INDIAN HISTORY 1450 - 1499
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The Viking establish colonies in Greenland and Canada
Some believe the Chinese also established colonies in the Americas.
In 2002 the remains of a longhouse from this time (1000-1100) were uncovered in northern Iceland. It was believed to be associated with Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Viking explorers and the 1st known European born in the New World.
Peruvian mummies, dated to this time period, had body lice of the same type as is found in the highlands of Papua, New Guinea. This lice was not the same type found in the western hemisphere of which only 50% infected with the western hemisphere lice now reside in North and Central America.
Four female skulls were uncovered in a grave yard that existed 1,000-1,500 A.D.likely of the llama-breeding Atacameno culture. The women had leishmanasis, a parasitic disease that is not endemic to the area because of its dry climate and high altitude, suggesting the woman likely migrated to this location from tropical lowlands about 250 miles away.
In the Inca capital city of Cuzco, Peru are examples of surgical techniques called trepanation on human skulls to relive pressure caused by fluid buildup as a result of head trama. This type of surgery was practiced from 1,000 to 1400's AD. By the 1400's the survical rate was about 90%.
The Chachapoya People of Northern Interior of Peru began building their capital city Kuelap 10,000 feet above sea level. Some say building started 800 A.D. but most agree it took over 200 years to build. Some suggest it's the Machu Picchu of the North, others say it rivals Machu Picchu. They think it was a fortress like structure to stop Tiahuanaco (Huari) or Wari Empire expansion out of Bolivia. It contains more than three times more material than Egypt's largest pyramid. They built circular structure similar to the kavas of the four corners region of North America.
An early Andean culture of South America known as the Huari cultivated crops with complex irrigation systems back to this time.
The climate improved and the cave dwellers of the Grand Canyon began building pit houses and multi-room masonry dwellings. During the period 900 to 1200 the Virgin Anaszi lived to the north of the canyon and the Kayenta Anasazi lived to the south and the east. Nearly every arable patch of land in the canyon had at least one dwelling, especially along the rim and the river. Terraced fields grew corn, beans, squash, yucca and cotton. Farmers built cliff granaries to hold excess seeds and hunters stalked deer at higher elevations. Life was good! More than 475 sites have been investigated but not excavated. Kiva's are in evidence. I think the kiva is a cultural remembrance of the pit house and used for community activity, seed grinding, weaving, trading rooms, gaming, etc.
Birth, L'anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, Snorri Thorfinnesson, the first recorded Canadian European birth who died Iceland. Although Vikings in Canada were known since 1837 it was not until the 1960's it was accepted as fact. Prior to this time most scientists considered the Viking sagas as pure myth.
Olaf Tryggvasson who reigned (995-1000) sent Leif Ericson as a missionary to Greenland.
The Dorset cultures that dominated the Arctic for the past 2,000 years suddenly disappeared, they likely migrating eastward. At this time, the Thule (Eskimo), introduced the kayak, and harpoon with baited floats and rocking harpoon-heads. The rocking harpoon head technology was introduced into the region in 5,580 B.C. at the L'Anse Amour, Labrador site. The Eskimos or Inuit as some call themselves is more closely related, racially and linguistically to people of northeastern Siberia than to the North American People. The Greenland, Arctic Canada and North Alaska Eskimo are direct kin of the Siberian Coast, South and South Western Alaska Yuit people. These Eskimo are directly related to the Aleutian Island Aleut Eskimo and they are all part of the Eskaleut family including the Northeast Siberia Chukchi. The Chukchi Peninsula people of Siberia, U.S.S.R. have been living on the Bering Straight since 12,000 B.C. and are the genetic ancestors of our Canadian Eskimo.
The Mackenzie Eskimo arrived from Alaska about this time according to archaeology evidence.
The Iroquois ancestors are beginning a more agricultural society. Corn is being grown in the Great Lakes region. The name Iroquois comes from the word Ierokwa meaning they who smoke.
The King of Norway is sending the white falcon and polar bears from Vineland as an impressive gift to other rulers. Leif Eiriksson sailed from the Eastern Viking Settlement, Greenland northwest to Baffin Island that he called Helluland (Slab Island). He then sailed south along the coast to America to Labrador that he called Markland (Woodland). Lief then sailed further south to Vineland (wine Land). Vineland could refer to Newfoundland, the Saint Lawrence River, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick or Maine.
The Kinishba pueblo in Arizona is believed occupied from 1000 to 1400 A.D.
At Chiribaya, Peru is evidence that the tuberculosis bacterium is present in a 40 to 45 year old woman. She did not die from the disease but its arrival in America is a puzzle.
The Chimu culture dominated Peru (1000-1470). Their Capital city Chan Chan, just north of Trujillo, Peru is believed to contain 100,000 people (others say 50,000 people) and controlled 800 miles of the northern coast of Peru. Their culture was far more sophisticated than the Inca culture that built upon their culture. They believed in a divine god-king who were worshiped even after death. As a result they had descendents rather than successors inherit ruler estates a custom that forced new kings to gain wealth through conquest. They had huge storage bins, warehouses and temples.
The Colla culture (1000-1400) who speak Aymara predate the Inca and dominated the Lake Titicaca center between Bolivia and Peru. The Aymara speaking people include Canchi - Colla - Lupaca - Collagua - Ubina - Caranga - Charca - Quillaca - Omasuyo - Collanuaya. The Colla built stone towers called chullpas within which they buried their dead. Their construction techniques were more advanced than the Inca. The Spanish in 1549 suggested the chullpas were recently finished.
Artifacts at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland confirms the oral traditions of the Viking. The site suggests the presents of 60 to 70 people occupied this site for 20 to 30 years.
Viking relics of a sword, axe head and a shield grip were uncovered at Beardmore about 7 miles from Lake Nipigon, Ontario.
Vern Fiddler claims: The Viking relics that you are talking about being found near
Beardmore by a prospector are a hoax. The relics were actually taken out of
Norway in the early 1900's to settle a debt that was owed to my great grandfather.
They were actually stored in a basement of a house on Catherine St. in Thunder
Bay. I would be glad to discuss this with you so you can set the matter straight as I am tired of the lies that were being spread by the person that
stole them from my family. I would like them to be returned to Norway where they belong and not left in the Ontario museum.
It is believed that the petroglyphs in Petroglyphs Provincial Park 55 km northeast of Peterborough, Ontario were carved over the next 500 years by the Ojibwa People. They still consider the site sacred and call it Kinomagewapkong meaning the rock that teaches.
In Virginia between 1,000 to 1600 tooth decay increased as the People diet shifted to carbohydrates on cultivated corn. Prior to this time tooth decay is little known.
The Numic-speaking Shoshone Indians took part in a widespread migration out of the Cosos Mountains on the northwestern edge of the Mojave Desert about this time and populated a large portion of the western US.
About this time a People were living in the Grand Canyon making petroglyph drawings of People
The Cahokia settlement in Southern Illinois on the floodplain of the Mississippi River came from nowhere and numbered about 30,000, and by 1050 numbered 50,000. This had to be the result of massive migration.. The Cahokia people vanished to nowhere and Cahoka was deserted by 1350 and their neighbors new nothing about this culture. No evidence has been discovered of rampant disease, over population , extensive deforestation or anything else that point to the fall of the civilization. The Cahokia during the period of (1000-1300) built over 200 mounds. The Cahokia mounds dwarfs the ancient pueblos of the New Mexico's Chaco Canyon. Monks Mound has a bigger base than the largest pyramid of Khufu of Egypt. It covers 14 acres and supported a 5,000 square foot building at its top. Monks Mound used 15-20 billion pounds of soil lugged to the site in 50-60 pound baskets. 20,000 trees were also used. It is noteworthy that the Toltec, Chaco and Cahokian cultures disappeared at nearly the same time. The Cahokia traded to the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippian transformation was marked by the rise of agriculture and the appearance of belligerent chiefdoms. The Calusa Indians of southern Florida avoided the Mississippian transformation and maintained their ancient life ways based on fishing and collecting.
The Sinagua People are said to have originated in the San Francisco Peaks area of Northern Arizona. Until 1040 when the Sunset Creator became unstable. The Sunset Creator erupted 1065, some say 1040 to 1100. The Sinagua Indians, in what is now Arizona, made granaries in the cliffs along the Verde River some 100 miles north of Phoenix, Arizona.
The Anasazi of the Mesa Verde, Colorado
began building stone masonry homes, often two to three stories high, joining
them together into units of 50 rooms or more. .
Petroglyph writing or art flourished 1000-1400 A.D..
It appears to be of three types, Spiritual art of the mind including
myths; artistic art of real world things and events; graphite art, likely by
young people leaving their mark through the ages.
