METIS CULTURE 1805-1808



The Hudson Bay Company occupied the Bay for over a century
but never surveyed the area, nor made charts to guide the ships.
They requested Clergymen as teachers, but none could be found who would leave Britain on any terms.



  10/01/2012
 
METIS HISTORY 1809-1811

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index

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It is noteworthy that no white women are reported in the Red River area until 1806.
The census of 1805 lists 110 white women and 167 white children.
These would be primarily of Metis of French origin.
It is noteworthy that this is the first reference to white vs. non-white people.
More European evil is invading the Lands of Brotherhood.


   

1805

(I)-William Alexander Aitken (Aitkin) aka Aitki of Edinbugh, Scotland died September 16, 1851 Swan River Post (Aitkinville) arrived in the Great Lakes region being employed by John Drew about this time.  It is said he had at least two wives (IV)-Striped Cloud Madeline Ermatinger Metis Payshahquodoguay daughter of (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kadowaubeda) and Gingioncumigoke.  He is said to have 25 Metis children some named Alfred murdered at Red Ceder Lake about 1836, John, Matilda, Roger, Nancy, Elizabeth, Ann, Julie E., Salina, Robert, Amanda, Sarah J., Childe, Isabel, Henry and Edgar.  William later worked for the American Fur Company in William Morrison'e Fond du Lac Department.  Later he was chief trader at Sandy Lake operating into Pembina to the west and Rainy Lake to the north and south to the Crow Wing River.   

Francis Bailly, Ottawa Metis, b-1805 Grand River, son Angelique McGulpin, Ottawa Metis b-1786 listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

York Factory, birth (II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1805-1869) son (I)-Alexander Birston, Orkney, (1774-1829) and Indian Woman; (Share of fathers estate admininistered by HBC (1831-1837) Family was in Columbia District (Oregon) in 1841?
married 1st April 7, 1831, Red River Sally Budd (1806-1833);
    (III)-Jane Birston Metis bapt 1832
    (III)-James Birston Metis bapt 1833 
 married 2nd Betsy Atkinson bapt 1838, d-1839
    (III)-Betsy Birston Metis bapt 1828
    (III)-Alexander Birston Metis bapt 1836

Madeleine Bonneau, Metis, b-1805 N.W. daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died 1842 Red River and Louise Native, b-1760; married Jean Baptiste Gervais, born August 26, 1790, son Jean Baptiste Gervais and Francoise Jouineau.

Paul Bouche (La Malice) Metis brother to Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) Metis (1789-1826)  traveled with Simon Fraser (1776-1862) into a new area that Fraser named New Caledonia,  NWC 1805/06 Trout Lake Post  He appears to have had sex with Blaisí woman. The men left him and made their way to Rocky Mountain Portage.  He returned to Red River and was a wife beater and acquired the name La Malice.

Nancy Ann Calder, Metis, b-1805 N.W. daughter James Calder and Nancy; married Samuel Foulds.

Prairie du Chien, birth Louis Gabriel Brisbois, Metis son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1827 Judith Provost.

Jousette Cook, Metis b-1805 Red River des Metis, married about 1833 Joseph Coak (Cook) b-1814 Pembina, a hunter. 

(II)-Ramsey Cooks b-1787 arrived Quebec 1803 and in 1805 went to Michilimackinac to work for Robert Dickson & Co.

Marguerite Danis (1805-1873) daughter Jean Baptiste Danis and Marguerite Labbert; married February 19, 1833, Red River, Louis Lamirande, b-1793, Quebec.

Red River des Metis Settlement, birth, Josette Desjardins, Metis, daughter Jean Baptiste Desjardins Sr., and Josette Laserpente; married Charles Larence, b-1797.

Marie Marguerite Desjarlais, Metis, b-1805 NWT, daughter Joseph Desjarlais, b-1754 and Okemakwe; married 1827 NWT, Louison Allery, Metis b-1800 NWT daughter Michel Allery (Allerie) Metis b-1765 NWT and Francoise Cree

Francois Xavier Desjarlais, b-1795 St Paul des Sauteux (Minnesota), married 1828 Red River Marie (Otshihkan) Bottineau, Metis, b-1805, Red River des Metis, daughter Charles Joseph Bottineau, (1776-1824) and Techomegood. 

Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) of the Lewis and Clark expedition, as an interpreter, is sent back to St Louis with the Chiefs of the Yankton, Omaha, Oto and Missouri tribes. 

