a Huayakuntur Indian of this time was found in Ayabaca province in 1999.

Irrigation canals were made in the Tucson, Arizona basin of the American Southwest.

A civilization in Amazonia, called Patiti or Enin by archeologists, dug channels for an elaborate crop irrigation system during the period 1000BC-1000AD

950 B.C.  

Peanuts have been traced back to this time in Brazil and Peru..

900 B.C.  

The Chavin culture dominated Peru spread throughout the central Andes to 200 B.C.  The Chavin metalworking, textile techniques and art featuring stylized animals influenced generations to come.  Chavin de Huantar is considered the womb of Andean civilization and is located 250 km north of Lima.  This culture reached its peak (400-200 B.C.) but likely started on the coast 1,900 B.C. 

Manachaqui Caves ceramics from the years 900 and 400 BC are very similar in style to those of Chorrera and Upano in certain areas of Ecuador.

The Maya site named Blackman Eddy in Belize, Honduras was occupied from this time to about 1000CE

The earliest known sauna or sweat house is unearthed in Beliza near the ancient city of Cuello believed to be built by the Maya.

The oral history of the Longhouse places the origin of the League among the Iroquois as having started about this time.

The late Olmec nation (900-500 B.C.) began about this time period.  Ojo de Agua included pyramids in Chiapas, Mexico.  Other cities included Paso de la Amada, Mazatan, Canton, Corralito and La Blanca.  Towns of 2,000 or more inhabitants are common and some exceed 6,000 people.  These People made corn beer.  

In Honduras archeologists in 1997 discovered burial caves that date to this time. A cave from the same period was discovered in 1994 near the Talgua River, known as the Cave of the Glowing Skulls. The new cave was called the Cave of the Spiders.

800 B.C.  

The indigenous culture in the Arctic is in a state of transition to a Dorset culture and by 600 B.C. the Dorset artifacts can be distinctly recognized from the pre-Dorset artifacts.  It is noteworthy the pre-Dorset people migrated from Alaska about 3,500 B.C. arriving  Greenland about 2,000 B.C.

Groswater Palaeo Eskimos are established in Newfoundland.

A wooden bird carving from the British Columbia coast survived to become the earliest known art works in B.C.

Barry Fell, a marine biologists claims a calendar stele found in Davenport, Iowa has Egyptian writing on it along with Ibero-Punic and Libyan scripts.  Others don't agree with this interpretation.. 

The weather in the southwest U.S.A. stabilized into its current modern state.  

It is believed the turkey was first domesticated in Mexico about this time.  This differs from the north-eastern turkey believed domesticated about 200 B.C. by the Anasazi.  DNA analysis suggest the Mexican and Anasazi turkey are from a different lineage.

The Mayan city of Takalik Abaj, in later day Guatemala, served as one of the most important economic and cultural centers of pre-Columbian times between 800BC-200AD .

A catastrophic flood destroyed  complex canal system, operated between 1,200 to 800 B.C. on the outskirts of Tucon, Aiizona built and maintained by the San Pedro People likely ancestors of the Hohokham People.  The irrigated field was about 60 to 100 acres and likely supported 80 to 150 people with maize, amaranth, beans and squash.  The San Pedro People abandoned the area. 

The Manachaqui Cave of Northeastern Peru are still being used by Andean People.

Zazacatla in central Mexico covered less than one square mile between during this period of 800BC-500BC . Inhabitants of Zazacatla adopted Olmec styles when they changed from a simple, egalitarian society to a more complex, hierarchical one. Much of it was later covered by housing and commercial development extending from Cuernavaca.

One research team believes between 800 to 950 AD rainfall dropped 25-40% and is believed to have contributed to the decline of the Mayan Empire.

750 B.C.  

The period from 750 B.C. to about 150 B.C. witnessed global warming

700 B.C.  

The earliest Maya glyphs are found at San Mogote, Mexico

The Maya in Mexico labeled flasks with its contents such as tobacco and tests proved it once contained nicotine.  The flask was only two inches tall so it must have been only used for special occasions.

The Lost Tribes of Israel theory originated about this time and much time and effort has been expended to prove that the Peoples of America are this lost tribe without much success.  

Bright, multicolored cave paintings at Juxtlahuaca and Oxtotitlan, Mexico are some of the most sophisticated for this time period.

The Temple Mound Culture at Cahokia on the Mississippi River flourished from about this time  until 1400 A.D.

600 B.C.  

The Olmecs of Mexico (1,200 to 300 B.C.) created the first known writings in America.  It was always assumed writing started much later.  The great Olmec Ceremonial Center in Tabasco, Mexico, was abandoned about this time.

The Zapotec city of Monte Alban was founded in the Oaxaca valley, of southern Mexico.

Turquoise was first mined in the American southwest about this time and began to show up in Mesoamerica as trade items.

The Maya culture emerged about this time in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.  They were using the Cenotes (underground caves) for religious rituals.  They believed Chac, the sustainer of life and the God of Rain, lived deep in the Cenotes that they called Dzonot or the abyss.

From about this time the Maya gradually sculpted the land to channel water to a growing population.  Analysis of pottery from this time indicated that Mayans made cocoa drinks as early as this time.

The Paracas culture existed 600 B.C. to 100 B.C. and is believed responsible for creating 50 huge figures in the hills near Palpa, Ei, Peru.  The scrapings include drawings of animals, birds, monkeys and people and cover 145 sq kilometers.

Cerro Baul on 2,600 foot mountain is believed to be a sacred place of the Wari Empire of Peru from 600-200 A.D. some called them the Huarpa People originally from Ayacucho of central Peru, and is located at the southern frontier of a state that stretched 800 miles to the north.  Hundreds of people are believed to have lived at this site.  Some first believed these were Inca ruins, others that of the Tiwanaku, a culture whose state centered around Lake Titicaca with boarders just a few miles from Cerro Baul.  Pikillacta a town near Cuzco contained row after row of perfectly square rooms streach over nearly 500 acres, all contained within a wall 40 feet high.

It has taken 25 years to map Caracal in western Belize during 600 BC to 900 AD contained about 115,000 inhabitants.  New technology was required so space-based imaging tools were employed, but they couldn't see through vegetation.  A new technology was developed (2010) called LiDAR (Light Dectection and Ranging) that can be employed from a aircraft instead of space.  In just a few days of flyovers and 3 weeks of processing yielded a far superior picture of Caracal than 25 years of ground mapping.  It uses billions of laser pulses.  It can detect features less than a foot high.  

The Mormon religion believes an Israelite named Lehi arrived America and were the ancestors of the Incas, Aztecs, Mayans and American Indians, but few historians give this any credibility. 

The Dorset culture is firmly delineated being neither Eskimo nor American-Indian in nature.  It is believed however they delineated from the same peoples as the Eskimo, the Thule.  Dorset sites include Port au Choix, Newfoundland and Baffin Island.  The Dorset culture existed in the Canadian far north about 500 B.C. to 1300 A,D. but was considered extinct by 1500 A.D..  However some decedents survived to 1902-1903 in Hudson Bay as verified by DNA.  It is believed they became extinct because they could not cope with Global Warming which started about 800 A.D.  The Dorset culture lacked the bow and arrow or the drill.

Santa Cruz Bend, Arizona contains 200 pit structures dated to this time and confirms they were raising maize. 

500 B.C.  

Monumental ceremonial centers on the Peruvian coast were abandoned about this time. The period was later found to correspond with an increase in El Nino frequency,

Copper concentrations in the Greenland ice core indicate that twice the normal level was produced at this time.  It is noteworthy that brass, a copper alloyed with zinc, was made throughout Europe at this time.

Bawating (Sault Ste Marie) is occupied about this time by the Laural pottery culture. They occupied the Lake Superior area for the next one thousand years (until 500 A.D.).  Some contend that these are the Algonkian Peoples. Others suggest the Terminal Woodland People believed to be the Algonkian People didn't arrive until 900 A.D.

Tobacco is being grown in the Great Lakes area.  Elaborate burial rituals are being employed, including the building of burial mounds, in the St. Lawrence valley.  There is however a sudden worsening of conditions in northern Canada weather after the long warming trend that began before 3,000 B.C.  

Evidence suggests the natives of Manitoba, Wisconsin and Minnesota are not only processing wild rice but also sowed it.  There is some indication that the Prairie The People's Sundance Ceremony may have started about this time near Medicine Hat, Alberta.

Near Sherbrooke, Quebec is found in the early 1700's a limestone inscription dating to this period.  It is believed Libyan reading "Thus far our expedition traveled in service of our revered Lord Hiram to conquer land" and "This is the record of Hanta who attained the great river and left these words cut on stone."
The Chinchorro culture that occupied the northern Chilean coastal region since 5,500 B.C. disappeared about this time.

The Thunder Bay People are trading to the Atlantic Ocean.

Pottery first appeared on the upper Mississippi River.

Some believe a skeletal remains and step pyramids and carvings resembling Egyptian culture suggests an African influence in central America.

Zapotec capital pf Monte Alban, Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico was built 500 BC to 759 AD.  The main plaza was built 450 AD but is atop an older structure.

Baja California contains skulls more closely associated with south Asia and this culture existed until 1700.  Both the Pima and Maya cultures have genetic links to South Asia.  The Noanama/wanana, Choco, Columbia are closely linked to Japan. 