By about this time the initial Arctic culture had given way to a second
eastward flow of a people now known as the Thule. Based on Evidence from
Ellesmere Island in Canadian Arctic.
The Polynesians explored and occupied the Hawaii Islands. There were successive arrival of settlers, mainly from the Society Islands, extending over hundreds of years. They brought their plants and animals with them. It is reasonable to assume some Polynesians returned to the Society Islands to tell of their discoveries.
The Dene culture of Canada migrated to the Four Corners region of the Anasazi homelands. It is believed that the Navajo aka Dine or Dene and the Pueblo (Anasazi) culture merged.
A Peruvian mummy had mycobacterium tuberculosis and was tested for a gene sequence unique to bacteria that caused tuberculosis. Conventional wisdom always suggested tuberculosis arrive with European contact. Maybe it arrived with the Viking or Chinese?,
Between (1,000-1200 AD) the Atacame desert of northern Chilie contained a culture called the Atacame People. It is considered the driest place on the planet yet these people built 100 structures including underground storage and complex agro-hydraulic water systems carrying water from several miles away. They built stone canals, dams, aqueducts and holding ponds..
Norse sagas claim that Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land after being blown off course in 1000. Some say this voyage was taken in 1000. They found a land they called Vinland and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
Thorer Eastman (d.1002), a Norwegian sea captain, was blown off course on a trading voyage from Iceland to Greenland. He and his wife, Gudrid, along with a crew of 13 became stranded on a rock near the coast of Newfoundland for weeks until they were rescued by Leif Eriksson, who was on his way home to Greenland from North America with a cargo of timber. That fall an epidemic swept Greenland and Eastman died.
An expedition of four ships led by Thorfinn Karlsefni sailed for Vineland by way of Baffin Island. The party included Lief's brother Thorvald Eriksson and his crew of thirty. They wintered at the strait of Belle Island. Gudrid's son Snorri Thorfinnson is born. The party consisted of 250 men and women including their cattle. This is a clear indication they intended to build a permanent settlement. Also included were Snorri Thorbrandsson and Bjarni Grimolfsson.
Thorfinn's party split up in the spring with Thorhall, the Hunter, and eight others going back north. A storm drove them out to sea to Ireland where they are thrown into slavery and Thorhall is killed. Thorvald Eriksson explored westerly along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawerence and discovered a storage shed of wood but no other signs of the Westmen in the Straight of Belle. Thorvald's expedition took three months. Thorfinn Karlsefni and Eirik's daughter Freydis sailed south with Snorri and Bjarni wintering at St. Paul's Bay. A group of Dorset in skin boats stumbled upon their camp, the Viking referred to them as Skraeling and the first trading season ended on friendly terms.
The Skraeling (wretches, savages or barbarians or possibly pygmies such as gnomes and trolls) arrived in the spring to trade for weapons however Karlsefni traded with milk that the Dorset appreciated. Trading is cut short, as the Viking contends the Skraeling are scared off by the cattle, especially the bull. Future events suggest the Vikings probably put the Dorset to the sword. A second party of Skraeling arrived three weeks later into a Viking ambush. The Dorset obviously did not expect this treatment as they are not prepared to do battle and fought back with their fishing equipment. The ambush failed and the Dorset put the Viking to flight except fearless Fredydis, Lief Eriksson's sister, and daughter of Erik the Red, who is pregnant at the time. Grabbing the dead Thorrand Snoorasson's sword, she pulled out her breasts and slapped the sword on them and the Skraeling took flight and ran to their boats thereby saving the day. It is noteworthy that later the Beothuk women, during times of stress, also barred their breasts and that could have originated from this Viking encounter. It is unlikely the flight of the Skraeling is due to fear but rather out of respect for motherhood which was also a value held by the American Indians.
In reality, the Dorset had the entire village of women and children at their disposal but being peace loving by nature they would not want to harm future trading relations. The Viking is humiliated. Karlsefni decided to leave this place and headed back to the base camp. On the way they discovered five Skraeling sleeping and they killed them to restore their honor. Thorvald sailing in search of Thorhall came across nine sleeping Skraeling, they killed eight and one escaped. The next day, the Skraeling retaliated and attacked the Viking ship, killing Thorvald Eriksson.
Thorfinn Karlsefni arrived in Greenland from Iceland and married Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir. She soon talked him into leading an expedition to the New Found World.
Thorfinn Karlsefni sailed to Hampten Bay and began to cut lumber when they sighted a limping Beothuk and tried to catch him but he got away. A large number of Beothuk later appeared and began to trade. Karlsefni reported they traded red cloth. The Norse aggressiveness caused a fight to break out and many Beothuk are killed before they fled into the woods. On the trip back to the Labrador coast they captured two Dorset children who said their mother's name is Vaetilldi and their father's name is Uvaegi. They said they lived in holes or caves. They also said there is a land on the other side, opposite their country, where the inhabitants wore white garments, yelled loudly and carried poles before them to which cloth is attached. The Viking believed they are the Westman who are previously displaced from Iceland and Greenland. The Westmen originally came from the British Islands.
Thorvald sailed to Groswater Bay hoping to find Thorhall the Hunter. He and his men killed eight Dorsets and Thorvald was killed.
About this time two young Skraeling boys were captured and taught to speak Norse. They said: there was a land on the other side, opposite their country (Labrador), which was inhabited by people who wore white garments and who yelled loudly and carried poles before them to which cloths were attached. People believed this must have been Hvitramannaland or Ireland the Great.
Freydis and her brothers Helge and Finnbuggi make a trip to Vineland. Helgi and Finngogi arrived first and occupied Lief's house. Thorvad and Freydis Eriksson arrived and are not willing to share Lief's house, Freydis taunted her husband to kill the brothers, which they did, but would not kill the five women. Freydis took an axe and did them in at Trinity Bay.
Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland), the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned east and settled in Iceland.
Early in the spring, Freydis and her party sailed back to Greenland and gave out the story that the brothers had decided to stay behind. Lief tortured three of her crew members to learn the truth but could not punish his own sister so he laid a curse on her and all her offspring's.
The last known Viking attempt to settle Vinland was made this year
Between 1020 and 1200 pack ice near Iceland and southern Greenland is unheard of making travel much easier between Europe and America.
Trade reached its peak between 1020 and 1120
Cylindrical jars in Chaco Canyon held traces of a chocolate brew that was from
1,200 miles from where it grew.
Cylindrical jars in Chaco Canyon held traces of a chocolate brew that was from 1,200 miles from where it grew.
Kin Ya'a 25 miles south of Chaco Caynon, just outside Crownpoint, New Mexico is an unusual kiva. Kin Ya'a is a stacked kiva three or four stories tall. Most kivas are ground level or below ground level.
Gudlief Gudlaugsson discovered Bjorn Asbrandson somewhere on the coast of America, both men having been driven there by adverse weather, Bjorn some twenty five to thirty years earlier. Bjorn chose to stay as he is well considered among the Native peoples and probably is raising a mixed blood family. Others suggest he is captured by the natives and later freed by Bjorn Asbrandson and returned to Iceland.
The Athapascan peoples in Alaska and Yukon has another splinter group breaking off to be called the Navajo who migrate through Alberta to the south west United States. These Na-Dene peoples are originally from China and Japan being genetically linked with a unique type of retrovirus gene JCV. Some suggest they arrived in the south west via boat.. It is known their close cousins the Pericu on the Baja Peninsula had watercraft technology and 50% of their diet was from the sea, the only such people on the California coast. Other cultures used rafts.
Frisian merchants are making trading voyages to Greenland over the next 5 years.
Sunset Crater (Arizona) is believed to have erupted (1040-100)
A city of 20,000 people called Cathokia (Cahokia) which is about 8 miles outside St. Louis close to the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers. It is the largest city north of Mexico. It flourished from 1050 to 1400 when it was abandoned for unknown reasons. Some speculate it was partly because of the global warming. A palisade surrounded the center of the city but no sign of war fare is evident. In 1150 a palisade 2 miles long was constructed. Between 1150 and 1300 the palisade was rebuilt a number of times and included bastions and consisted of 80,000 trees about 20 feet tall. They were trading down to the Gulf of Mexico. It is believed that the game of Chunkey Stone was first played here by two teams on plazas of 600 to 900 feet in length. They constructed great earthen pyramids, open plazas and hugh wooden buildings. The people of Cahokia practiced human sacrifice and had intensified maize agriculture. The Mississipian world included much of the eastern USA from Indians/Illinois to Texas/Florida to Virginia Some suggest Chunkey Stone was first originated in 600 A.D. in Western Illinois and evolved from the game hoop and pole that was thousands of years old. Some suggest Chunkey Stone was replaced with stickball and lacrosse with the collapse of the Mississipian culture.