Red River (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853), wife Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880 and family are transferred from Sault Ste Marie to Red River of the North (Lake Winnipeg) working for William McKay of the North West Company. 

Jean Baptiste Fontaine b-1790-98 married Isabelle Rivard, b-1805, Red River des Metis, daughter, Jean Baptiste Rivard Sr., b-1772, and Therese Belanger, b-1778. 

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) who joined NWC 1792 Montreal and became a partner in 1801 was asked to expand the trade over the Rocky Mountains and build trading posts.  He built Fort McLeod this year.

Joseph Gagnon born 1805 Red River Settlement son Joseph Gagnon born 1766 Canada

Eastman, birth (II)-Mary Gladman, Metis (1805-1805) daughter  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858)

Jean Baptiste Grant, Metis, b-1805 son Peter Grant, b-1764 and Margaret Ahdiksongab aka Marthe Ckear Sky; married 1830 St. Boniface, Red River, Julie Ducharme aka Descouteaux, Metis, b-1814, St. Boniface, Red River des Metis daughter Nicholas Antoine Charon Ducharme, b-1795 and Genevieve Cree.

Red River of the North, birth of Jean Baptiste Hamelin, Metis son Jacques Hamelin and Angelique Tourangeau.

Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) wrote: says the junction of the Assiniboine and Red River "the country around is pleasant, the soil appears to be excellent, and it is tolerably well timbered with oak, basswood. walnut, elm, popular, aspen, birch etc. Grape vines and plum trees are also seen.  I wonder if Edouard Herman is his son?  He later had a son this year named George.  When Harmon was at the mouth of the Souris River mouth aka River St. Pierre there existed three forts, Brandon House of HBC built 1794; Assiniboine House of the NWC, situated about one and a half miles above which was fully operational in 1797; and Fort Souris of the XY Co.  The NWC at this time also had a trading post 45 miles up the Souris River named Ash House built in 1797.  About 50 miles above Souris mouth was an important post of the NWC called Fort Montagne a la Basse. 

Edouard Herman, Metis, b-1805 Red River des Metis, a hunter, 2nd marriage about 1841 Red River, Marguerite Paquette b- 1826 Red River.

(I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) Surgeon from England joined HBC (1805-1821) Churchill, Northern Department received permission to bring children to England but he offers his service to Red River;  married (II)-Betsy Cocking Metis (1775-1835) aka Ke-che-cow-e-com-e-coot (Wee-misti-goos).  She is at Norway House with two kids in 1827.  Recorded children;
    (II)-George Holmes Metis (1807-1820)
    (II)-Elizabeth Holmes Metis (1813-1820)
    (II)-Charlotte Holmes Metis (1820-1833) Red River 

(III)-George Kipling, Metis b-1805, Red River des Metis, died after 1875, son (II)-John Kipling, Jr. Metis, (1781-1825 or 1849) and Nancy Saulteuse (1778-1840/43); married November 28, 1828, Red River, Isabella Landry, b-1815/16, died after 1875, daughter Jean Baptiste Landry. 

(III)-Jane Kipling, Metis b-1805, Red River des Metis, died after 1881, daughter (II)-John Kipling, Metis, (1774-after 1849) and Nancy Saulteuse (1778-1840/43); married November 1831, (II)-Thomas Fidler Metis  (1795-1875) 

Marie Lachevrotiere, Metis, b-1805 daughter Joseph Lachevrotiere and Native woman; married 1824 Red River, Joseph Vandal, born July 9, 1797, Sorel, Richelieu, Quebec.

Marie Lemire, Metis, b-1805 NWT, likely Alberta, daughter Pierre Lemire and Mary Blackfoot; married, 1824, George Thorne, b-1797, Sorel, Quebec. 

Julie Mackenzie, mixed blood, b-1805 daughter (I)-Alexander MacKenzie, b-1763, Scotland and Marie Eskimo (Inuit);  married about 1819, Pierre Leveille. b-1783 son Joseph Leveille, b-1783 son Joseph Leveille and Isabelle Boivin.

Albany, birth (II)-Alexander McKay Metis (1805-1842) son (I)-John McKay (1753-1810) and (II)-Mary Favell, Metis b-1775; (II)-Alexander joined HBC 1821-1842) married Rupertís River Catherine Robertson Metis, daughter of James Robertson.  William and Isabella could be children of (I)-John?
   