The Birnirk culture people are believed to have occupied northern Alaska from 500 B.C. to 1,000 A.D.

The Proto-Anasazi, in the Four Corners region, are believed to have started the cultivation of maize (flint corn), and squash.  Basket making was also evident about this time.  It is believed these small roaming bands likely had a summer and winter home like most peoples of America.  

A duck decoy was found in Northern Nevada  

The Paracas culture preceded the Nasca culture of the Atacama Desert and the Palpa Valley, Peru

The El Pilar Maya site in Belize, Honduras was founded about this time.

A Tequesta burial site, discovered in Florida in 1998 and known as the Miami Circle, dated to this time period 500BC-500AD.

The Catalina Island (California) which is located 22 miles from the main land was home to the Gabriel people.  It`s likely these people were a sea going culture.

490 B.C.  

A Sicilian coin from Syracuse on the Island of Sicily was discovered in a field near Phenix City, Alabama.

450 B.C.  

Studies at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru suggest from 450 to 250 B.C. was a dry period.

400 B.C.  

Dorset sites are well established in Labrador and Newfoundland.  They built large communal dwellings, covered by skins, some are sized, 19 feet by 128 feet, and they also produced art objects.  It is believed they are using dog sleds for transportation and are abandoning the bow and arrow.  Small oil lamps are being used.  The Boreal Archaic the precursor of the Beothuk culture occupied Newfoundland about this time.  It is noteworthy that there is no evidence to suggest the Dorset, Boreal Archaic or the Beothuk engaged in any war like activity.

Central America is using balsa rafts between 400 to 300 B.C. and they are Caucasian having red and blonde wavy hair.

The city of Tamtoc in northeastern Mexico is established about this time being 12-story dirt mounds built by poling dirt atop small natural hills.  It is still unknown which culture built this city.  A 26-ton stone was hauled and or floated 20 miles down river before being carved.  Some believe it represents female fertility and renewal.  The Tamtoc had an advanced culture of art, transportation, canal and lagoon technology.  They appear to have been a small community that vanished.  

Nasca culture of Peru 400 B.C. to 600 A.D. created the Nasca lines in the Atacama Desert of monkey, spider hummingbird and whale geoglyphs each about 150 feet long.  Further north in the Palpa Valley are arrow strait trapezoids resembling runways.  These art works are essentially invisible from ground level.  By 600 AD the Atacama Desert and the Palpa Valley, Peru became so dry it couldn't support a population.  The lines are well worn and believed to represent ceremonies to a return to more water.

Located two hours drive north of Copan in Guatemala's Motagua River Valley is Quirigua (400-850).  The ruler of Copan's king Waxaklajuun Ubaah K'awaii went to war against Quirigua who won a resounding victory and the losing king was decapitated.  Quirigua has 22 monuments the largest carved by the Maya.  Some as tall as 35 feet.  Some claim the Peruvian Coast was free of war, where art and social welfare prevailed, they did not possess any weapons.  If this is true then inland war was likely the result of limited resources?

In northern Peru Chankillo temple fortress is built consisting of three concentric walls totaling more than a mile in length, some 30 feet high and 20 feet thick.  The place has no source of water or place to store food during a siege.  Five gates were located in the outer wall and four in the next two walls and they were constructed fore ease of entry.  The temple to the sun is believed built between 400-200 B.C.  Little is known about the people who built Chankillo.   About 100 miles to the south is another fortress, Acaray, also with concentric wall but this one is built on three hills for better defense.  During this period forts were being built all over the region.  

350 B.C.  

First evidence of humans in southwest Colorado: corn pollen. Nomadic hunter-gatherers planted crops in the spring, then left to forage and hunt over the summer, returning in the fall to harvest and seek shelter in caves for the winter. They made baskets of yucca fibers, sometimes waterproofed with pitch from piñon pine.

The Chavin civilization had a settlement at this time on the north-western coast of Peru. The elite of this civilization tracked the movement of the sun throughout the year.

330 B.C.  

Pytheas a Phoenician (Greek) explorer sail the Atlantic to a land called Thule beyond Britain.  It is noteworthy they had the technology to achieve this voyage but hard proof is lacking. 

300 B.C.  

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), a Greek philosopher, said it was possible to cross from Spain to the Indies.  This belief was verified by the work of Eratosthenes, a Libyan mathematician, in 231 B.C.  This belief would later drive men to attempt discover of the North West Passage.

The Hopewell culture began replacing the Adena culture south of the Great Lakes.  They are also mound builders who established a far-flung trading empire from the Stony Mountains to the Atlantic and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and Florida.  At Hopewell sites have been found obsidian from the Black Hills and the Stony Mountains, copper from the Great Lakes, shells from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, mica from the Appalachians, silver from Canada and alligator skulls and teeth from Florida.  The Hopewell culture lasted until 700 A.D.  The Hopewell achieved an agricultural population level that exceeds twentieth century agricultural levels.

The first mound builders at the place of the Long Rapids (Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung) Manitou Rapids, Michigan presently called Rainy River First Nation, are known as the Laural Culture.  They inhabited this region from 300 B.C. to 1100 A.D.  This Archaic Culture were the first residents but are believed not to have built the mounds.  Some say they were only active until 150 A.D.

Diomede Island between Siberia and Alaska contains a native population and includes trade items from China and Russia lending support to the continuous migration theory between America and Asia.

Celtic-style carvings and ruins are discovered in New England, Colorado, Vermont, New Hampshire and eastern Tennessee that included writings in the Ogam alphabet.

Maize (corn) first appeared in the Ohio Valley this year and isn’t a popular crop.

Santa Cruz Bend contains 200 pit structures dating about this time.

The oldest solar observatory called the Towers of Chankillo is located in coastal Peru.

In China an emperor dispatched the sailor Hsu Fu to search the Pacific Ocean for the "drug of immortality." He came back empty-handed after the first trip and set out again never to return.  It is believed to have been between 300-200 B.C.

250 B.C.  

Trade items suggest ocean travel between Mexico and Peru.k

Studies at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru suggest from 250 B.C. to 100 A.D. was a wet period.

231 B.C.  

Eratosthenes, a Libyan mathematician accurately calculated the circumference of the world.  He reasoned it was possible to sail west to India.  As a result, it is believed Maui and Rata sailed to America exploring California, New Mexico, Texas, Iowa and Nevada.  They eventually pressed on to Polynesian Islands where they settled among the People, according to legend. 

218 B.C.  

In China an emperor Qin Shihuang (259-206 B.C.) (some say Chhin Shih Huang Ti) heard tails of a magic land across the Pacific Ocean to the east.  So he dispatched the sailor Hsu Fu (Shantung) to search the Pacific Ocean for the "drug of immortality." He came back empty-handed after the first trip.  He said the people wanted virgins and young workmen for the drugs of immortality.  This time about 210 B.C. the emperor sent 3,000 young women and men in a huge flotilla of ships, set out again never to return.  Some scholars are convinced that these ancient voyagers landed on the western shores of Central America.  It was said Hsu Fu became like a king in a land of plains and great lakes.  Others believe they landed in British Columbia.

200 B.C.  

The early Paleoeskimos (Dorset People) of Newfoundland disappeared from this region about this time or evolved into a new Dorset Eskimo People.  The Dorset Eskimo People apparently occupied Labrador and Newfoundland until 1200 A.D.

Peru's royal tombs (200 B.C. to 1,450 A.D.) are being robbed into the 21st. century as these tombs are discovered.

The Chavin culture in Peru is replaced by the Nazca and Moche cultures that lasted to 600 A.D.  The Moche culture is believed to have practiced human sacrifice, built pyramids and irrigation canals.  It is believed that much of the Maya tradition originated from these peoples.

In Mexico migrations began toward the area north of Lake Texcoco where the urban center of Teotihuacan developed.

The Tinanaku (Tiahuanaco) culture is believed to have started 10 miles south of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia having evolved from the Pucara culture.  Some consider the Tiwanaku culture of Bolivia on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca 200 B.C. to 200 A.D. as the proto-Huari culture 500-950 A.D. which became the Wari culture of Peru.

The City of Teotihuacan began about this time and the culture flourished 200 B.C. to 650 A.D. in the Mexico City Valley.

Maize is grown in the Illinois Valley this year.

It is believed the turkey was first domesticated in Mexico about 800 B.C.  It was thought the Anasazi got their turkies from Mexico.    The Mexican turkey differs from the north-eastern turkey believed domesticated about 200 B.C. by the Anasazi.  DNA analysis suggest the Mexican and Anasazi turkey are from a different lineage.

Thirteen towers on a hill in Peru, 400 kilometers north of Lima, is an observatory and calendar.  They were accurate within a few days.

The stones of Ica, Peru have the archeological community divided as to their age or a modern hoax.  There are over 15,000 stones with pictures of man and dinosaurs, a man riding what appears to be a horse, and another an astronomer.  The stones were recovered not far from the Inca and Nasca Valleys that contain the lines and drawings of Peru that are believed to date to this period.  

The Hohokah People existed from 200 BC to 1450 AD   They are believed to have originated in Mexico and were highly skilled irrigation system builders to support their agricultural way of life. They were in the Tucson area of Arizona by 100 AD.  