By this date all 150 Great
A few hundred pueblo's are occupied in the Grand Canyon. They would all be abandoned by 1225 believed to be caused by climate change..
An Anasazi trade center in New Mexico offered pottery, turquoise and buffalo meat
Markaguni Plateau Volcanic field erupted this year east of Cedar City, Utah
Uinkaret volcanic field on the north rim of Grand Canyon erupted 1050 to 1200.
A supernova was observed by the Anasazi and
recorded in pictographs.
Jon, a Celt or Saxon priest, is reported killed in Vineland, by the natives. No reason is recorded for this death.
Lowery Pueblo in the Canyon of the Ancients was began to be built this year.
The Sunset Crater and Volcano about 12 miles west of Flagstaff, Arizona, erupted 1064-1067, some say 1040, others 1080 and continued until 1100 or 1150. It forced the Sinagua Indians to abandon their homes. A second eruption occurred 1122 ±75 years. The Sinagua People were forced to interact with the Mogolion, Hohokam, Anasazi, Payayan Peoples and maybe the Mesoamericans. The Hopi oral tradition includes this Sinagua Migration.
Adam of Bremen writes about Vinland.
Adam of Bremen, a German priest, in a history of the Archbishopric of Hamburg mentioned the existence of Vinland. This was most likely communicated to the Vatican.
A Norse penny dated from the reign of King Olaf Kyrre between 1065 and 1080 is found in Maine. This is good evidence that the Norsemen are visiting America more than a half century after first contact.
A coin of King Olaf The Peaceful of Norway (1066-1093) was discovered from an American-Indian site at Godard Point in Maine. This could imply trading with the Viking during or shortly after the reign of King Olaf. Some contend maybe it was the result of inter native trading not necessarily suggesting the Viking traveled to Maine.
Anasazi occupy the Aztec National Monument at Aztec, New Mexico. This city with its hotel complex is very impressive considering the period. It was called the Aztec ruins because they didn't think the Anasazi could engineer such a structure. Montezuma Castle and Well were so named for the same reasons assuming to be of Aztec origin..
On the Great Sage Plain of South West Colorado the Anasazi were weaving cotton on vertical looms. Cotton was imported fron southern Arizona or Mexico. The Kiva thought to be places of worship actually were used as places for weaving. Some used covered Kicas to house parrots and macaws during winter months. To the ancients all things and places were sacred. Kivas were just functional places to meet and work together.
The Hohokam people lived near Montezuma Well, Arizona in Pit Houses
The Sinagua People built
Wupatki Pueblo north of Flagstaff, Arizona between 1100 and 1182.
Wukoki Pueblo was built and
occupied 1120-1210. It appears to be
The Anasazi of the Mesa Verde,
During the 1100’s to 1200’s influence is believed to shift from Chaco Valley, New Mexico to Aztec Pueblo with it Great Kiva in northern New Mexico and Mesa Verde, southern Colorado and Chuska mountain region.
A devastating drought is believed to have ended both the Wari and Tiwanaku cultures. There cites numbered 60 to 70 thousand people during the height of their empires.
This century saw the peak of the New Viking Colony on Greenland that included nearly 300 homesteads and a population of about 5,000.
A young man, a shaman, carbon dated to this time, from the coastal area near Lima, Peru is embalmed using herbal plants. One herbal plant is tobacco which is only found 400 miles N.E. from Lima but more interesting the other herbal is from Mexico. It is assumed the Mexican herbal medicine, that is also used in embalming, was acquired in trade. The shaman was also smoked as part of the embalming process. The body showed signs of brain surgery at least 20 months prior to his death.
The Norse visited Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic as early as the 12th century and traded with the Thule, evidenced by chain mail. boat rivets, knife blades, and other artifacts turned up near Bache Peninsula on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada.
On a road leading to Huaca Rajada, Peru are three pyramids built by the Chimu people a post-Moche civilization about this time frame. Some believe it is older than this date.
The Sinkyone and Lonlongkok people are belived among the redwood tree zone in northern California.
A Bishopric is established at Holar, Eyjaftordor, Iceland.
The Aztec Ruin is actually an Anasazi Ruin (1110-1121) in North Western, New Mexico.
Tuzigoot (Apache for crooked water) Pueblo,
Arizona was built 1,125 to 1400 A.D. 120 feet above the flood plain of the Verde
River. It is not know if they dammed
the river or just took advantage of the flood plain to plant their crops.
Adjacent was tavased marsh lands that was likely full of birds.
They might have planted land to the north on higher ground but this would
require carrying water for the crops. The
Pueblo was abandoned 1425. These
People traded to the Pacific Ocean for shells.
Some suggest the Hohokam of the south and Sinagua Peoples of the north Arizona began to merged about this time. They were farmers as well as miners. They mined and traded salt out of Camp Verde, Arizona
Between 1125-1400 about 150 to 200 Sinagua
settlers lived at Montezuma Well Arizona or near the well.
A drought that lasted 1-2 centuries, as measured from tree rings in the Sierra Nevada, California was centered on this time. It coincided with a Medieval warm period when Vikings navigated the waters surrounding Greenland. A 2nd drought centered at 1340AD.
Most folks will agree the Pueblo (Anasazi) culture disappeared (1130-1150) as the people were forced to change life styles, disburse and migrate to other areas due to climatic changes. Tree growth rings revealed that a drought occurred in the southwest US 1130-1150 . This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona.
A most severe drought hit the 4 corners region in 1130-1180 without forcing the the people into cliff dwellings or to abandoned the lands. Some suggest the climate was not totally responsible, that northern Indians invaded the south making life untenable.
Ari Thorgilsson and Landnamabok say the Christian Papas (Papii or Papylia) were in Iceland before the Viking but afterwards went away because they did not wish to live with the heathens. They lived between Geirland's River and Firth River. They left behind Irish Books, bells and croziers. They are of Celtic origin. There was traffic between Iceland and Ireland.
Erik a Roman Catholic Bishop of Greenland sailed for Vineland and did not return. He is assumed dead and is replaced as Bishop of Greenland in 1124.
Some researchers of tree rings contend a drought starting this year lasted for one or two centuries in the Sierra Nevada which coincided with the Medieval Warm Period throughout the world. This assisted the Viking in exploring Greenland and Vinland. A 2nd drought centered 1340.
The four corners cultures of Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico
experienced a rapid increase in population due to a constant and regular
rainfall during the period (700-1130). It would appear that other cultures
joined this prosperous region. About this time the climate changed back to
normal patterns of drought. It's likely the ancients had forgotten
how to prepare for lean years and began abandoning their historic Pueblos.
Some contend during the period of 1130-1150 raiding parties swept through the Anasazi region killing the inhabitants and eating their flesh thereby contributing to the great departure from the region.
North America entered a period called the 'Great Drought' (1150-1450) that reshaped Indian cultures and forced migrations.
The Anasazi abandoned the San Juan county of the Four Corners Region leaving behind what they could not carry. As the climate changed the People migrated to rivers and stream locations. Food production occupied more and more time leaving less time for artistic skills. By 1450 all was abandoned. Research has not fully uncovered why so many cultures with high survival skilles abandoned their homes and possessions and migrated else ware. When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century it is estimated the Puebloan Peoples had abandoned more than 50% of their ancestral homes, which encompassed more than 200,000 square miles of territory.
Between 900 and 1150 the largest of the Mississippi mounds evolved at Monk's. The Monk Mound is built in fourteen stages. It covers 16 acres and stood 100 feet high. The church mound in Chokia Illinois, near St. Louis, extended six miles along the Illinois river, containing 85 structures and sustaining a population of 75,000 people. The early Europeans attributed these structures to the lost tribes of Israel not believing the natives capable of achieving such an advanced civilization.
The mound builders mark a distinctive change from a hunter-gathering culture into a mostly agricultural society. We also consider this a good thing, with few adverse effects. About 800 skeletons from the Mound Builders of the Illinois and Ohio have been analyzed and compare to their hunter-gather ancestry.
They had a 50% increase in enamel defects, indicating malnutrition.
A fourfold increase in iron deficiency, anemia.
A threefold rise in bone lesions.
Increased degeneration of the spine.
A drop in life expectancy by 7 years.
Pueblo Bonito (Chacon Great House) is the largest in Chaco Valley, New Mexico being occupied 850 to 1150. It contained 600 rooms towering 4-5 stories covering 3 acres containing about 28 kivas of all sizes. The Anasazi had advanced skills in building dams and canals. The Anasazi People abandoned Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico by 1250's..