(III)-William McKay Metis. His children were 
            (IV)-Joseph William McKay Metis, 
            (IV)-Louisa McKay Metis
            (IV)- Matilda McKay Metis
    (III)-Isabella McKay Metis (wife of (I)-Joseph Beioley (1785-1859)). their  children were (some could be another wife?)
        (II)-Mary Fletcher Beioley Metis b-1817
        (II)-Mary Flecher Metis b-1819 
        (II)-Richard William Fletcher Beioley Metis
        (II)-Fletcher Robert Beioley Metis b-1822
        (II)-Joseph Alexander Fletcher Metis d-1864

William McIntosh (1784-1842) is located in the Peace River country.

Angus McGillis (1774-1842), son of Donald McGillis of the N.W.C., is assigned to Fort Dauphin.

Louison Marcellais, Metis, b-1805 son Jean Baptiste Marcellais, Sr., b-1767, Canada, married 1794, Angelique Assinboine Indian, b-1785 most likely North West; married Sophie a Native.

Louis Matte (Matt, Mat) Metis born between 1805-1810 Albany employed blacksmith HBC married Therese Piegan d-1844 Fort Benton

Dakota, birth, Joseph Montre jr. son Joseph Montre and a Dakota woman; Joseph Jr. married Toyahta Dakota 2nd marriage Mergd who was first married to James Hayes.

Marie Otschihkin Bottineau, Metis, born 1805, Red River des Metis, daughter Charles Joseph Bottineau, (1776-1824) and  Techomegood; married 1828 Red River, Francois Xavier Desjarlais, b-1795, St. Paul des Sauteaux son Francois Desjarlais, born August 19, 1771 Contrecoer, Quebec and Madeleine Roy.

(II)-Alexander McKay Metis (1805-1842) son (I)-John McKay (11753-1810) and Mary Favell Metis,; joined HBC (1821-1842) Moose & Rupert's River, married (II)-Catherine Robertson Metis daughter (I)-James Robertson (1759-1809) and Indian woman.

Jean Baptiste Paquin, Metis b-1805 Pembina married Genevieve Ainanikip-kik, b-1815 Pembina.

Joseph Parenteau, Metis b-1805 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Angelique Godon, b-1813 Red River.  1850 census.  (Joseph b-1811 N.W.T. & Angelique, Metis b-1818) Genealogy First Metis Nation.  1st child born 1822 suggests a second marriage, 2nd child born 1833 suggests Angelique b-1813 likely more accurate.

(I)-John Robertson (1786/87-1828) employed HBC (1805-1828) married an Indian woman had 4 Metis children, one named 
    (II)-Jane Robertson Metis, 

(II)-John Robertson b-1807 from Eastman, Hudson Bay likely son (I)-George Robertson (1771-1855)  

Felicite Sassete b-1805, a Saste or Shasta (Hokan) married 1839, at Cowlitz, Oregon Territory, Francois Piette dit Faignant, b-1800 Quebec, a HBC man

Francois Savoyard, Metis b-1805 Pembina, a hunter, married Madeleine Comtois, Metis b-1825 Pembina.  1850 census.  (Francois b-1808 son Francois Savotard b-1784 & Marguerite, Metis b-1788, & Madeleine b-1822 N.W.T. daughter Gilbert Comtois b-1815? & Marguerite Martyin, Metis b-1820? Red River)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.  Comtois parents appear to be in error.

John Sayer Jr. is assigned to Lac des Chats on the Ottawa River by the N.W.C.

Oxford House, birth (II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Sinclair, Metis (1805-1878) daughter (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married 1st (I)-George Simpson, married 2nd (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1970).

Mrs. William Sylvester, Ojibwa Metis, b-1805, arrived 1819 Mackinac, wife? William Sylvester, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son -Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, and a contingent of Metis, followed the MacKenzie River route along the Peace and Parsnip Rivers. establishing Fort McLeod (1805) at McLeod Lake, the first permanent settlement in British Columbia and in 1806, established a Fort at Stewart Lake, B.C. 1806, aka Sturgeon Lake and later known as Fort St. James.  He also established Fort Fraser (1806) at Fraser Lake.  He named the area New Caledonia (New Scotland), which was the Roman name for Scotland, and Fort George (1807), now Prince George.  Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccen, died in 1850, a Metis French and Cree ancestry, accompanied Fraser.