The Maya Classical period (200-900) always assumed the Maya sustained themselves on corn, beans and squash.  But this combination could not sustain the estimated 300 people per square mile and 15 structures (houses) per acre revealing bustling towns and thickly settled farmlands.  There was just not enough land to grow enough corn.  Corn just can't support the population densities that archaeologists were finding.  Manioc also known as cassava or as the Spanish called yucca was the staple crop.  It will grow almost anywhere and produce about 6 times more calories than corn under the same conditions.

El Mirador in northern Guatemala a wall of a channel funnel rainwater into a reservoir contains one of the earliest depictions of the Maya creation story, the Popol Vuh.  Every roof and plaza in the city was designed to guide rainwater into the reservoirs.  This area receives little rain from January to May. 

190 B.C.  

In the US state of New Mexico a volcanic lava flow occurred at the 114,000 acre El Malpais National Monument and covered wood that was later dated to this time.

175 B.C.  

A bronze Syria coin of Antiochus IV was found in Cass County, Illinois and was minted 175 to 164 B.C..

150 B.C.  

In 2005 archaeologists at the San Bartolo site in Guatemala led by Guatemalan Monica Pellecer Alecio found the oldest known Maya royal burial, from around 150 BC. Excavating beneath a small pyramid, that team found a burial complex that included ceramic vessels and the bones of a man, with a jade plaque, the symbol of Maya royalty, on his chest.

During the time of the Roman Empire (150 B.C.- 300 AD), cooling began that lasted until about 900 AD. At its height, this cooling caused the Nile River (829 AD) and the Black Sea (800-801 AD) to freeze.

100 B.C.  

Agriculture is significant along the Mississippi River system.  About this time the Teotihuacan culture began evolving into the Toltecs by 1,000 A.D. and then into the Aztec culture.  The Aztec obtained their doctrine of the One Supreme God from their Teotihuacan ancestors.  God is the master of the Everywhere, who is like the night and the wind.  He is Mother of the gods, Father of the gods, the Supreme God.  The Toltecs of Mexico who trade into New Mexico and Arizona are so rich that their foodstuffs are not valued.  In their homes nothing is lacking, no one is ever sorrowful or poor.  The ears of corn are as long and as thick as the pestle of the grinding stone.  Their cotton garments are in diverse colors, red, yellow, pink, white, purple and green.  Their palaces are oriented toward the four points of the universe.  Only one God did they have at this time.

The Hopewell Mounds of Ohio were erected by a mound building culture of this period (100 B.C. to 500 A.D.) that dominated the eastern US

The Anasazi or Ancient Ones began their four corners culture in Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico corners.  This cultural center lasted until 1,300 A.D.

The Hopewell Culture built a 3,000 acres of mounds near Newark, Ohio, part temples, part astronomical observatory and part cemetery during the period of 100 B.C. to 500 A.D. 

Some suggest the Mogolion culture dates to this period and originated from the Cochise culture (6,000-100 B.C.) [maybe even 10,00 B.C. or earlier] of Arizona.  They are believed to have been absorbed into the Anasazi culture by 900 A.D.  It is believed that this merged culture contributed to the cultural background of the Hopi, Zuni and Acoma People.  

The Moche Mochica or Proto-Chimu and Nasca culture (100 B.C.-800 A.D.) flourished in Peru building magnificent cities, underground aqueducts and irrigation canals to support intensive agriculture.  Their artisans created some of the greatest masterpieces of Andean art and pioneered metalworking techniques even the Inca would later envy.  Their roads would survive until the Inca empire.  Their waterways, some as long as 115 km survive to modern times.  Their Huaca del Sol (Temple of the Sun) contains 130 million adobe bricks and covers 5 hectares of land.  It is believed 10,000 people lived in the pyramid complex at Pamoa Grande, while at Chepen, overlooking the Pacific, stone ramparts and an estimated 750 sentry posts guard a single Moche fortress.

In 2005 archaeologist William Saturno said he was awe-struck when he uncovered a Maya painted mural not seen for nearly two millennia. Discovered at the San Bartolo site in Guatemala, the mural covers the west wall of a room attached to a pyramid.

From 100 B.C. to 900 A.D. the Maya used  the Naj Tunich cave in Guatemala.  To the Maya a cave is a portal to the underworld that the Maya call Xibalba, the dwelling place of supernatural beings and the source of life-giving rain and corn, and the home of the beloved dead.

The area around Palenque (Mexico) was 1st occupied.

50 B.C.  

Some believe the Beothuk or proto-Beothuk appeared in Newfoundland about this time.  Some suggest the Skraeling may be the ancestors of the Beothuk.  Some consider that the Beothuk are related to the Algonkian  as are the L'nu'k (Micmac) and Montagnais. 

The Nazca culture of Peru flourished 50 B.C. to 600 A.D.

40 B.C.  

Basant pottery is uncovered at the Garratt site near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan.

8 B.C.  

The Sulawesi Island, Indonesian has a complicated process of making bark-cloth that is identical to the Mexican method.  Even more interesting, the Sulawesi method is not as similar to the Java and Borneo bark-cloth method.  It would appear the Sulawesi had sailed east to America taking their cloth making methods with them.

5 B.C.  

This year is the coldest year in the northern region since 3,000 B.C. obviously slowing agricultural development.

4 B.C.  

The Mayan calendar appears to be highly influenced by Taxila, Pakistan.  Taxila is a great center of learning that included scholar from both China and Egypt.  The Taxila scholars knew that the world is round but did not know the circumference.  This would be a compelling reason to find out for themselves and that would imply a return voyage to America.  The Mayan calendar is a better system for measuring time than any Eurasian calendar because they eliminated the need to keep the moon and sun in step, a brilliant idea for this time.  The Mayan culture used mathematics to understand and explain their history.  Both the Mayan and Chinese considered inner continuity as an important principle of civilization.  They also believed that if we make an enemy of the earth, we make an enemy of our own body.  This fundamentally important belief is not part of the European tradition and is probably the basis for the Asians believing the Europeans as being an uncivilized people.

1 A.D.  

Wheeled toys found in a Mayan site and tripod vessels found in Mexico lead some to believe they are of Chinese origin.  The climate in South America cooled driving the people from the Andes because the crops failed.  Many would not return until the weather improved in 1200 A.D.

The Mayan city of La Milpa was founded

The Maya at Takalik Abaj are using pom (a copal incense) as offerings to the heavens above.

Nazca, Peru. The Owl Man was dug out of a dry hillside with one arm pointing to the sky and the other to earth.

A Native Indian People later known as the Cherokee, lived in the area of the Southern Appalachians who had probably split from the Iroquois about this time.

The cliff-dwelling Anasazi flourished in the Four corners area of the American Southwest from 1-1250 AD.

Cave Paintings of Baha California were made on rock surfaces in the central mountain ranges of the Baha Peninsula by unknown native Indians during the period 1 - 1500

Beni, a Bolivian Province the size of Illinois contains 30,000 square miles of man made forest mounds surrounded by raised fields and linked by causeways that was constructed by a complex, sophisticated and populous culture. 

The cold weather drove the proto-Maliseet and L'nu'k ( Micmac) Peoples of Passamaquoddy Bay (New Brunswick) to build semi-subterranean houses.  It is noteworthy that technology is basically driven by need rather than some other cultural reason.  The practiced slash and burn agricultural techniques to keep their fields free from vegetation and built zigzagging earthen fish weirs between the causeways.

The Besant people brought their pottery to the Prairies probably from the east.   It is believed the proto-Iroquois from the Ohio Valley are penetrating into the Great Lakes region.  An Algonkian village occupies the future Quebec City site.  The Rainy River burial mounds built by the Laurel and Blackduck peoples contain clay pots.

The Kunghit, Haida occupied Anthony Island, southerly Queen Charlotte Island, B.C. until the late 1800's being decimated by small pox.

Red Lake, Ontario is inhibited based on artifacts discovered and dated to this period. 

The Mi'kmaq People are believed to be living on Prince Edward Island from this date vs. only using the Island as a seasonal location.

The Arawak (Caiquetio) People migrated from South America to Aruba Island off the coast of Venezuela.  It was reported they had a strong culture as depicted in their cave drawings, petroglyphs and artifacts.

During the period of 1 A.D. to 250 A.D. is the great pyramid building period of the Teotihuacan Culture of Mexico.  They built the third largest pyramid in the world and by 400 A.D. the sixth largest city in the world.  Little is known of these people.

It is believed goggles were being used by the Eskimo about this time.

The People of Nevada are using duck decoys, made of feathers and reeds, to lure ducks for the hunters.  The use of duck decoys existed from 500 B.C. or earlier

The Canyon of the Ancients, in south west Colorado has been occupied from 1 to 1300 A.D.

About 1 to 1250 A.D the Freemont People occupied the eastern Great Basin of Utah.  They were similar to but distinct from the Anasazi..  

From about 1 AD to 1550 AD in the Amazon River basin of South America existed huge populations, so reported the lost Spanish conquistadors.  Massive amounts of land were under cultivation with massive irrigation systems and cities.  Some estimate the population exceeded 50 million people, others naturally disagree.  The debate and research goes on.