Between 1150 to 1190 Chaco Canyon, New Mexico experienced a most severe drought. The Anasazi were starving and resorted to cannibalism to survive. Their great empire had ended and the people dispersed into smaller groups who could better adapt for survival.
Between 1150 to 1400 the Grand Canyon is abandoned by the People for unknown reasons, likely due to drought..
The Salado People occupied the Salt River Valley (southern Arizona) (1150-1450).
The Anasazi People built Bandelier New Mexico (1150-1550) abandoning the Cliff Pueblos for more open areas.
An Arabic book of geography by al-Idrisi who is in Sicily, noted that huge animals (whales) lived in the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean, and that on the innermost islands of the ocean lived a people (Eskimo) who used the bones of these animals to build their houses and for spears, clubs, benches, ladders and other tools. This suggests there was continuous contact with America and this account predates the Norse historical record.
About this time the fabled Seven Cities of Gold which included Quivira and Cibola originated when seven bishops had fled from Merida, Spain supposedly for far off lands to the west (America).
The Thule (Eskimo) started replacing the Dorset at Cumberland Peninsula. The Thule called the aboriginal Dorset (Tunnit). The Tunnit are giants compared to the Eskimo. The Tunnit are mainly seal hunters and they followed the seal migrations northeast as the weather improved.
The original Hopi territory in the southwest USA encompassed some 225,000 sq. miles around villages established about this time.
Some suggest a group of Anasazi villages in southwest Colorado were suddenly abandoned during a period of severe drought. In 2000 evidence showed that a raiding party had swept through the area, killed the inhabitants and ate their flesh.
A sugar maple tree at North Pelham in the Niagara Peninsula called 'Old Glory' is dated to this time and was still there rising over 90 feet in 1946.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum occurred between 800 - 1300 A.D. with the Medieval Climate Anomaly occurring 1159-1176. Many believe the MWP was warmer in Europe than 20th century climate. There is insufficient data in the southern hemisphere to support the European data. Australia data is wanting. The Antarctica date is some times the exact opposite of European data suggesting an unknown climate anomaly or a poorly understanding of the European data. Ice core data, sea surface data and tree ring data don't always agree. La Nina, El Nino oscillation patterns combined with the changing gulf stream intensity causes climate anomaly. Another significant factor is the jet stream stalling and change. Sun spot activity cannot be tracked with any accuracy over time. Some believe we just don't understand climate or have the ability to model it.
Madog (Madoc) a Welsh prince is claimed to have sailed westward with a small fleet and after several weeks reached a country whose inhabitants and production are quite different than those of Europe. Some believe they reached Mobile, Alabama and built a fortification. After remaining for some time he returned to Wales and equipped another expedition of ten ships including colonists and set sail and is never heard of again. It was speculated they returned to Mobile, Alabama and ventured inland to Tennessee. Tennessee is so named from Tanasi, the name of a Cherokee village on the Tennessee River. Others suggest the people he met who lived in the Carolinas were called Welsh-Indians. This Wales legend is kept alive because they wanted to prove a claim to the new world and so offset the Spanish claims. Some suggest the Mandan People are the decedents of these settlers. In the late seventeenth century, a Welsh (Celt) clergyman in the Carolinas reported the Tuscaroran tribe could communicate in Welsh. Many other accounts reported Welsh speaking natives. Many believe that he and his followers initially settled in the Georgia/Tennessee/ Kentucky area, eventually moving to the Upper Missouri, where they were assimilated into a tribe of the Mandans. New evidence is also emerging about a small band of Madoc's followers who remained in the Ohio area and are called “White Madoc.” HOWEVER there is no supporting evidence in Europe that Madoc even existed. I chose to retain this myth because when I started my quest in the 1950's the Viking adventuries were also considered a myth.
The glaciers in the Rocky Mountains, Banff, Alberta advanced 1190 to 1250. This is interesting as North America is gripped by the 'Great Drought' of (1150-1450)
Eyjafjordor, Iceland is occupied by Gudmundr, Omundr Thorkelsson, Thorvardr Thorgeirsson and Jon Ketilsson.
Greenland climate grew colder and Russian furs and elephant ivory trade cut deeply into Greenland's walrus trading future. Many Viking migrated to Labrador and built their long houses. Evidence suggests they intermarried with the Eskimo. The Viking described the Skraelings (Thule culture) as people without iron who used missiles made from walrus tusks and sharp stones as knives.
A drought hit the southwest (USA) around the Coso Mountains about this time.
During this century some contend the original Plain's People appear to have left the Great Prairies, they think due to drought. The plains would again be populated next century. There is a possibility that artifacts have just not been found for this period or they are attributed to another age.
The climate improved in South America and the people returned to farming the Andes from Columbia to Bolivia. Many had fled the area in 1 A.D. when the weather turned colder. The Inca peoples established the city Cuzco, Peru about this time but it was just a simple village at this time.
The Inca Empire conquered the area of Bolivia around this time and remained in control until arrival of Spaniards.
The Anasazi of the Mesa Verde, Colorado began
to move back into cliff alcoves that sheltered their ancestors’ centuries
before. These cliff dwellings made
Mesa Verde famous. Most cliff
dwellings were built 1190’s to 1270’s. Many
rooms were plastered on the inside and decorated with painted designs.
The Numic speaking people, the Utes and
Paivies arrived Anasazi land about this time.
Some think the Utes are Navajos (Dene from Alberta).
The Ute disagree they contend they were always here likely since about
15,000 B.C. Others suggest they migrated from Utah and maybe the Pacific
coast. Their are cultural traditions they migrated from Oregon and
others they originated from the Sioux. They lived in wickiups
similar to the Plains Indian tepee which suggests this might be their
origin. They have two cultural traits that separates them from the plains
Indian and North American Indians in general. Most Indian cultures the
male joins the female family but in the Ute culture the females join the mans
family. The Ute's practice polygamy usually marring sisters and this is
not found in other Indian cultures except during times of severe
conditions. They also practice slave trading but this is likely a recent
cultural tradition, from the 1800's. Utah is named after the Utes and I
suspect they acquired Polygamy and a male dominated family structure from the Mormon
culture. The closely related Shoshone, Goshute, Paiute, and Bannock
share common cultural traditions as well as linguistic stock. It's of
interest that the Shoshoni practiced slave capture of women and children in
their distant past. They are also a male dominated society.
Their are cultural traditions they migrated from Oregon and others they originated from the Sioux. They lived in wickiups similar to the Plains Indian tepee which suggests this might be their origin. They have two cultural traits that separates them from the plains Indian and North American Indians in general. Most Indian cultures the male joins the female family but in the Ute culture the females join the mans family. The Ute's practice polygamy usually marring sisters and this is not found in other Indian cultures except during times of severe conditions. They also practice slave trading but this is likely a recent cultural tradition, from the 1800's. Utah is named after the Utes and I suspect they acquired Polygamy and a male dominated family structure from the Mormon culture. The closely related Shoshone, Goshute, Paiute, and Bannock share common cultural traditions as well as linguistic stock. It's of interest that the Shoshoni practiced slave capture of women and children in their distant past. They are also a male dominated society.
Corn is being grown at Campbellville, Ontario. If corn is grown it is likely squash and beans are also grown as they are considered 'the three sisters' which should be planted together, according to the Peoples tradition. Their tradition suggests that corn is the food of God, that created the earth. Woman grew the corn from mother earth, suggesting that women were the agriculturists that developed corn second only to rice as a world food.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the Dakota People occupied western Ontario and eastern Manitoba prior to this date. Later before 1659 they would withdraw into the drainage basins of the Red, Mississippi and Rainy rivers.
The Thule aka Eskimo or modern day Inuit are believed to have arrived Eastern Canada about this time.
The Dorset Eskimo appear to have been replaced in Newfoundland about this time by the Labrador Eskimo.
Some time during this century the Navajo National Monument a pueblos in Tsegi Canyon located west of Kayenta, Arizona (130 miles from Flagstaff) is occupied. The two great pueblos are called Keetseel and Betatakin. If the people who built it are Navajo these are Na Dene or Athapascan People a fairly late comer to America arriving between 3,000 B.C. and 1,000 B.C. likely via boat and are genetically linked to Japan or China by a unique type of retrovirus gene JCV. The Chamorro and Flathead tribes also have this gene.
Dolores, Colorado area was little used by the Anasazi during the period 1200 to 1276.
Mexican archeologists discovered the ruins of an Aztec pyramid in the heart of Mexico City that dated to about this time
Petroglyphs on the Virgin Islands suggested they were occupied prior to this time.
The Pericu of Baja California are believed to be here about this time or earlier. Some suggest 1,000 or earlier?