Ramsay Crooks of New York is at Mackinac in the employ of (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) and Company, engaged in trade to the Missouri and Red River to Canada but mostly with the Dakota's.

The North West Company sent George Keith to established Fort Nelson, B.C.    They also constructed Fort Good Hope on the east bank of the Mackenzie River, 805 km northwest of Yellowknife.

Old Swan, a..ka. Ak Ko Makki, a Sikiska Chief, drew a map of the west for Peter Fiddler of the Hudson Bay Company at Chesterfield House on the Red River and South Saskatchewan River.  Fiddler upgraded the map to include all known information on the west and it was published.  It is noteworthy that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had access to this map and therefore knew exactly where they were going.

Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814), the younger, reported the North West population for the Company's fifteen districts in Indian Country:   A total white fur trade population of 1,090 men, 368 women and 569 children. (There were no white women in Indian Country, therefore the women and children are Metis or native).  Other reports suggest 1,610 men, 405 women, 600 children and 77,368 Natives; excluding the southern Lake Superior North West Company trading Department.  The North West Company, including acquired XY Co., itself totaled 1,250 men.  The overall estimate of North West Territories population is 7,502 men, 16,995 women and 52,871 children.  The estimate of men vs. women must be greatly exaggerated, or wishful thinking?

The North West Company Lake Superior posts include:

    South Lake Superior      North West Lake Superior

          Kamanistiquia                  Lake Nepegon
          Fond Du Lac                   Lac Des Isles
          Follovoine                       Monoutagua
          La Pointe                         Pic
          Montreal River                 Michipicotton and Bay
                                                  Batchenoinan

Joseph Gagnon born 1805 Red River des Metis Settlement son Joseph Gagnon born 1766 Canada.

Joseph Lambert is in Pembina, Red River with Alexander Henry (1807-1808) he is with NWC (1811-1814) Lake Ouinipes (Lake Winnipeg) 

(II)-William Sutherland Metis born 1805 Red River des Metis Settlement son (I)-James Southerland, HBC (1787-1806) living St. Paul, Red River 1870.

William Thomas born 1804/1805 Red River des Metis Settlement son Thomas Thomas, living St. Paul, Red River 1870.

Suzanne Smith (widow) born 1805 Red River des Metis, living St. John, Red River 1870.

(III)-Jeanne Cameron, Metis, born 1805 Metis likely at Turtle River, North West daughter (II)-Joseph Dugald Cameron (1770-1857) a Canadian, who made a life long commitment to his Indian country wife was living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Louis Villebrin born 1805 Red River des Metis Settlement son Louis Villebrin, living St. Boniface, Red River wife Louise Collin born 1820 Red River daughter Joseph Collin.

Fort Gibraltar (Winnipeg) is built as the chief post of the interior by the North West Company to supply the entire Western Operation.

Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814) and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), on July 3, 1805, recorded the Red River des Metis Settlements population as follows:

                                       WHITE                                             INDIAN

Location              MEN    WOMEN   CHILDREN      MEN     WOMEN   CHILDREN  

Upper Red River   56              52              82               1,170          1,200         2,500         
Lower Red River   75              40              60                  160             100            250     
Lake Winnipeg      88              11              15                     90            111            194  
Rat River               25                7              10                     70             90             150

    TOTAL       244        110         167            1,490       1,501     3,094      

                                       WHITE                                             INDIAN

Location              MEN   WOMEN   CHILDREN          MEN    WOMEN   CHILDREN  

Athabasca            208             48              84                                not given
Athabasca River    37              12              15                    55              38              66
English River          78              40              63                  211            380         1,100
Rat River               25                7               10                   70              90             150
Ft des Prairies      136              59             103              4,823       13,632        45,906
Fort Dauphin          45              22               18                   19              17               31
Upper Red River    56              52               82              1,170         1,200          2,500
Lower Red River    75              40               60                 160            190             250
Lake Winnipic         88              11               15                  90             111            194
Lac La Plue             46              10               10                103             141            195
Fond du Lac          128              29               50                499             784         1,944
Nepigon                   90              20               20                238             283            299
Kamanistiquia
Mille Lac
Lac des Chins           62              16               36                  70               84            178
Le Pic                       16                2                 3                  44               45              58
                            ----------------------------------------------------------------------
                            1,090             368             569            7,502         16,995      52,871    

The Inuit are totally excluded, and most counts are based on those who are engaged directly in trade.  AMK Co. has 520 men, 37 women and 31 children.   At this time, there are no known white European women in the country and very few non-Metis men.  Daniel Williams (Daniel) Harmon (1778-1845) observed a white child, adopted by the Ojibwa, living among a large encampment on the Red River.  Some of the Metis men would be off hunting, and some Metis or their wives and children would be living with the Indians.  The population of the Red River Colony of the New Metis Nation is six thousand, six hundred and six people before the English even decided to settle in this area.