63  A Syria coin from Antioch with a profile of Nero is discovered near Heavener, Oklahoma.


The Huari and Tiahuanaco culture dominated Peru until about 1,000.  Others say that between 100 to 800 A.D. the Moche culture occupied lands north of Lima, Peru along the coast line.  They built pyramids, massive irrigation canals, places and temples.  Art historians call the Moche culture the Greeks of the New World for their realistic portrayals.  They were skilled in metallurgy and ceramics.

The Moche People lived in the Lambayeque Valley of Peru (100-700).  They raised avocadoes, peppers, potatoes, corn, peanuts, beans, manioc and squash.  They ate deer, Ilamas and guinea pigs and fish from the Pacific Ocean.  They domesticated muscovy duck, guinea pigs, and hairless dogs.  They raised crayfish in irrigation ditches.  They built structures 200 feet high with platforms of 4,000 square feet.  It is estimated that 10,000 Moche lived at Pampa Grande.  They had elaborate burial rituals, using cotton cloth to wrap the body.  They built adobe pyramids and platforms but not specifically as burial chambers but more for religious rituals.  They were forced to build irrigation canals due to the low rain fall in the region.  The Moche were mariners voyaged miles from land in tiny reed bundles lashed together like pontoons called caballitos.  The Moche had pottery for every need.  Gold, silver and copper was in common use.  Some artifacts contained two pounds of gold.  They made nearly microscopic turquoise beads that baffled Archaeologists.  The holes were the size of a modern needle and smaller.

A group of agricultural Indians (today called the Moche) inhabit the desert margin between the Andes and the Pacific in what is today called Peru during the period 100-700 . They raised huge monuments of sun baked mud where they laid their dead with fine gold and pottery. They irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and peanuts. The ate llamas and guinea pigs and caught fish in the Pacific. [2nd source dated the Moche from 0-800] The Nasca [Nazca] Indians also inhabited this area about this time.

The oldest intact Maya mural ever found is uncovered at San Bartolo, Guatemala.

Time period of the Anasazi culture of northern Arizona, New Mexico, southern Utah and Colorado was 100-1300.

It is noteworthy that the European/Asian domesticated dog was introduced into America about this time and some believe that there are no known dogs being descendent from wolves.  This is most likely an inaccurate conclusion.  The argument is that they were most likely imported from Asia as there is no mention of dogs in the Viking accounts.

Studies at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru suggest from 100 to 300 A.D. was a dry period.

Archeologists in 1998 uncovered evidence of a pre-Columbian civilization from under the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan that was dated to this time of (100-150).  The skeleton of a man was found by a team led by Saburo Sugiyama. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was "Where Men Become Gods" or "The City of Gods." Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650.


The Serpent Mound situated on a bluff overlooking Rice Lake near Peterborough, Ontario was used as a burial ground until 302.


The Temple of Quetzalcoatl in Teotihuacan (City of the Gods) was built (150-200) near what later became Mexico City. Quetzalcoatl was considered as the origin of all human activities on earth, the creator of land and time and its divisions.


Between 250 and 450 a major expansion occurred at Teotihucan, Mexico that included 2,000 houses and apartments supporting a population that would grow to 200,000 people.  The original city name is not known but the Maya called it Puh (The Place of Reeds)

Naahtan, Guatemala the discovery of a Queen or patron deity suggests equality of the sexes.


A Roman terra cotta a few centimeters tall that was made about 200 A.D. was lost in the Toluca Valley of Mexico some time before 1500 A.D.

The bow and arrow arrived on the Great Prairies with the Avonlea people and some believe the technology appears to have originated in the Fraser Canyon, British Columbia.  Some speculate it had previously reached the western Arctic from Asia about 2,000 B.C.  The popularity of the bow and arrow and the wide spread trading patterns does not support the Asian theory.  The Avonlea and Besant people appeared to peacefully coexist on the Great Prairies.  The Avonlea people used the buffalo jump called Gull Lake between Cypress and the Great Sand Hills of Saskatchewan.  They also ranged into British Columbia and central Alberta.

Pachacamac near Lima, Peru was settled about this time and was occupied until 1470.  It was a great religious center where over 80,000 persons were buried.

Chachapoya Culture in Northern Peru aka 'Warriors of the Clouds' existed 200 A.D. or earlier to 1475 A.D.  Others suggest it started 800 A.D. yet others suggest about 1,550 B.C.  The Chachapoya were the tallest, fair haired, whitest skinned, people of Peru and the Andean Region of South America.  It was said their wives were so beautiful and because of their gentleness, many were taken to be the Incas wives and taken to the Sun Temple after their conquest in 1475 by Tupac Inca Yupangi.  Their cultural artifacts don't resemble Amazon cultural traditions.  Some suggest the analysis of their mummified remains suggest an European origin.

The original Polynesians arrived at Hawaii probably from the Marquesas between 200-300. They brought with them edible plants and animals.

The Fremont people lived in Utah and etched into rock designs of animals and people during 200-1215

The Hohokam people lived in the area of Tucson, Arizona 200-1450.

Some redwood trees date to this time and stand over 370 feet tall and weighs 1.6 million lbs.  in NW California, they are the tallest but not the biggest. The Sequoia is much larger but only 311 feet tall buts weights at 2.7 million lbs and dates to 2,200 B.C.


Maya cities (A.D. 250 to 900) are being stripped of stelae and carved stone relief's, in the 21st. century just as we are learning to read their glyphs.  During this time about a hundred thousand Mayans lived in the area of Tikal (meaning "the place where spirit voices are heard"). It was abandoned after some 15 hundred years of continuous habitation.


The Indians are working copper mines in Minnesota .


The Serpent Mounds near Peterborough, Ontario are completed on the shore of Rice Lake.  Skeletons and implements suggest a Hopewellian culture.  Hopewell culture is similar to the Adena culture and probably developed from the latter.

The Maya culture developed a sound-picture writing system.  Of interest the Chinese has a history of over 3,500 years of sound-picture writing.  Japan in the third century B.C. also adopted the Chinese system.

The Anasazi People occupied the Mesa Verde 300 to 1300 A.D.  Mesa Verde is located near Mancos and Cortez, Colorado.

During this period 300-1300 the Anasazis inhabited the Canyon de Chelly and the Canyon del Muerto in northeast Arizona.

The Mayan city of Cancuen was already established by this time. Ruins of the city were discovered in 1999 in Guatemala.

Mayans began building on Cozumel Island off Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula about this time. The town of San Gervasio was built and inhabited through 1650. Cozumel covers 189 square miles, about the size of Lake Tahoe.


The Navajo People are believed to have inhabitant the Canynon De Chelly near Chinle, Arizona.


Sandstone heads are being made from 350 to 1,000 A.D. in Wisconsin leading some to believe the People are practicing a form of ancestral worship.


The Penny Ice Cap on Baffin Island, Canada is 50% depleted a phenomena not repeated until 2008.

Teotihuacan, Mexico (Nahuatl or City of the Gods, aka Birth Place of the Gods) also known as Puh (The Place of the Reeds) has 200,000 inhabitants making it the sixth largest city in the world.  This sacred city contains the third largest pyramid in the world called the pyramid of the Sun.  Some suggest it is first by volume.

The Fremont People occupied Utah 400 AD to 1350 AD.  This culture was influenced by the Anasazi culture but was not an integral part of that culture.  Some believe they both are descendents of the Desert Archaic People who occupied Utah since 8,000 B.C.  It is noteworthy that Fremont artifacts are mostly found in Utah but can be found in Colorado, Wyoming, Nevada and Idaho.  It is not know if the Fremont occupied these areas or the artifact represents trade items.  It is believed the Freemont vacated the area because of drought.

Yax K’uk Mo (Blue-Green Quetzal Macaw) (400-500) was the 5th century founder of Copan in Honduras, although the site was occupied from early preclassic to late classic times.


Kinich Yax K’uk Mo’ founded Maya city of Copan in what is now western Honduras.  He built a temple called Rosalida but it was built over in 700 with temple Oropedola


A great Mayan dynasty arose at Otolum aka Palenque in South Mexico and soon began trading with communities hundreds of miles away.


The Javanese book of Kings records that Krakatao erupted this year. It is believed responsible for the global climate changes of 535-536.  These years were one of the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of global cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2,000 years.  A failure of bread from the years 536-539 AD.  A dense, dry fog" in the Mideast, China, and Europe.  Drought in Peru, which affected the Moche culture


November 30:  A glyph in Copan [in later Honduras] records this date and mentions the 1st and 2nd rulers of the city-state


Irish missionaries landed New Hampshire (440-461) and left a Keltic petroglyphs, others suggest is was more likely (468-483).


During the period of 450 to 700 the Wari civilization occupied Huaca Pucllana (Lima Peru).  It includes a seven tiered , 82 foot high Great Pyramid maybe built by the Lima?  They found finely woven textiles, silver and gold artifacts.  

In Peru a tattooed Moche woman was entombed about this time, at a site later called El Brujo, with a sacrificed teenage slave and a collection of weapons and jewelry. In 2006 her mummy was discovered in a pyramid called Huaca Cao Viejo.


February 4:  The Mayan city of Tikal has a monolith in hieroglyphics that reports an inferior conjunction of Venus".