The volcano in the north end of Death Valley named Ubehede erupted this year leaving almost a perfect cone shaped crater. I was impressed when we visited the site.
The Grand Canyon which had a few hundred pueblo's is now deserted, as a result of climate change.
The last mega hurricane struck the gulf coast of Alabama this year. The mega hurricane seems to happen on average every 600 years.
The museum in the
Montezuma Castle, Arizona was built in a cliff recess 100 feet above the valley by the Sinagua People during the period 1130-1400 AD. It was abandoned 1425. Earlier visitors assumed the Aztec built it
The Sand Canyon Pueblo in south west Colorado included 420 rooms, 90 to 100 kivas, 14 towers and several other buildings enclosed with a wall and was only occupied until 1285. There are 50-to 75 similar villages in the region. Why did they suddenly leave? Some say a great drought hit the region (1276-1299) but a longer and more severe drought hit the 4 corners region in 1130-1180 without forcing the the people into cliff dwellings or to abandoned the lands. Some believe invaders from the north forced the building of cliff dwellings for protection. There is little evidence of true warfare but there are indications of many violent deaths. Legend stories tell of savage strangers from the north who were treated kindly but they foraged their crops and massacre the inhabitants. This forced the Anasazi to build houses high upon the cliffs, where they could store food and hide away until the raiders left. This did not work as the strangers raided the cliff dwellings so the people fled south, never to return. Evidence of cannibalism exists either by the Anasazi or the strangers or maybe both.
Greenland stopped being green due to the colder climate.
This century saw one of the worst droughts in central America. As many as 20,000 people fled to the south and abandoned their homeland.
During the period 1250 to 1450 in the upper Mississippi it was a warm moist period.
Between 1250-1350 the Viking (Norsemen) were trading with the Dorset people at Nanook, Baffin Island. Some believe this trading period predates 1,000 A.D. but not verified. Of interest is the Viking brought rats to Baffin Island.
The Freemont People of
abandoned this region over the next 50 years.
The height of this culture was 700 to 1300.
Some believe they were being replaced by the Ute, Paiute and Shoshone a
more aggressive people.
These people are all related speaking a Ute-Aztecan language.
The Shoshone aka Newe or People, can be found in
Iceland, Greenland and North America came under the Norwegian rule during the reign of Haskon Haakonson (Haakon Kaskonson) (1217-1263)
A Greenland expedition is sent to Baffin Bay and Davis Strait to discover where the new Skraeling (Thule Eskimo) who are migrating to Greenland are coming from. They reported this area is a good hunting ground. This year Arrow-odd and Vignor went to Hudson Strait to track down Ogmund, who is banished. They found a fortified structure possibly the ruins on the Pamiok Island in Payne Bay on the west coast of Ungava Bay, Quebec. Ungava is an Eskimo word meaning an unknown faraway land.
This was a period of unprecedented political and cultural upheaval in new pottery styles that spread across the Americam Southwest. The archaeologists called it the Salado ceramics. They were found in the Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi area), the Four Corners region, the Mogollon of southern New Mexico, and the Hohokam in Arizona. This type of pottery was first discovered along southeastern Arizona. Salt River. Scholars now believe the ceramics were made by many different cultures rather than by trading. The Salado pottery lasted (1275-1450) and some suggest it represented a religious movement among the displaced woman. I find it interesting, when we can't explain something. we fall back on a religious reason.
The Henderson Site in New Mexico, USA, was occupied by about a 100 people in a village with about 50 large rooms during 1275-1325. The Indians occupying the site were in between the Plains hunters and the Pueblo farmers and showed evidence of both cultures. They grew corn and regularly ate dog. After the corn harvest they abandoned their village each year to hunt bison. The site is being excavated by a team from the University of Michigan.
A period of cool, extreme weather -- and a great drought took place in the American Southwest between 1276 and 1299. There are records of floods, droughts and extreme seasonal fluctuations up until the 1400's.
A 25-year drought began in the Four Corner region of America. Tree growth rings revealed that another severe drought occurred in the southwest US. This period corresponded with the abandonment of Anasazi dwelling sites in Arizona
December 4: Holy Land, a letter to Archbishop Drontheim commanded him to visit all parts of the Kingdom of Norway to collect tithes due the Holy Land. The diocese of Garder that includes Greenland and North America is exempted as it would take 5 years to make a returned trip.
The glaciers in the Rocky Mountains, Banff, Alberta advanced 1280 to 1340. This was during the period called the 'Great Drought' (1150-1450).
The Penny Ice Cap on Baffin Island, Canada is growing.
Between 1284-1390 the Viking (Norsemen) were trading with the Dorset people at Nanook, Baffin Island.
Tobacco is in wide ceremonial sacred pipe usage in Canada but other stimulants, intoxicants and hallucinogens are confined to southern north America regions were public drunkenness, as an example, is punished by death.
Black Rock Desert Volcanic field erupted about this date just west of Filmore, Utah.
A “No Loitering” sign was engraved on rock at an ancient cemetery near Mill River, Massachusetts, in the Phoenician language called Iberian Punic some 200 years before Columbus made his 1492 trip.
A second prolonged drought from 1276 to 1299 contributed to the final demise of the Anasazi culture.
The period from 1300 A.D. to 1650 A.D. is a period of 'Global Cooling' that is called the 'The Little Ice Age'
A drought pervaded the southwest of North America.
On the southern Baffin Island (Helluland, meaning land of stone slabs) about 200 km SW of Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada was discovered a stone and sod wall believed to suggest a Viking settlement existed about this time. This area was occupied by the Skraeling (Dorset) People at this time. This location is about 1,500 km NW from the only other verified Viking settlement in Newfoundland about 1,000 A.D. Viking artifacts and tools can be found in Newfoundland, Greenland, Labrador and now Nunavut.
Norsemen are wintering at Uppernauik where a runestone inscribed by them is found. A number of archaeological finds suggest the Greenlanders used Jones Sound District. This is north of Devon Island. Beacons, Cairns and Eiderduck nesting shelters is found in this region and appears to be non-aboriginal. A stone tower is found on the southern shore of Cornwallis Island.
The Anasazi People occupied the Aztec Ruins in NW New Mexico (1100-1300)
Mesa Verde, Colorado was
deserted. The Anasazi are believed
to have gone south into
Jemez People abandoned Huanatuta, in the four corners for Walatowa, meaning this is the place. They would build the Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico with 3,000 rooms and 3-4 stories high in 1500.
The Navajo and Apache an
Athabaskan speaking People arrived 1300-1500 in
The emerging Plains People of Western Canada at this time are dominated by the Algonquian speaking people, the Blackfoot, Gros Ventre (Big Bellies), Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa. Two anomalies existed, the Sarcee or Athapascan speaking people share a common origin with the Apache (which means enemy or alien) and the Navajo. The Sarcee, who call themselves the Tsuu T'ina People, originally lived in northern Mexico, California, Oregon and finally Alberta. The Sarcee legend tells how once a young Beaver leader shot an arrow through a dog owned by one of the braves in his band. He is so enraged that he swore vengeance against the leader. The tribe split into two factions and nearly a hundred Braves died. A truce is called and an agreement reached where the young leader and all his friends left the tribe. They carried away the new name of Sarcee, meaning, not good. The splitting of the tribe is not good but necessary to keep the peace.
The Mandan people began migrating west from the Mississippi Valley, then up the Missouri into North Dakota.
The other anomaly is the Assiniboine or Siouan-speaking peoples who are related to the Iroquois-speaking peoples. Assiniboine is a tribal name meaning Stone Roasters, referring to their method of cooking. The Assiniboine, Hidatsa, Mandan (meaning those who live along the river), Crow and Dakota Sioux differentiated south of Lake Superior. The only non-cultivators of the great plains are the Blackfoot. The Blackfoot also are different from the rest of the Algonquian in that they worshiped the sun rather than the Great Spirit (God). The sun worship in many cultures is synonymous with the Great Spirit belief. The Blackfoot originated in Manitoba near the Hudson Bay. Most other early tribes are villagers and farmers or at least semi-nomads. The other Siouan-speaking peoples such as the Crow and Winnebago (meaning fish eaters) would arrive later. The Sub-arctic peoples of the three Prairie Provinces is dominated by the Athapascan speaking peoples that covered Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories and central British Columbia. These are the Slave, Sarcee, Yellowknife, Dogrib, Hare, Beaver and Chipewyan. They are believed late comers to Canada from Siberia. The Eskimo influences their culture and language. The Algonquian-speaking people made up the balance of the Sub-Arctic being the Wood, Swampy and Plains Cree. The Cree called the Slave peoples Awokanak that means slaves.