The Ojibwa at Netley Creek, Red River des Metis planted a traditional European garden.

Antoine Desjarlais, Metis, b-1794, North West Territories, son Joseph Desjarlais, b-1754 and Okemakwe; 1st married about 1821 Marie Alexis Metis b-1800, 2nd marriage Catherine Allary,  a former guide and intreperter NWC (1793-1804) claimed sovereignty over Red Deer Lake, Saskatchewan, having left the North West Company to become a freeman with his Native wife and Metis family.  The majority of Metis considered themselves freemen.  The indenture system forced the French and English Voyagers into servant roles.

The Ojibwa tradition restricted the choice portions of all animals to the men. However, the French Metis ignored this long standing tradition and choose to share the best portions with his wife and children.

John Randolph of Virginia responded to American settlers in the west who claimed Canada was arming and stirring up the Indians by saying that it was mere surmise and suspicion.  It is our own thirst for territory that has driven these Sons of Nature to desperation.  Congress, however, created the Michigan Territory.  St. Paul (Minnesota), the Metis center, claims itself as a settlement this year.

Pegouisse (Peguis), alias the Destroyer and Little Chip (1774-1864) of Sault Ste Marie, has been working the Red River since the 1790's.

Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) wrote:  "At Fort Assiniboine, it is now upwards of fifty years since a French missionary left this area".  The missionary had resided here a number of years, instructing the Natives in the Christian Religion.  Daniel Harmon (1778-1845), an American trader, claimed that in the past four years of trading Fort Pembina to the Rocky Mountains, he never had a chance to speak a European language other than French.  He recorded that the Eskimos at the mouth of the Coppermine River had European trade beads, probably traded by the Danes at Davis Strait. On June 2, James Hughes and Alexander Stewart are on the South Saskatchewan, having come on horse from the North branch. On September 11, Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845)  is assigned to Cumberland House and James Hughes and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and company passed through on their way to Fort des Prairies.  The nearby Hudson Bay Company Post, Nottingham House is commanded by (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822). On September 17, Harmon sends Peras to winter at Moose Lake.

Charles O. Oakes settled on the south banks of the Saint Mary River, and in 1808 he moved to the Canadian side of the river.  He married Charlotte, the daughter of Katawabeda (Broken Tooth), Chief of the Sandy Lake Ojibwa.  He operated trading posts at the Sault, St. Joseph Island and Drummond Island.

Capt. Samuel Hill entered the Columbia River to acquire timber for spars.  He likely encountered the same natives that Louis and Clark would later encounter.

Louis and Clark wintered at Fort Mandan and encountered a young 17 year old Shoshoni girl named Sakakawea (Sacajawea) aka Janey, (1789-1812)*  who had been captured in the Rocky Mountains by a party of Hidatsas.  Toussaint Charbonneau (1767-1843), a French trader living in the Knife River village, had bought her as one of his wives (1) February 11, 1805.  She gave birth to a son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Metis, on February 11, 1805 who died 1885.  Rene Jusseaume administered an Indian remedy for speeding up labor and her first child was born within ten minutes.   The baby would be taken on the expedition trip.  The expedition had hired them both as guides.  The young couple would be settled at Kawsmouth by 1823.  It is noteworthy that Native women owned the houses, gardens and household goods, the European in contrast could not own property.  *birth date varies from 1784 to 1787 Lemhi Vally and death December 20, 1812 Fort Sumner, North Dakota or April 9, 1884 Shoshone reservation Wind River Valley, Wyoming.  (1) one of his other wives was Otter woman.  Toussaint Charbonneau was a bit of a drip and a rapist but Sacajawea appears to be an exceptional person.

Joseph Howse, with 20 men, reoccupied Fort Chesterfield for the H.B.C.  John MacDonald of Garth represented the N.W.C. and the XY Company that was acquired by the N.W.C.