DNA from bone marrow of 1,500 year old mummies found in northern Chile was analyzed. The results show that a virus associated with adult T-cell leukemia was prevalent in native Andeans and in a small section of people from southwest Japan. The study also theorizes that the virus may have originated from paleo-Mongoloids who migrated to Japan and South America more than 10,000 years ago (8,000 B.C.).

Stress which causes high levels of cortisol in hair suggests some Peruvian suffered from stress in their lives.

An El Nino spelled doom for the society, Nazca people,  famous for Peru's massive geoglyphs.  A pollen and floral and sediments suggest the plant life changed from trees to maize then weeds.  The trees mitigated flood damage and replenish aquifers

Northern weather begins to improve and the people of Punuk regularly hunted whales on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Whaling is also common at point Barron.  The bow and arrow are widely used in America generally replacing the atlatl (spear-thrower) and is speculated by some to have originated in the northern regions.

The Dorset People abandoned Newfoundland heading northward and the southern Peoples began to occupy the region including southern Labrador.

A gathering of over 100 Besant People is recorded at Ross Creek at the southern edge of Medicine Hat Alberta.

The Tiwanaku and Wari culture (500-1100) flourished in Peru growing cotton, potatoes, corn and coca in raised beds.  The Wari culture started 600 and eventually exceeded Tiwanaki in size.  Roads were built for trading and for distant mines.  Administrative centers were connected to cities and military outposts.  The Chimu culture spread north and south from the Moche valley.  Chan Chan, Peru the Chimu capital was the worlds largest adobe city.   The Tiwanaku or Huari culture of Bolivia on the southern shore of Lake Titicaca which is usually dated 500-950 A.D. spread to Peru 700-1000 A.D.

The Chalchihuites of Mexico are mining azurite, malachite and amazonite digging underground mine shafts up to two miles long.

Some time prior to this date the Freemont People occupied central and southern Utah and were growing corn, beans and squash.

The growing of corn is evident in the Great Sage Plain, southern Colorado.  The Anasazi had discovered that agriculture was most successful at the 6,000 to 7,000 thousand foot level above sea level.  It is noteworthy that the Inca of Peru developed a corn that grew at the 8,000 foot level.

The Canyon of the Ancients has over 6000 sites in 100 square miles being built between 500 to 1300 in south west Colorado.

The Tiwanaku culture (500-1100) are at Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru.

The northern California Emeryville Shellmound,  dates to about this time. It is believed the Ohlone people occupied this bay until the 1500's and consumed clams, mussels, oysters, cockleshells as well as animal remains.  These could be the ancestors of the Great Lake Ojibwa as they are believed to have originated in California.

By this time the Chalchihuites culture (New Mexico) engaged in extensive turquoise mining and exporting raw turquoise to West Mexican centers like Alta Vista.

The Manteno people inhabited the area of northern Ecuador about this time. It was believed that they ran a vast maritime empire and traded with the Aztecs in Mexico and made voyages of 3,000-4,000 miles. In 1998-99 a team led by John Haslett (34) attempted to duplicate their maritime voyages with a 20-ton, 60-foot balsa raft.

Teotihuacan people built a 60-foot pyramid about this time in what later became known as Iztapalapa, Mexico. It was abandoned after about 300 years, when the Teotihuacan culture collapsed. Archeologists began to unveil the site in 2004.

In Peru a Moche pyramid from about this time at Dos Cabezas contained tombs that archeologists found in 1997. The tombs revealed people of unusual height along with miniatures of the deceased and the tomb’s contents.

El Pital, a Maya regional hub on the gulf coast since about 300 BC, suddenly became inactive between 500-600.  It was later suspected that a catastrophic flood hit the area

Evidence in 2005 suggested that Polynesians visited California 500-700 during this period and transferred their canoe building technology to the local Chumash and Gabrielino Indians.

The Sinagua people lived in the area of Sunset Crater, Arizona between 500-1100 .

The Fremont Indians lived in Utah’s Range Creek Canyon 500-1315 during this period and etched into rock designs of animals and people.


Some men from Tsinngan, China while crossing the sea are blown by strong winds to an unknown coast.  The people speak an unknown language, they wear clothing made of cloth and shape their houses in a circular shape and the doors resembles burrows.


St. Brendan (484-577) of Ireland recounts how another monk told him of a land far to the west of Ireland, a land of plenty.  St Brendan took this account seriously as he and 17 other monks spent 7 years to discover this land.  If this be true then only two explanations exist, someone had traveled to America before this time or someone from American traveled to Europe.  See 554.


As a result of the Krakatao eruption of 535 it contributed to the decline of Teotihuacan, a huge city in Mesoamerica, is also correlated with the droughts related to the climate changes, with signs of civil unrest and famines.


Balzac on Nose Creek north of Calgary is an Avonlea wintering site until 750.  In Southern Yukon a volcanic explosion covered over a hundred thousand square miles with White River Ash driving the People from the land.  Some believe this event drove the Navajo from Canada into the United States.


St. Brendan (484-577) of Ireland and 17 other monks set sail for the west from Ireland.  The Navigatio Saint Brendani Abatis (Voyage of Saint Brendan) published in the 9th century, resulted in an island being recorded in the Atlantic Ocean called St. Brendan's Island.  The Brendan voyage lasted 7 years, and they discovered a beautiful land that they called "The Promised Land of the Saints".  Some suggest the land was America, most likely Virginia.  The Ogham writings discovered in West Virginia suggests monks were in Virginia about this time verifying the Brendan account.  Some say the Brendan saga loses credibility because it claims Brendan and company were "raised up on the back of sea monsters", This is not so absurd as it sounds if you have ever been in a small boat in a 45 foot swell, "they passed by crystals that rose to the sky", an iceberg looks strangely like crystals, and we were "pelted with flaming, foul smelling rocks by the inhabitants of a large Island of their route", volcanic eruptions fits this description very well.  The expedition traveled inland (Virginia) using a guide so the must have encountered the aboriginal Peoples.  Others suggest the voyage of St. Brendan began 564.


A sewn hide moccasin is discovered 200 km west of Whitehorse, Yukon.  Hunters have been using this area since 7,000 B.C.

Some time between 560 to 570 St. Brendan aka 'The Navigator' (500?-578) and a band of Irish monks arrived New Salem, New Hampshire.  This expedition was published as "The Navigations of St. Brendan the Abbot" they explored the east coast of America.


Mayans from the city of Ah Witz Na, in what is now Belize conquered Tikal in Guatemala

Tikal in Guatemala was conquered possibly by the Mayans of Calakmul city in Mexico. Calakmul is one of the largest of Mayan cities with more than 6,000 structures. It was the capital of a widespread hegemony of Lowland Maya kingdoms during the Late Classic (600-900).


In northern Peru a 30-year mega el nino weather period began that caused major flooding in areas populated by the Moche people.  It's noteworthy that El Nino's usually only last one or two years at the most.


Budast Monks led by Hoo Shen sailed 7,000 miles East from China and 350 miles on land to the Grand Canyon.  They then explored south to central America.  Mayan artifacts clearly indicate a Chinese influence in support of this Chinese report.


Some time between 512-577 an Irish priest known as Saint Brendan of Ardfert and Clonfert (484-577) was born near Tralee, County Kerry traveled around Ireland, Wales and Iona and founded several monasteries and churches.  The book of Lismore, believed based on earlier works but dated to the fifteenth century credits this priest with a visit to Iceland and possibly North America.  Others suggest the St. Brendan saga was written in the 9th century.    The various maps and accounts generally disagree on location, etc. of his ventures, so this account is hard to gain serious scholar support.


An eruption buried the Mayan Village of Ceren in El Salvador in August or September of this year.

A Maya Stone Disk found in Mexico recorded hundreds of years of history and calculated future events with a sophisticated calendar using symbols as numbers.


In Peru a 30-year drought began about this time that followed years of flooding in areas populated by the Moche people.  This is to be expected after 30 years of El Nino as they are likely in a long period of La Nina.  As a result famine again visits Europe.


The Caracol Maya site in Belize in central America was one of the most prosperous cities in the pre-Columbian world with some 120,000 people in a 65-square-mile metropolis. It has the 140-foot-high platform Caana, or "Sky-Place. "

Side-notched arrow points or Old Woman's culture begins at the Old Women's Buffalo Jump near Cayley and would last until 1600.  Blackfoot legend refers to this Old Women's Buffalo Jump site of Alberta.  Corn is being grown in the Ohio region.
At Rice Lake, Ontario maize is being cultivated.  This is the oldest verified cultivation in Ontario.

The Wari (Huari) culture (600-1000) originally thought to be part of the Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) Empire (200 B.C.-1000) is now seen as a much larger empire stretching nearly 1,000 miles of the Peru coast.  The Wari Empire dominated 1,000 miles of costal Peru from the southern Peru border north and much of the high Andes.  The Tiwanaku centered on the Great Temple Masons of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.

A village 60 Km east of St. Louis, Illinois contained dwellings made of clay and logs half submerged in the ground.

The people of Chaco Canyon of New Mexico are living in Pit Houses.

Late classic period of the Maya 600-900. The San Andres site in El Salvador flourished during the late classic.  The El Tajin civilization thrived on the central coast of what became Mexico

The first ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi) settled Mesa Verde (Green Table) Colorado.  They were basket makers who were formally nomadic but now settled into pit houses, learned to make pottery and acquired the bow and arrow and the atlati, a spear thrower.