The Chipewyan tribal name means pointed skins referring to their capes. The eastern Sub-Arctic is solidly Algonquian speaking including the Saulteaux (Ojibwa), Naskapi, Mistassini Cree and Montagnais. The Beothuk of Newfoundland is an anomaly speaking Beothukan. The Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence Valley is dominated by the Algonquian peoples, the Ojibwa, Algonkin, Ottawa (Odahwaug) and to the east the L'nu'k ( Micmac). The Cree, Sioux and Iroquois however visited the area. The Iroquoian speaking peoples such as the Wendat (Huron), Mohawk (meaning cannibals) would arrive later. The Algonquian named them Mohawk meaning cannibals based on their early cultural practices. The Ottawa (Odahwaug) tribal name means to trade.
The Panum Crater at Mono Lake, California., erupted about this time.
Some time between 1286 and 1307 a ship set out of Morocco with Shaikh Zayn-eddine Ali ben Fadhel Al-Mazandarani and reached a Green Island in the Caribbean.
Al Umari records an expedition of 400 sailors commissioned by King Abubakari II of Mali West Africa to explore America but only one ship returned. The results were encouraging so the king sent a second expedition but it didn't return.
Bakari II, the Malinke Emperor of Mali, Africa, it is claimed by some to have
led two hundred large pirogues on an expedition westward across the Atlantic,
where he is said to have reached Brazil.
Many Muslims believe that Muslim Blacks under orders of Emperor Mansa Akubakari Muammad explored America, trading, socializing and intermarried and converted many native Americans to Islam.
Chicken bones were discovered at El Arenal, Chile among the Mapuche culture of (1000 to 1500 AD) and DNA and carbon dated to 1321 to 1407 AD. The DNA confirms they are the same chickens from southeast Asia, specifically Tonga in the south Pacific Ocean about 1/3 of the way between New Zealand and Hawaii as well as Samoa of the south Pacific Ocean. There is little doubt that all three locations are Polynesian locations. More astounding is the fact they made round trips taking back sweet potatoes and bottle gourds to southeast Asia.
The Aztecs migration into the Valley of Mexico began about this time.
The Aztec mark this year as the beginning date of their civilization. They are the last of the Nahuatl-speaking people who came to the valley of Mexico from the place of the seven caves. They believed they are the chosen people whose mission is the subjection of all the nations of the earth. This is interesting given their belief that the previous four Ages of man are destroyed because of this desire to dominate other people. They believed if they offered blood that kept human beings alive to their sun it would provide sustenance that would prevent its death. Their concepts of heavenly tiers and the nether world of the dead are undoubtedly analogous to the same concepts in India, China and Tibet.
April 24: Erling Sighvatsson, Bjarni Thordarson and Endridi Oddsson the Norsemen are in Greenland on the North west shore.
The Viking Greenlanders are still making regular trips to Markland (Labrador?) for lumber and one ship with 18 men is blown off course ended up in Iceland (or Ireland?) this year.
The Skraeling attacked the Viking Eastern settlement in Greenland killing eighteen and captured two boys and one woman.
Ivar Bardarson visited Greenland and could not find one man, either Christian nor heathen. There were a few wild cattle and sheep which he collected and put into his ship. He also said the Skraelings now held the colony.
One of the two major Viking settlements in Greenland is abandoned this year. There have been numerous Norsemen artifacts showing they have been in the area for the past 100 years. The Dorset peoples had left the southern locations for more northerly locations and some Montagnais peoples moved to southern Labrador. Ivar Bardson on a relief expedition to Western Greenland settlement found it to be abandoned.
An expedition was ordered under command of Paul Knutson, a Judge and member of the Royal Council, to search for the lost colony of Western Greenland, who were believed to have gone on to Vineland. It is believed this expedition explored the Eastern coast of America and discovered the Hudson Bay and ascended the Nelson River to Lake Winnipeg and into the Red River. There is little doubt they journeyed to Hudson Bay as depicted on the Genna Frisius globe of 1537. Paul Knutson was ordered to find and and return the colony to the true faith using force if necessary. The inhabitants of Greenland fell voluntarily away from the true faith and the Christian Religion, and having given up all the good manners and true virtues, turned to the people of America. The Church had expropriated 190 farms in lieu of payment for indulgences, special masses, etc. reducing the people to serfs and tenant farmers.
The Iroquois of St. Lawrence Valley are living in a clan system where women dominate the political and economic order. Men moved onto the clan of their wives mother and marriage is not allowed within the same clan.
The Havasupai People of Nevada began their migration to the Grand Canyon where they remain to modern times. Some believe the Cohonina People preceded the Havasupi People in the Grand Canyon,
The Hohokam people built and occupied Casa Grande meaning, Great House, (Arizona) (1350-1450). As a culture they traded or traveled to the Gulf of California for turquoise to make jewelry. They occupied the territory around Phoenix Arizona.
Sand Canyon Paublo in the Canyon of the Ancients, south west Colorado was built 1250-1280 and abandoned 1285. Canyon of the Ancients contain some 10,000 ruins.
The Freemont People of Utah abandoned this area because of drought, some believe. They had occupied this area since 400 AD and their ancestors the Desert Archaic People since 8,000 B.C.
Paul Knutsson of Norway is sent to Greenland to restore the Church of Rome. They sailed into the Bay of the North and into James Bay landing near the mouth of the Albany River. Some believe they reached Lake Nipigon.
The Kensington, Minnesota Runestone was discovered November 1898 by a Swedish man named Olaf Ohman while grubbing trees. The Kensington, Minnesota Runestone could be linked to the 1360 Knutsson expedition. The stone reads, "eight Gotalanders (Swede) and twenty two Northmen (Norwegians) on acquisition journey from (or for) Vineland far to the west. We had camp by two skerries one days journey north from this stone. We were and fished one day. After we came home found 10 men red with blood and dead. A.V.M. (Ave Maria) save from evil. There are ten men by the inland sea to look after our ships fourteen day's journey from this peninsula (Island). Year 1362." One account suggests the Kensington Stone is in the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology in Toronto and is found near Lake Nipigon on the north shore of Lake Superior. Also discovered near lake Nipigon are a broken iron sword, axe blade and fragments of what could have been a shield, apparently of Norse origin. Pierre Girard suggests this must be a copy as the Kensington Runestone is in the Douglas County Museum in Alexandria, Minnesota, not far from Kensington, Minnesota where it was found. He goes on to say there are several iron weapons (supposedly of Viking origin) there as well. One sword was found at Ulen, Minnesota, not far from Fargo/Morehead. Some believe the Norse explorers explored Lake Superior to the western ends, as the Runestone suggests, others suggest they arrived via the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). The disputed Runestone is in the National Historical Museum in Stockholm (2004). Tests suggest it was created before the arrival of Scandinavian immigrants in the Midwest. In 1985 two USA academics one being geologist Scott Wolter (*) admitted to carving Viking inscriptions on a one tonne rock to cast doubt on the original Kensington Runestone uncovered in 1898 dated to 1363. (*)Michael Zalar suggests it was not Scott Wolter but Kari Ellen Gade a professor at Indiana University, Bloomington, Jana K. Schulman, an associate professor at Southern Louisiana University and three others. Some claim the Kensington stone is a modern forgery. Newton Winchell in 1909 studied the inscription and suggested the weathering couldn't have been made in the 19th century as some skeptics claimed. Some contend the Cistercian monks accompanied by Knights Templars carved the 200 lb stone. Inadequate peer review brings this theory into question. The scientific community remains split on the stone being a fraud vs. authentic.
An inscribed stone is also reported discovered in North Dakota in 1738 by Pierre De La Verendrye and shipped to France, then lost. The aboriginal people may have moved these artifacts from their original locations however there are is no doubt the Greenlanders penetrated deep into Canada long before other European peoples.
The black death devastated much of Greenland and possibly the mainland. The Eskimo advanced southward to take possession of the Viking settlements.
Some claim the Basques began dominating the history of whaling when they discovered the Grand Banks by 1372. Basque fishing, trading, or pirate ships rediscovered and perhaps even pillaged the desperately isolated and likely abandoned Viking Eastern Settlement on Greenland, probably before 1450. I wonder if the Basques sailed with the Viking?
A Norse vessel is reported lumbering in Markland.
It was reported that the last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
Basque sailors frequented the 'Bay of the North' (Hudson Bay) based on the ballast discarded on the beaches. The Basque People are the indigenous peoples of Europe and are not related to other Europeans. They are known to be great sailors and most of the Columbus crew were Basque. Some suggest the Basque were frequenting Newfoundland in the 1200's. This appears to be dubious or it may make reference to the Viking.