Daniel Williams Harmon (1778-1845), an American, being of stern scruples, having rejected his friends urgings to acquire an Indian mate, finally succumbed to that age old urge.  He acquired a Canadian Daughter, aged about 14 years, a French/Cree Metis named Elizabeth Duval.  His intent was to dispose of her when he finished his tour of duty.  He eventually married his Country wife in 1819, and when he retired, took his wife and two younger daughters, Sally and Polly, with him into retirement.  His older children remained in the field.

On Vancouver Island, eight of the crew of the Athualpa are killed by the natives.

A fire virtually destroyed much of Detroit.

Prairie des Chiens, a Metis settlement, had 16 houses,  St. Feriole 8 houses and around the area were about some 37 houses.

The HBC visited the NWC Fort La Reine (near Portage la Prairie), up the Assinibina River and said, "it is a miserable fort, in a most beautiful location". 

January:  St. Crox (Minnesota) Pierre Bostonais aka Tete Jaune, an Iroquois Metis, d-1827, in the employ of the HBC,  buried his son.  Pierre went on to work for the NWC then became a famous freelance scout, guide and interpreter in the Rocky Mountains.

January 11: An Act was passed to make the Territory of Michigan.

January 29:  York Factory, birth (II)-John Frederick Kennedy, Metis son (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married an Indian woman..   They had several children including (III)-Alexander Augustue Kennedy, Metis, surgeon, died April 1859

 February:  Sault Ste Marie, birth, Marguerite Martineau, Metis, daughter Abbroise Martineau and Josephte a native; married 1824 N.W. Francois Gourneau.   Ambroise epouse Charlotte

February:  Word reached the field that the NWC and XY Co. had merged last autumn so this precipitated a number of Fort closures to avoid duplication.  XY and HBC had a number of small posts between Swan Lake and the Assiniboine.  One fort was Bird Mountain, another at Swan Lake which David Harmon (1778-1845)says was near the site of a HBC post, abandoned several years before 1800.  Up the Assiniboine was Thornburne House, Grant House, Marlboro House and  Carlton House.  Dog Hill, Moose River and Turtle Hills was noted by David Thompson in 1797.  Arrowsmiths map of 1857 shows Birdstail Fort at the mouth of that little stream, near Fort Ellis aka Beaver Creek Fort, which is a mile or two below the mouth of the Qu'Appelle. and Fort Hibernia on the head waters of the Assiniboine above Fort Pelly.

February 11:  At a Mandan village birth of Baptiste Charbunneau a Metis son Toussaint Charbunneau and his wife Sakakawea (Bird Woman) (1784-1884) a Shoshone raised by the Mandan.  George Drewyer Metis was present.  She guided the Louis and Clarke expedition to the Pacific.

April:  Lewis and Clark, in April, entered what was to become Montana Territory.  Francois Antoine la Rocque accompanied a band of Crow to Big Horn River, Montana this year.  The Louis and Clark expedition discovered the ruins of the Spanish fort of James MacKey at the Junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers built in 1795.  To say they were surprised is an understatement.  However most if not all the territory covered by the Lewis and Clark expedition had been previously traveled by the Spanish and Metis.  It is noteworthy that Juan Rivera a Spanish expedition crossed the Rocky Mountain in 1765 from east to west from central Colorado. 

April, Rainy Lake:  The N.W.C. Post reports that all the women are out making sugar.  Mr. Grant's girl was especially expert at the job.  

May 1:  The state of Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state, or risk either imprisonment or deportation.

August: Governor Wilkinson Governor of Louisiana issued an edict, on his own authority, that banned citizens, and subjects of foreign powers from entering the Missouri River region for the purposes of trade with the Indians.

September: The Lewis and Clark expedition met the Nez Perce Indians in Clearwater and Smake Rivers of (Idaho) Coulmbia territory.

November:   The Louis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific at the mouth of the Columbia River (Oregon/Washington border).

December 8:  birth, Narcisse Marion, married 1830, Marie Bouchard, b-1814.

December 16:  Andrew Henry (1775-1833) likely at St. Genevieve, Louisiana, possible son Alexander Henry the elder (1739-1824) married Marie Villars.

December 27:   Fort Chesterfield is again abandoned by all parties due to the continued objection of the Natives. It is not reopened until 1822 in a different location.

 

 

1806  

The Lewis and Clark Expedition became the second expedition to cross North America, north of New Spain.  The first being the Mackenzie Expedition of 1793.