The first known Anasazi settlers arrived in the Mesa Verde region   Their first village of Twin Trees (on Chapin Mesa) contained 8 pit houses in South West Colorado.  They raised maize, beans and squash.  Mesa Verde evolved (600-1300) from pit houses to multi-room apartments.  

Pit houses were in common use in Verde Valley , Colorado and were covered with timbers and bush.  Pottery was also evident.  Some suggest the Hohokam people (meaning those who have gone) were the first Pit House settlers but usually refer to their Pit House period as 700-900 for settlement.  The Pit House dwellers grew corn, beans, squash and cotton.  They  produced pottery and built ball courts.  This would suggest they migrated from Mexico or Central America.  

Polynesian seafarers 1st landed on Easter Island, 1400 miles from the coast of South America between 600-800. They later carved nearly 900 colossi of compressed volcanic ash: the moai.


The town of Cholula was founded in central Mexico. It was later said to be the oldest continuously occupied town in all of North America.


October 15, birth Balaj Chan K'awiil was born in the great Maya city of Tikal.  He would eventually war against the Calakmul, now in Mexico.  Some believe this was the beginning of the collapse of the Classic Maya civilization. 


The Mayan City of Copan (650-820) in the valley of Copan contained some 20,000 people.

The first pyramid of the Teotihuacan culture was built in Cholula. Over the next 800 years a nested series of 4 pyramids were constructed. The most important and largest city of pre-Colombian central Mexico, the Nahuatl meaning of Teotihuacan was "Where Men Become Gods" or "The City of Gods." Just north of Mexico City, Teotihuacan was planned at about the beginning of the Christian era and was sacked and burned by invading Toltecs in 650 CE.  The city of Teotihuacan, Mexico (200 B.C. to 650 A.D.) in the Mexico Valley contained some 200,000 people when it was destroyed this year by fire.  Others suggest the fire was 750.  Some suggest the city was attacked burned and sacked.  The city however never recovered and people departed for other regions.    In Mexico the Teotihuacan culture began declining and was almost abandoned by the end of this period of 650-750

The Mogollon culture in south New Mexico thrived (650-1150).  They developed classic pottery (750-1000) but little structural sites, although they had irrigation systems.  

In northern Peru archeological evidence later indicated that civil strife during this period of 650-700, which followed some 30 years of drought, led to the demise of the Moche civilization.


Some suggest 670 to 760 is a dry period for America.  Others suggest the major drought on the Prairies was 700 to 800 A.D. based on mud samples.   


The last major earthquake occurred in the Salt Lake City region of Utah about this time. A major quake hits the region about every 1300 years.


Maya women gained political as well as economic power in that cilture.

It is believed major tribal migrations occurred as the climate began to stabilized.  The cultivation of Maze followed this migration.

The peoples in the Grand Canyon are growing corn and cotton and making baskets.

The Anasazi (Pueblo) People began weaving cotton cloth from cotton which originated in Peru but was likely trade from southern Colorado.

The Mississippi culture moves northward following the Mississippi river system and began to replace the Hopewell culture as far north as Wisconsin.  They brought intensive corn growing to displace other historic crops in the region.  The Mississippi culture represents master farmers who also maintained the vast trading routes of the Hopewell people.  This culture vanished by about 1600 and the Natchez Peoples (Macro-Algonquian) are believed the only direct survivors into the eighteenth century.  The Natchez had developed a complicated caste system where leaders could only marry commoners.  The west coast Potlatch (meaning to give) ceremony has some similar beliefs.

Artistic styles in Mexican art suggest contact with India during this period.  Some suggest the latest version of the Maya calendar originated about this time.  The Maya said it came as a divine revelation from Quetzalcoatl.  Fray Bernardino de Sahagun (1499-1590) studied the calendar and concluded it is derived from the devil himself.

The Irish monks are living on the Faero Island a stepping stone to Iceland on the route to Greenland and America.

Lake Cahuilla (Salton Sea) in southern California in the Imperial Valley existed until 300 AD.  It was created when the Colorado River flooded to create the lake in the depression that is 227 feet below sea level.  As soon as the lake was created the native People moved in to occupy its shores.

The four corners cultures of Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico experienced a rapid increase in population due to a constant and regular rainfall during the period (700-1130).  It would appear that other cultures joined this prosperous region.  This is likely the change  from Proto-Anasazi to the Pueblo Anasazi culture.

The Anasazi of the Mesa Verde, Colorado began building house above ground, with upright walls fashioned of poles and mud.  They still build pit house in front of their row houses, that became known as kivas.   These new homes were called Pueblos meaning village dwellers.

The people of Chaco Canyon of New Mexico are living in Pueblos 700 to 800.

The Tiahuanaco of Wari aka Huari empire dominated Peru from 700-1000 A.D.  Its Capital city was Ayachuco, Peru.  The Wari built extensive road systems throughout Peru.  Some suggest they were defeated by the Chachapoyan (Cloud People) of the Andies in north eastern Peru.  Wari culture is closely linked in its art style to the monuments of the great site of Tiwanaku, located on Lake Titicaca in northwestern Bolivia.  The Inca empire built its culture on the knowledge of the Huari Empire.

About 702-711 a Maya Lady K'Abel called a Kaldomte or Supreme Warlord.  Five Maya women are known to having the name Kaldomte or Supreme Warlord.  The Mayan culture had what they called complementarily of genders.  It appears to be far superior to the so called modern Woman's liberation movement.



An eruption in the upper White River basin, Alaska triggered a population displacement that led to the Athapaskan migration eastward into the Mackenzie Valley.


The great Lord 18 Rabbit built a ball court at the Mayan city of Copan. In a surprise attack he was captured and decapitated by Cauac Sky from the city of Quirigia, some 60 km. to the east.

Butz Tiliw’ or Cauac Sky defeated his overlord, Copan’s 13th ruler, 18 Rabbit. Monuments to this event are at the Quirigua Maya site in Guatemala.


Tah ak Chaan (Taj Chan Ank) began a 50 year rule over the city of Cancuen in what later became Guatemala.


Jun 12, The estimated date for the dedication of the Mayan Temple 22 in Copan.


This is the height of the Maya culture and hundreds of cities are scattered over an area the size of Britain.  Tikal as an example covered 50 square miles with a population of about 62,000 people.

The Anasazi built entire cities into cliffs around the West since at least this time. Before that they were digging pit houses and even earlier, about 350 B.C., were probably living in Colorado caves. Their present name comes from a Navajo word meaning "the ancient ones" or "the ancient enemy."

The Maya city of La Milpa reached its peak with about 50,000 people during the period of  750-850.

The Sican culture flourished on Peru's northern desert coast during the period 750-1375. In 2006 archaeologists unearthed 22 graves containing a trove of Sican artifacts, including the first "tumi" ceremonial knives ever discovered by archaeologists rather than looted by thieves.

An El Nino hit Peru this year causing flooding


Copan, Honduras is the southern limits of the Maya culture and contains 28,000 people.  Their primary trade is jade and obsibian. 


The Viking began their age of exploration, commerce, and colonization (790-1066) West to America, South to Italy and East to Russia. The Norwegians struck boldly across the Atlantic to eventually gain a foothold in America. The Danes made their mark in the British Isles and along the coastlines of Europe. The Swedes penetrated the continent on Russian rivers, reaching Constantinople and the Orient. Their theology lacked absolute concepts of good or evil; honor and battlefield valor were its highest virtues. They were free men acting on their own authority but they held slaves. The women were free to divorce and often held great power in the homelands when the men were abroad. They were craftsmen, shoemakers, blacksmiths, poets, and aesthetes who designed ships of noble proportions. The exploration of Canada was Iceland, Greenland and then Canada. The actual first landing is unknown but the Viking were in Iceland by 870.  The Viking traded from Iraq to Canada and founded the world's oldest parliament lest we only think of them as barbarians.  


A 600-pound limestone altar was carved to honor a treaty in the Mayan city of Cancuen (Guatemala). It was uncovered in 2001.


Evidence of hostilities between tribes in the southern Ontario area is attributed by some to be the result of agricultural improvements.  This however is pure speculation based upon European characteristics.

A study of the sentiment of the southern Caribbean area indicates a 100 year drought started about this time.  As the drought progressed some years had virtually no rain.  They believe the drought caused the decline and fall of the Maya Empire.

The Athapascan (Na-Dene) people are believed to have originally emigrated from Asia in skin boats about 3,000 to 1,000 B.C.  The Athapascan from Canada during the period 800 to 1,000 had reached southern United States to become the Apache (meaning enemy or alien), Navajos, Karankawa, Coahuiltec and Seri.  Avonlea and Besant cultures appear to have evolved into the side-notched point or Old Woman's point.  The Dene are much like the Metis, they had no leader and developed a reputation for being peaceful and having a rich storytelling tradition, in Canada.  The same can't be said for those who migrated south.

Others suggest the Athapascan or Na-Dene arrived in successive migrations from 800 to 1000.  The name Dene is usually only associated with the Northern Canadian Peoples  The Pericu Indians are believed to be located on the Baja California Peninsula about this time.  They are believed to have split from the Navajos 10,000 to 8,000 B.C. but most likely later.