The Iroquois Confederacy is formed by Dekanawidah and Adodaroh alias Hiawatha that means river maker. They united the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, and Onondaga. It is interesting to note that the Hiawatha legend and teachings are well known throughout the Ojibwa tradition. Hiawatha is believed to be a Mohawk.
Bjorn Jonsson wrote that about this time, as stated, south of that part of Greenland which has settlements, deserts, unsettled areas and snow-mountains, then Skraelings, then Markland, then Vinland the Good. Next to it, and a little back, lies Albania, that is Hvitramannaland; thither formally were sailing from Ireland, Irishman and Icelaanders recognized here Are (Ari), son of Mar and Kotla from Reykjaness, who had not been heard of for a long time and who had become a chieftain in the land.
June 30: Henry St. Clair aka Sinclair, a Viking-Scot and Knight Templar, (1345-1400) is said to have landed in Guysborough Harbor, Nova Scotia and established a colony there naming it the Land Estotilanda and traveled into Pictou and Stellarton. Others suggest Prince Henry Sinclair, first Viking Warl of the Orkneys, crossed the Atlantic with a fleet of twelve ships to arrive in Nova Scotia. It is believed they spent a year among the L'nu'k ( Micmac) and Malecite. They sailed to Rhode Island and established a second colony building a stone tower that can be seen in modern times. The colony included Knights Templar and some Venetian sailors. The MicMac called them Glooscao or Kuloskap and had a ledgend that Sinclair would return.
Henry Sinclair (1345-1400) the Earl of Orkney landed in Massachusetts this year, then he vanished from history, to be memorialized in stone at Rosslyn Castle, near Edinburgh by his grandson. A Map of the east coast of America showing his two colonies including the stone tower was produced and circulated. The colonists intermarried with the locals and their Metis descendants were noted by the early visitors to these regions.
The Algonquian, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Potawatomi all claim to have come from the east to populate the St. Lawrence Valley about this time.
The Ojibwa tradition suggests the Totemis (brotherhood or guild) System dates back to the time when the Earth is new. This likely represents when the glaciers retreated from Canada. The Ojibwa tradition suggests that when the Earth is new, the Anishinaubag (spontaneous Man) lived on the shore of Great Salt Water. This however could also reference their California origins but more likely represents their Quebec origins. Some associated beliefs of this tradition may date to antiquity but the surviving clans likely originated just before or during the migration from the Salt Sea to Lake Superior or when the Cree and Ojibwa separated. It is noteworthy that the People believed that Anishinaubag or the Spontaneous creation of the People began in the Americas.
Prior to this time it is believed the Potawatomi (People of the Fire) occupied the S.W. end of Lake Superior. It is believed the Mound Peoples preceded the Potawatomi People. This year the Dakota (Dacotoh Sioux) drove the Mascoutins (People of the Fire) a branch of the Potawatomi from the SW shores of Lake Superior. The had been trapping beaver, harvesting wild rice, spearing whitefish and hunting dear.
About this time the Peoples in present day Ontario are cultivating squash (genus Cucurbita) both the bush types and the running type. Squash is believed to have originated between 7,000 to 5,000 B.C in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico.
The five original Totem's or more correctly Dodaim (badges) are:
Awause, claimed to have a pre-eminence at council, all future fish totems originate from the Awause, having thin hair, baldness in old age but are long lived.
Businause, also known as Buswawag (Echo-Maker), cry of the Crane, acknowledged orators and interpreters.
Noka acknowledged warriors, keepers of the war-pipe, the war-club, having thick, blackest course hair that seldom whites or thins with old age.
Monsone (Waubishashe) includes remnant captives of the Mousoneeg.
Their tradition suggests a sixth Dodaim existed but the Anishinaubag looked upon him who instantly fell dead as if struck by thunders and only five remained. The sixth clan is the Mousoneeg who are absorbed by the Monsone. The Mousoneeg are numerous and powerful when the Ojibwa lived towards the rising sun. The are ill tempered, obnoxious, warlike, quarrelsome and proud of their strength and bravery. Slight cause caused them to make war on their brothers the Monsone. A General Council decided the Mousoneeg should be exterminated as a clan. The men are killed and the women and children absorbed into the Monsone clan.
It is noteworthy that the Dakota Sioux did not use the Totem system were as other Algonquian speaking people and the Iroquois Nation did use the system, lending some credibility to their antiquity claim. It is considered a great evil to enter marriage within ones own Totem even among the Cree or Iroquois as an example. The Iroquois considered it so serious as to be punishable with death. This however is not the case among the Algonquian Peoples. It is noteworthy that the Totem System descends in the female line as the Algonquian are maternal by culture as are most if not all of the American People. Early Europeans refused to acknowledge this reality. By 1850 these five clans had expanded to 21 totems.
The peoples around the Great Lakes have been growing corn for the past 400 years. The Wendat (Huron), recent new arrivals, have introduced beans and squash. They settled in the same location from (1400-1649). The Iroquois confederation recently formed are trading with the Algonquian for canoes and snowshoes. Some people suggest the Ojibwa migrated from the Saint Lawrence Valley to Lake Superior as far west as Leech Lake about this time. The Lake Superior People are known as Kechegummewininewug or People of the Great Water. Those living between Lake Superior and the Mississippi are called Betonukeengainubejig or those who sit on the borders (of the Great Lake?). Included are the Munominikasheenhug, the rice makers and the Wahsuahgunenininewug, the men of the torches.
The subject of religion pervades all aboriginal cultures. They are especially a holistic and reverent people, viewing themselves as extensions of animate and inanimate nature. Prayer dominated their life being required before the killing of animals or taking of plant life. Religion and ritual are integrated into all daily activity. Religion is by choice rather than by imposition. The Native cultures had a richness of myths and legend as a way of understanding reality that is incorporated in ceremonies and sacred objects. They shared a quest for visions, music and dance as a part of their ritual. They also had the notion of sacrifice to gain favor of God or spirits, both good and evil.
Most Native Nations embraced the notion of tolerance, sharing, and above all held all men as equals. They love to debate, never interrupting or getting angry while conversing. Their patience and tolerance is legend. They believed in good and evil, use of sweat lodges in purification rite, free trading, and games for entertainment and dancing. They held great respect for the land and lived in harmony with nature, an integrated pattern of existence. They love peace and are gentle and sociable by nature. They had elaborate rules governing trading with other tribes. Often they exchanged children as guarantees of friendship. This sacrifice is not appreciated unless one understands their deep love of their children. Actions that imperiled good relations with other tribes are punished severely. Punishment is usually group censure and exclusion. Force is used only after great debate and consensus. The principle of hospitality and sharing is present in all nations. It is rare indeed that any People go hungry while another had food. Most hunters who returned with game would take none for himself until he had fed others.
Most early Canadian Peoples through custom and tradition rather than law and coercion regulated social life. They had formalized rules of marriage and home between cooperating families to ensure kinship ties and alliances between bands and Nations.
Tillamook or Killamook People inhabited a large area with their main village at the Kilchis River, Oregon starting about this time.
Baffin Island, Canada is believed to be frequented for trade up to this year.
Kittigazuit Bay aka Mackenzie Rivera Delta, is believed to have developed into a settlement of 1,000 Eskimo and had a peak population of 2,000 when hunting the beluga whales. C.E. Whittaker in 1896 witnessed 25 men kill 40 whales that weighed on average 1,000 lbs. Other hunts have killed several hundred whales.
It is believed the fishermen of Iceland, England and Portugal are fishing cod off Americas shores. Europeans have long discovered artifacts washed up on their shores from America. The Portuguese reported dugout canoes and bodies of men who were "very droad in the face and of an appearance different from that of Christians", which were brought ashore from the west.
Some time this century a complex map was etched on a basalt boulder near Snake River near Givens Hot Spring, Idaho. It has been interpreted as a map of the Upper Snake River and surrounding environment. It is believed to be made by the Shoshone who entered this region about this time.
A site known as Dodd near Steele, Missouri, close to Byltheville is believed to be the center of a seismic zone for a major earthquake this year. Earthquakes have occurred here in 2000 B.C., 300 A.D., 900, and 1450, caused by a continental fracture created about 600 million B.C. This area was inhabited before, during and after the earthquakes.
The Ahwahneechee, a Southern Sierra Miwok band, first began to inhabit Yosemite in California.
Occupants of the Towosaghy site near New Madrid, Missouri, burned their temple about this time. Later evidence indicated that this coincided with a major earthquake in the area.
Hawaii is settled about this time.
Near Chicalayo in Northern Peru, an Inca region, is discovered the remains of 33 young girls, about age 15 years, obviously having been sacrificed.
Chickens are evident in Chile suggesting Polynesian sailors out of Asia are living or visited this region about this time..