Agathe Azure Sr., daughter Joseph Azure Sr., b-1769, Sorel, Quebec, died January 28, 1832 Red River and Lizette Manaecha, Native, b-1775; married Pierre Pelletier Sr., Metis, b-1799, died August 13, 1849 Pembina, Red River son Antoine Pelletier and Marguerite a Native.

Angus Bethune, likely Metis, (1783-1858) employed NWC (1804-1821); HBC (1821-1839), assigned Lake Winnipeg (1806).

York Facrory, birth (III)-Nancy Birston, Metis daughter (II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1774-1829) and Indian woman died before 1821; 
Married March 18, 1830 James Walker (Vollar), one child recorded 
    Elizabeth Walker, Metis b-1849, married June 27, 1867 Robert Alexander Taylor.

Mrs. Isaac Blanchard, Ojibwa Metis b-1806, arrived 1826 St. Ignace wife of Isaac Blanchard and a relative of Aintz, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(I)-William Budge, Orkney b-1798 employed HBC (1790-1802) he deserted the HBC to work for the NWC and then returned.  He was haunted by the fear that the Canadians would assassinate him.  In 1806 he was sent with letters from Beaver River to Paint Creek in company with 2 Canadians.  He heard one of they say to the other "Let us roast the Englishman as he is lazy and will not assist in beating the path (walking first through the snow), he feared for his life.  He shot them while they slept; one was killed and the other escaped.  He was delivered to the custody of the Canadians.  .

Louis Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806 Sault Ste Marie son Cadotte Ojibwa Metis and Ojibwa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(III)-Genevieve Cameron, Metis, born May 24, 1806, Lake Superior daughter (II)-John Dougall Cameron. (1770-1857) a Canadian and Marie Lesperance, Indian b-1770; married Joseph Daigneault, the family settled in Red River.

Mary Chandler, Ottawa Metis, b-1806 Mackinac, wife Joseph Dailey, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Married to him a few days ago.

Bela Chapman Sr., Metis, b-1806 arrived 1826 Mackinac, living Milwakey, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Susan Charboneau, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1826, St. Ignace, wife Louis Charbeau, Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.   

Francois Champagne, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1833 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected the chief Chebuyowbaas says there is no relation. 

Mary Chapman, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1826 Mackinac, wife Bela Chapman Sr., and listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Accepted as lives in Mackinac, traveled on business to Green Bay and put on list at request of council of chiefs.

Elizabeth Chebeau, Ottawa Metis, b-1806 Mackinac, wife Louis Chebeau, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Ramsey Crooks arrived Michilimackinac on his way to St. Louis and the Missouri River Region.

Mrs Joseph Le Cuyer, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1831 Mackinac, married to Joseph Le Cuyer, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  He mother a Gd Island Squaw (iskwao) (Indian).  (Squaw is a very insulting English word.)

Michel Desmarais, Metis, b-1806, Red River des Metis son Francois Desmaris Sr. b-1784 to 1788 married 1803 NWT, Eliget (Elizet) Desmarais native. 

Pierre Dorion Jr. Metis married an Iowa woman Mary Toway (L'Ayvoise) Metis and had three children, Jean Baptiste, Margaret and Paul.

(I)-William Dunnet aka Dunnett, Dennet (1780-1864) employed HBC (1796-1821) married (II)-Sophia Ballendine, Metis, b-1791 described as an Indian woman or halfbreed but is likely the daughter of (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 aka Ballentine, Baldeden and Ballendine and Indian Woman; he was married to Elizabeth Gray back in Orkney.

Red River, birth (IV)-George Ermatinger Metis (1806-1822) son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

(I)-David Flett who worked York Factory (1806-1812) married Janet Borwick of Scotland?
     (II)-David Flett (1813-1842) born Scotland worked Fort Colvile, Columbia District
        (III)-David Flett Metis (1818-1846) joined HBC (1841-1842) Columbia District.

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant,  noted that the Carrier People at the confluence of the Stuart and Nechaco Rivers had a pistol, brass-mounted, with powder and ball, that he believed came from the Pacific coast.

(I)-Isabel Gunn aka (I)-John Fubbister (1780-1861) daughter John Gunn and Isobel Leask, joined HBC (1806-1809) Albany gave birth to boy (II)-James Scarth b-1807) at Pembina in the NWC house.  She was discharged September 14, 1809 "We cannot think of keeping this Woman any longer, as she is of a bad Character, and has not answered the intentions for which she was detained.  Isabel and her son went home on Prince of Wales.  The father was (I)-James Scarth b-1807.  She is the first woman in HBC and first woman in Red River District as well as first to give birth.