The Athapascan include:

Monqui (?)

Southern Athapascan
Apache, migrated to southern USA about 850 and are considered a quarrelsome people.
Kiowa-Apachie mixed cultures about 1790  Kiowa migrated south from upper Missouri
Navajos, migrated to southern USA about 1050, maybe earlier and considered an aggressive people.
Pericu, migrated along the coast with their watercraft and fishing technology about 800-1,000 and are considered aggressive

It is noteworthy that the Apache migrated south within 50 years of migrating from Asia.  So much for the generations long migration theories. 

Some evidence suggests that maize is exported from America to Assem in northeast India about this time.

Irish monks (clerics) visited Iceland and they called it Thule.  Sailing northward they found one day's sail the sea was frozen. Some believe they sailed on to Greenland and/or the frozen sea.

Viking records suggest a Viking expedition to American occurred this year but didn't result in another expedition for 200 years.  This could be the Irish monk expedition noted above.

The height of the Mayan city of Copan. Some 20,000 people lived in the Copan pocket, a fertile section of the Copan River valley in what is now Honduras.

A Maya city of Aguateca, Guatemala is burned and the inhabitants deserted the city taking little with them so sudden the departure.

About this time unidentified conquerors destroyed the Mayan palace at Cancuen (Guatemala) and killed the members of the court. Archeologists in 2005 reported that King Maax, son of Taj Chan Ahk, was found buried in full regalia.

A Roman coin discovered at the bottom of an 'Indian Mound' at Round Rock, Texas. 

The Chachapoyan (Cloud People) of Northern Peru built an empire that lasted (800-1475) before being conquered by the Inca.  They were still fighting the Inca in 1535.  The Cloud People were tall and fair skinned and fair hair.  One of their major towns was Kuelop, at 6,000 feet above sea level, which is the largest building structure of the early Americans which was well fortified and housed 3,500 people.  The Cloud People lived high up the mountains in the clouds and were so named by the Inca.  Some speculate that the Cloud People might be descendents from the Viking.  The point to the people from a town called Mendoza, just east of Kuelap, Peru.  The folks there are as blond and fair skinned as any Scandinavian and are said to pre-date the Spanish.  They also point to Viking-like runes that have been found in Argentina.  The Incas worshipped a god called Viracocha, who was tall, white and bearded and came from the east.  Still others suggest the Cloud People came from Asia.  The early Chachapoyan (Cloud People) of Northern Peru built cliff strustures.  

The Hohokam People aka Civanos of Arizona built numerous ball courts (800-1100) that could easily accommodate 500 spectators.  Some believe they were associated with trade but completely disappear about 1150.  It is believed the Civanous numbered between 40,000 to 50,000 people at their peak power.


The Athapascan group of People in Alaska and Yukon break and a sub group called Apache that migrate south through Alberta to the southwest United States.  This theory appears to contradict the northern migration theory?  The Apache oral tradition also appears to conflict with this theory that suggests a northern migration.

The Irish monks are driven off Faeroes Island some time prior to this date.


Church records speak of Gronland (Greenland) as being a Christian Country.  Some believe the Celts or Picts visited Iceland about this time.


A Papal bull reads in part: we appoint our son himself, the above mentioned Ansgar, and his successors as our delegates to all the surrounding nations: to the Danes, the Swedes, the Norwegians, the Funelanders, the Gronlanders (Greenland), the Helsingers, the Iselanders (Iceland).  An Irish priest Dicuil wrote of Christian clerics who late in the eighth century visits Iceland and spent some time on the island..


The Fajada Butte in Chaco Valley, New Mexico was believed to be an astronomical calendar from 850 to 1150.

The Una Vida in Chaco Valley , New Mexico contained 100 ground floor rooms and was built between 850 to 1100.  It was believed to contain 2-3 stories high.  The Navajo added to the structure during the 1800’s and the Hopi and Navajo Peoples added to the petroglyphs.  The Chaco Valley is believed to contain a population of 4,000 during it's peak of 1050 A.D.


May:  Pope Nicholas confirmed Ansgar's archbishopric, expressly including Greenland and Iceland.  Papal bulls over the next 60 years confirm the archbishopric of Greenland (Cronland and Gronland) and Iceland.


The first of many Viking ships arrived Iceland where they wintered.  Included in this group are Floki Vilgerdarsson, Ingolf and his foster brother Hjorkief including ten Westman slaves. One version of history credits Naddod the Viking as the first visitor, another Gardar Svavar.  It is believed by some that the Vikings drove many of Iceland's Westman on to Greenland.  The Norse sagas claim the Irish were driven on to Greenland or Vineland.  Some suggest that some went as far as the Carolinas.

Gardar the Swede circumnavigated Iceland, he named it Gardarsholm and he wintered at Husavik, Iceland.  During this decade Ingolf and Hjorlief visited Iceland.  

The 100 year drought, some periods as long as 9 years of no rain, is believed to cause the desertion of Mayan cities this year.


Some time during the past decade Naddod the Viking visited Gardarsholm and climbed a mountain looking for human life.  Florki Vilgerdarson wintered Iceland about this time.

This year Ingolf and Hjorlief wintered Iceland.  Hjorlief is killed by his Irish Slaves who escaped to the west.  Many of the first settlers of Iceland are mixed bloods being the result of  Norse Celtic unions and some were Christians.


Ingolf returned for his second winter in Iceland and to hunt down the Irish slaves who likked Hjorlief and fled to Vestmannaeyjar.


Ingolf spent his third winter in Iceland.


Ingolf makes a permanent settlement near Reykjavik, Iceland.


Celtic Monks from Greenland are believed to have established a colony on Brion Island (Magdalen Island) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and to have eventually settled on Cape Breton Island.  Their settlement by Scandinavian tradition is called Huitraamannland.  It is believed they are gradually absorbed into the L'nu'k ( Micmac) tradition.

Some suggest the Norsemen had sighted Greenland by this time.

Chaak 875-925 ruled over the Mayan city of Uxmal in Mexico.


Some suggest 880 to 1260 is a dry period in America.


Muslim texts suggest Muslim navigator Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad of Cordoba, Spain crossed the Atlantic and returned with fabulous treasures.  The Major authority on the subject dismiss this claim.


Global warming occurred 900 to 1200 altering the North American weather patterns and cultures of the People.  This was called the Little Climatic Optimum occurred, with the warmest climate since the Climatic Optimum. This is when the Vikings established settlements in Greenland and Iceland. And the snow line in the Rocky Mountains was about 370 meters above current levels. 

The Mayan city-state of Palenque [in later Mexico] was abandoned

The Mayan city-state of Copan [in later Honduras] was abandoned

In Peru the Lambayeque people established themselves over areas previously developed by the Moche.

Drought and killing frost made farming difficult around the Dolores, Colorado .  Between 900 to 920 the growing season was shortened making it risky to grow corn.

Montezuma Well, Arizona was in use by the Sinagua people until 1400 to irrigate crops

The Anasazi culture began their Pueblo period building impressive cliff dwellings.  They appear to practice incarnation in their burial rites.    Chaco Canyon, New Mexico was an economic, ceremonial, and administrative center of some 6 to 10 thousand people.  Corn samples from this area originated more than 50 miles away.  This area could not produce corn.  And the wood used to construct this town also came from at least 50 miles away.  Closer sources of timber were never tapped.

Chaco Canyon in North West New Mexico within 30 sq miles contains 2,400 archaeological sites including nine towns with Great Houses with 100's of rooms along a 9 mile stretch.  The towns are well planned with connecting roads ways.  These roads, 30 feet wide, ran for 100's of miles, including causeways and stairways into sheer cliffs.  These people the Anasazi had no wheeled vehicles.  The peoples of both North and South American had a pension for building roads.  At Pueblo Bonito (meaning beautiful town) the buildings reached five stories and could house 1,000 people, not to be equaled until the late 19th century.  They built line-of-site communication towers or sites for communication.  No new construction occurred after 1140 in Chaco Canyon.  

The Anasazi Culture (Pueblo Culture) reached its 'Golden Age' during the period of (900-1130) due to constant and regular rainfall.

The Salado People of 900 to 1450 are believed to be descendents of the Proto-Anzona People.  They preferred cliff dwellings in high places.  They are believed to have given Pueblo Architecture to the Hohokum People about 1200 as well as pottery and burial styles.

The Hohokam People used Colossal Cave (Southern Arizona) (900-1450) for shelter and storage. 

We often think of the Mayan Empire as relatively small towns but they covered central/south Mexico, central America, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Western Honduras.  Their cities had a population of 2,000 people per square mile and a rural population of 500 people per square mile, comparable to modern Los Angeles.  It was the highest population density, of its time period, in the entire world.

The Great Mayan culture is destroyed about this time as massive cities are abandoned and allowed to go into rune.   Central America experienced the most severe drought in over 75,000 years laying waste to large tracts of the land.  Rivers and lakes dried up leaving no water for agriculture or for drinking.  The signs of this great drought are even recorded in the ice cores of Greenland.   Some suggest this year witnessed a giant El Nino causing a sudden and violent global warming.