The last Maya capital city at Matapan falls
A Chinese coin from the Yung-Lo (1403-1424) period was found on the Oregon coast.
Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) dispatched 317 ships with 27,870 men, women and children to collect tribute from the barbarians from beyond the seas. The Chinese Emperor wanted 'All under heaven' to be civilized in Confucian Harmony. Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) personally conducted 7 voyages of exploration between 1405 to 1433, the first being 62 of his 317 ships this year in search of the former emperor who fled likely toward America. Each fleet of ship was self contained including onboard gardens. Chinese artifacts discovered in America suggests some of the Chinese fleet landed on both the east and west coast of the Americas. Their genetic foot prints in the form of a unique type of retrovirus gene, JCV can be found among the Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead tribes.
An Icelandic ship was blown off course and landed Greenland. They stayed until 1410 for unknown reasons.
Bishop Endride Andreson is recorded as performing a marriage in Greenland.
The Olafsson expedition makes the last recorded visit by Icelanders to the Greenland settlements. The had spent 4 years in Greenland. British merchants are fishing and trading in Iceland and are speculated to be trading to Greenland.
The Basque reached Iceland this year. Some speculate it was not long before they reached America but proof is wanting. Others suggest it was 20-30 foreign fishing vessels sighted off western Iceland.
The south eastern settlement of Greenland (Kakortok) had 190 farms, 12 churches and two monasteries. The western settlement had 90 farms and 3 churches. The village of Garder (Kaksiarsuk) was the seat of the bishopery.
Nicholas V in September 20, 1448 writes: A Barbarous and Pagan fleet from neighboring shores (Canada) invaded Greenland, laying waste the land with fire and sword, and destroying the sacred temples. Just nine parish churches were left standing. To these are attached, it is said, parishes of very great extent. Those churches left intact, because being situated in the mountain fastness, they were inaccessible to the barbarian hordes, who, after completing their work of destruction, led captive to their shores (Canada). The unfortunate inhabitants of both sexes, and more particularly those who seemed best able to bear the hardships of servitude and tyranny, but as the same complaint sets forth, many of these captives, after a time, returned to their native lands. They set to work to rebuild their ruined homes, and were particularly desirous of restoring divine worship to its former splendor because of famine and want they could not support priests or bishop for the next 30 years.
Ivar Bardsen's led a punitive expedition from the eastern settlement of Greenland against the Skrellings who had possession of the western settlement. When they arrived the Skrellings had departed and nothing remained but ruins and a few cattle running wild.
Legend suggests the Basque (Portugal) sailors are working Greenland and the Labrador Sea and are trading with the natives. This legend is likely based on a Viking legend. Some believe the King of Portugal had Chinese maps in his possession at this time. The Chinese are exploring the west coast of America. It is believed they made several exploration trips to America.
Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435), a Muslim eunuch, commanded the Chinese navy that consisted of 317 ships with 28,000 to 38,000 sailors. It is believed his navy explored America on several occasions. China at this time had the largest ships and the biggest fleet in the world. The flag ship was 475 feet long, by 193 feet wide, European ships by contrast were about 100 feet long. Europe at this time was considered an uncultured backwater place by the Chinese with nothing of value in trade. Admiral Zheng the explorer circumnavigated the world for Emperor Yong Le visiting 30 countries returning October 23, 1427. About this time the Rhode Island Tower believed to be built by Chinese colonists that were abandoned due to a ship wreck. The Tower is believed to be a light house likely to signal the Chinese navy. The total fleet is recorded to have visited 1,000 countries.
Some claim this work is mostly fiction and does not hold up under scrutiny.
The North American Indian tribes the Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead tribes share a common unique type of retrovirus gene JCV found only in China and Japan. This suggests some intimate contact in Mexico or British Columbia.
A Chinese brass medal authorized and awarded by Xuan de of Great Ming voyages (1426-1435) is discovered at the center of a Cherokere village several hundred miles from the coast of North Caroline.
A bronze plate is found in Susanville, California dating to Xuan de of Great Ming voyages (1426-1435) period.
The Netarts Sand Pits in Oregon contained porcelain from the Chinese Emperor Zhu Di's reign which is the same time period of Zheng He around the world trip.
Some claim a tsunami hit the Oregon coast this year destroying a Chinese ship but I have not seen any corroborating evidence. You would think the Indians would have big ocean wave stories like those after the 1700 tsunami hit North America. HOWEVER in the mid 1400's, they couldn't be more specific, a big earth quake occurred off New Zealand causing a tsunami. Destroyed settlements verified this occurrence and the people relocated inland to higher elevations. New Zealand has tilted 80 centimeters to several meters as a result of earth quakes with resulting tsunami. In January 23, 1855 a 8.1 to 8.2 quake off New Zealand caused several types of tsunami. In August 1868 a 9.0 quake hit off shore Peru-Chile generating a tsunami.
Antilia, middle America first appeared on European Naurical Charts this year. Some believe Antilia could be present day Cuba. It was believed Antilia could be found on the 28 parallel which would put it in Florida.
Global cooling is believed responsible for the decline and fall of the Viking Community in Greenland. At this time the American average temperature is estimated as 0.45 C vs. 0.1 C for 1950. By the 1450's this average temperature had plunged to -0.05 C. and by the late 1400's had risen to nearly 0.3 C. Vikings were farming in Greenland soil that in 2004 is permafrost and sailing in Arctic waters is pack ice.
King Nezahualcoyotl (1431-1472) a poet, architect and engineer from Texcoco, Mexico assembled a library of hieroglyphic books that are later burned by the Spaniards.
Zheng He and his companions, at the beginning of Zhu Di's reign, commanded the eight voyage of discovery to the western regions and to circle the world. The remains of a Chinese junk were found in the Sacramento River of San Francisco Bay the wood of which was dated to 1410, likely the date of construction. (Some contend this has not been proven) Pieces of Chinese Armour were also discovered. Other Chinese articles from this same period include:
Neahkahnie Bay - wooden pulley
Sacramento Junk - Chinese Armour and wooden artifacts, traces of Chinese language in the native population.
Los Angles - Chinese Anchor
Ecuador - Chinese Anchor
Venezuelan - Chinese DNA
Peruvian - Bronze writings, traces of Chinese language in the native population
Nicolo da Conti claims to have sailed from India to China via Australia in a Chinese Junks.
The long known, but ignored by researchers, a map of Greenland and Vinilands (Island of Vinland) is considered authentic by the Smithsonian Institution scientists in 2003.
A bronze plate is found in Susanville, California dating to Xuan de of Great Ming (1426-1435)
Some place the reign of the Incia Emperior the Great Pachacuti (He Who Shakes the Earth ) (1438-1471) as the beginning of the Inca Empire with the building of Maschu Picchu and the rebuilding of Cusco as their capital city. It is believed that Machu Picchu was built 1450-1470, no more than 20-50 years. The Lords of Cusco are listed as Manco Capac, Sinch Roca, Lioque Yupangui, Mayta Capac, Capac Yupanqui, Inca Roca, Yahuar Huacac, Viracocha to Pachacuti (1438-1471). The Inca refined borrowed institutions and technology to create an empire of unimaginable size. The Inca took existing roads and joined them to create a highway system. Between (1438-1532) the Inca would link and build a road network of some 25,000 miles far surpassing the Roman Empire achievements. It took less than a half century for Pachacuti and his son Tupa Inca to rule over 10,000,000 subjects across 2,700 miles of the Andes. This extraordinary feat exceeds that of Alexander the Great. Cuzco's population was estimated at 80,000 to 100,000 and Peru at 8 million citizens. Machu Picchu is an engineering marvel. They constructed the entire mountain, designed to safely drain water away to avoid erosion. The levels were constructed on gravel, covered with soil so crops could be grown yet safely control the rain. Fresh water springs were channeled throughout the ruins. Bodies found nearby are believed to be staff, not laborers as previously thought. They ate well and had no signs of being over worked.
The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
The oldest map of North America, produced about this time, shows Island of Vineland, Greenland, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Naturally some contend it is a forgery but evidence suggests it is authentic. The Vikings however must have produced numerous maps of their travels, as did the Chinese. The map was made in the upper Rhineland and might have been made for the Council of Basel (1431-1449) a major church group. The map has been carbon dated to this time period. The "Vinland Map" was introduced in 1965 by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse.
papal letter written this date says a Greenland settlement was attacked in 1418
from the nearby shores of the heathens and most churches were destroyed.
Archaeological evidence however does not support this destruction nor any occupation
evidence of natives. Pope Nicholas V refers to Greenland as having been a
Christian country for about six centuries prior to this date.
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INDIAN HISTORY 1450 - 1499