A huge seawall and extensive docks to accommodate trade in turquoise, obsidian and ceramics from central Mexico and Central America have been discovered on an island only 650 feet on diameter off the north coast of Yucantan.  It is believed that Isla Cerritos was the chief port for the inland Maya capital city of Chichen Itza (900-1200 A.D.). 

The Neo-Atlantic period of 900 to 1200 provided three hundred years of ideal agricultural weather to the Dakota's.  Dakota corn is traded into eastern Saskatchewan and southwest Manitoba.  Some suggest the Dakota resided in eastern Saskatchewan and western Manitoba not moving to their historic territory until some time prior to 1659.  They suggest some time before 1200 they occupied western Ontario and eastern Manitoba.   At the same time the Blackduck people are being displaced from Minnesota and southern Ontario into Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan.  The Blackduck would bring mound building to the Prairies.  The Algonquian People moved into Labrador and along the north shore of the St. Lawrence river as the Dorset people abandon these areas.  The Glen Mayer and Pickering culture probably arriving from the south bringing their agriculture, tobacco smoking, long houses and large village characteristics of the Iroquois People that would develop 400 years later.  The Thule Eskimo began arriving in Alaska.

Archaeological evidence suggests the Dakota People are penetrating into eastern Saskatchewan about this time.

To improve agricultural yield and make way for development in the Mississippi Valley, thousands of Native American villages and temple centers, built between 900 A.D. to 1,700 A.D., have been flattened by the 21st. century.  It is noteworthy that these modern agricultural methods have never equaled the production of the Mississippian Culture.

The Terminal Woodland Peoples occupy Lake Superior and it is believed these are the Algonkian People. This culture occupied Bawating (Sault Ste Marie) until 1650 or maybe until present times. Ojibwa tradition says these old peoples were called Giizhe Anishnaabe (the kind people) and Lake Superior was called Anishnaabe Chi Gaming (the Ojibwa Ocean) or more correctly the Peoples Ocean.  They built birch bark canoe with conical and domed lodges.  

Others suggest the Glen Mayer and Pickering Peoples occupied southern Ontario about this time.  The were into agriculture, smoked tobacco, lived in longhouses and large villages characteristic of the Iroquois, who developed from these cultures about 400 years later.

The construction of Monk's Mound across the Mississippi from St. Louis became the center of a city of 75,000 people.  These people were great farmers, they also hunted but traded up to 1,000 miles away.  The mound building activity is recorded in thousands of lesser sites throughout central, northern and eastern America.  This tradition continued until about 1400.  

A Fremont culture settlement in Horse Canyon, Utah, left extensive ruins that became known as Range Creek during the period of 900-1100.

The Algonkian People moved into Labrador and along the north shore of the St. Lawrence about this time.

The Vikings Gunnbjorn Ulf and Krak Uson visit Greenland from Iceland.

The Viking are believed to have built a rock trading post at Nanook, Baffin Island for trading with the Dorset People during the period of 900 to 1,000 AD, maybe longer.  Some artifacts suggest they may have traded until 1250-1350 AD but this was not conclusive.

The great period of the Phoenicians of Lebanon ocean exploration (900-600 B.C.) began about this time with the circumnavigation of Africa from their center in Cadiz in southern Spain.  It is noteworthy that Phoenican artifacts and inscriptions are discovered in Maine, Rhode Island, New Mexico, Paraguay and Brazil.  Phoenician coins have been discovered in Kansas, Connecticut, Arkansas and Alabama mostly on waterways dating to the 4th or early 3rd century.

The Killke people occupied the region around Cuzco, Peru, from 900 to 1200 A.D., prior to the arrival of the Incas. In 2008 Archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed fortress overlooking Cuzco, that shed light on the pre-Inca cultures of Peru


An especially long severe drought caused the desertion of more Mayan cities this year.


The Publo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico existed (919-1150) when it was abandoned due to drought.  The raised maise, beens and squash.


The Althing Settlement is established at Thingvellir, Iceland.  The Vikings  Gunnbjorn Ulf and Krak Uson again visit Greenland from Iceland.  

The Incas came to power in a period of increased precipitation, after a prolonged drought lasting from 950 to 1200 A.D. 

Algonkian cultural influences appear to have extended from Canada down into the Virginias at this time.  The framework of the Dakota Sioux beliefs and form of government appears to have been almost universal from Canada to the Yucatan.  This suggests extensive inter nation exchange and debate of a set of basic and fundamental beliefs and values.  It is interesting to note these values contrasted sharply with the more war like and power values of the Mexico and central American peoples.  The Iroquois and Dakota peoples appear to be caught between a Proto Canadian and Proto Mexican cultural distinction.  Some contend the Proto Aztecs originated north of Mexico and are driven south because of their uncivilized ways of destroying rather than building cultural harmony.  Europeans believe that most of the People's cultures believed war with another tribe is considered to exist unless peace is declared.  Peace however is the predominant state throughout the land because every encounter established or confirmed treaties and alliances.  The exchange of gifts and presents are vital to these alliances.  They enhanced the reputation of the giver and defined his intentions.  Most wrongs or injuries could be expiated by the giving of gifts in compensation.  The People believed that actions speak with more authority than words.  It is considered a cardinal crime, an offence to the Great Spirit Himself, to breach the sacred peace of the council pipe.


Ari Marsson was storm-driven west from Iceland to a land named Irland Mikkla or Greater Ireland.  He found a Christian community. most likely Celtic Irish.  Greater Ireland lies off westward in the ocean adjacent to Vinland the Good; it is reported that one can sail thither from Ireland in six days.


Erick the Red wrote: The Country which was called Gronland was discovered and settled from Iceland.  Erick the Red was the name of the man from Breidafiord who went there and took possession of the land at the place since called Eriksfiord.  He called the country Gronland saying people would desire to go there if the country had a good name.  Both east and west in the country they found human habitations, fragments of skin boats and stone implements, from which it was evident that the same kind of people had been there as inhabited Vinland and whom the Gronlanders called Skrealings.  It is noteworthy that the Viking had yet to encounter the Skrealing.   


Erick the Red makes his first visit to Greenland from Iceland.  Others suggest he was outlawed from Iceland in 981 and sailed for Greenland and explored the coast of Greenland for three years.  Although Greenland was mostly ice and snow he named it Greenland to encourage settlement.  It worked because before long 25 ships full of eager settlers sailed for Greenland.


Eric Thorvaldsson, aka Eric the Red, left Iceland and established his 1st settlement on Greenland

Viking Bjarni Herjolfsson an Icelandic explorer, led the first group of colonists to Greenland establishing a Western and Eastern Settlement.  He went on to discover America over 500 years before Christopher Columbus.  By his descriptions of a hilly, forested land west of Greenland it is believed to be Vinland likely Nova Scotia.  


August:   Bjarni Herjolfsson is blown off course and is believed to have sighted Labrador, Canada.  The Beothuk Peoples occupied Newfoundland but usually remained inland or on the west coast.  This could account for a lack of sighting by Bjarni Herjolfsson, the Viking, who arrived this year.  Later accounts would classify the Beothuk as being six feet tall and light complexioned.  The account went on to say when they dressed in European cloths, they looked like Englishmen.  This account is probably intended as an insult towards the Beothuk.  The Beothuk and Dorset people known to be very friendly had established peaceful coexistence with other people of the Newfoundland region.


Erick the Red with 25 ships sailed for Greenland but only 14 arrived, some were driven back, others were lost, according to Ari, son of Thorgil..  They established two settlements on the south western end of Greenland. 


By this date Erick the Red had established three settlements on Greenland:

It is estimated that the Viking population of Greenland peaked at about 4,000 people.  This being the maximum number of people the region could accommodate.  

Bjarni Herjolfsson sailed from Norway to Iceland with cargo for his father, who had moved on to Greenland. Herjjolfsson was blown off course and reached Labrador, which he described as "worthless country."


The Wendat (Huron) Peoples are cultivating corn around the Great Lakes area.  Corn was developed in Mexico, by the Mayan ancestors, about 5,000 B.C. and gradually traded or carried northward.

Lief Rirksson set out to explore Vinland (Newfoundland) with 35 men, returning with wild wheat, wild grapes and trees called mosurr (likely maple).


Thorgisl Orrabeinsfostri is blown off course and ship wrecked on the east coast of Baffin Island with Thorief, Col, Starked, Gunrun and ten Westmen slaves.  Westmen is any peoples from the British Islands but most likely the Pict or Celt tribes.  The Viking is also taking Anglo and Saxon tribe slaves during this period.  Included in the party are Lostan and his wife Thorarin.  All the people and livestock are saved from the ship wreck.  They come across the Dorset (Tunnit People?) and killed them.  Later the Dorset People (the Skraeling) saved a Viking boat when it drifted off and returned it to the Viking.  The Dorset are described as very large people and could not be Thule (Eskimo) as they didn't arrive this region until the 12 century and were not a very large people.   Others however suggest these were likely Algonkian People.  It took the party four to five years before the Viking made it back to southern Greenland.


Eirik and his son Thorstein ventured to Vinland but were blown off course to the south and returned to Greenland. 

Some believe the Norsemen traded Baffin Island Qikiqtaaluk or Helleland this past century and traded with the Dorset people.  Research is still underway but is looking promising.

Iban Farrukh a Muslim of Granada, Spain sailed westward and discovered two Islands.  Some suggest it was likely America.

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