(I)-Isabel Gunn aka (I)- John Fubbister (1780-1861) traveled to Henley House with (I)-John Scarth b-1807 from Albany 

J.E. Harriott of the North West Company married Elizabeth Purden, Metis, promising her father he would live with her and treat her as my wife as long as we both lived.  The marriage was concluded by a dram of liquor and a wedding dance.  Most Country marriages included an exchange of vows.

Rupert's River, Eastman District, marriage (I)-Hamlett Henry Hawthorn b-1782, employee HBC (1803-1812) married (II)-Elizabeth Bolland, Metis (1757-1810), during childbirth, daughter (I)-William Bolland (1757-1804) and Elizabeth Penchequay aka Penachequay, an Indian Woman.

Alexander Henry the Younger,  (1764-1814) married 1806 Madeleine Saulteaux (Chippewa), this is his third or 4th wife

Alexander Henry the younger, (1764-1814) of NWC led a brigade into the Missouri River to trade with the Mandan, and was back at Pembina by August.. 

(I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) employed HBC (1805-1821) married 1806, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799) and Le-lo-es-com; Betsy epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827): 

Albany, birth (II)-John Inkster, Metis baptized January 23, 1821 Brandon House son (I)-James Inkster, (1774-1854) and Mary a Cree Woman, b-1790: married 1833 Isabella Sandison 

Charlotte Jerioux, Ottawa Metis, b-1806, arrived 1811 Sault Ste Marie, daughter, Jerioux a British Officer and Ottawa Metis woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Cindy Leutz believes its possible Charlotte is Charlotte Spenard who married Pierre Giroux on Drummond Island 1826 and is the mother of Pierre Giroux Jr. who married Marie Louise St. Onge dit Letarde.  Joseph Gorneau in 1854 mixed blood treaty says Charlotte Giroux is his cousin?

Catherine La Croix, Ojibwa? Metis, b-1806, Mackinac, sister Franbcis La Croix, Ottawa Metis b-1802, mother a L'Arbre Croch woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Different mother than brother??

Augustine Laroque, Metis, born Prairie du Chien, married Sioux Woman, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin but at some point moved to Clayton County, Iowa.  Brother of Joseph.

SIX CHILDREN ARE RECORDED:
Augustin Laroque, Metis, b-1807 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Catherine Laroque, Metis, b-1809 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Francis Laroque, Metis, b-1811 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, married 1841 Genevieve Codd
Louis Laroque, Metis, b-1813 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Anglic Laroque, Metis, b-1815 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin
Theresa Laroque,  Metis, b-1820 Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin

Joseph La Framboise (1765-1806) his wife Madaline Marcotte, Metis (1780-1846) daughter Jean Baptiste Marcotte (1720-1783)  who is the daughter of Ke-wi-na-quot (returning cloud), an Ottawa chief  and his wife Marie Nekesh (1740-1790) ; their son Louizon (their only son is Joseph La Framboise (1805-1856); 12 men; and old Angelique- their slave, departed Mackinac to winter at the upper part of Grand River, Michigan.  An Indian entered the tent of La Framboise and shot him dead.  Marcotte continued on to the wintering location where she buried her husband.   She conducted the trade, returning to Mackinac in 1810.

Joseph (Louis) Laframboise, born May 1765 Trois Riveres, married 1794 churched July 11, 1804 Mackinac Island, Marguerite Madeleine Marcotte, Metis (1780-1846) daughter Jean Baptiste Marcotte (1720-1783) and Marie Nekesh (1740-1790) an Ottawa Indian, Nation Courtes Oreilles daughter White Cloud; Joseph died 1806, shot in the back by White Ox a drunk Indian, on his way north to Mackinac Island.  Earlier in the day Louis had refused liquor to White Ox.

Francois LaRinere born 1806 Red River des Metis claims to be white son Smaveulise LaRinere, living St. Vital, Red River 1870.

(II)-Phoebe Longmoor, Metis, born Hudson Bay daughter (I)-Robert Longmoor and Indian Woman.

Nancy Lozon, Ottawa Metis, b-1806 Mackinac, wife Joseph Lozon, Ottawa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John McBean d-1854of the N.W.C. is stationed to Folle Avoine (Wisconsin) under James Leith

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) was Chief Agent Fond du Lac Department, 1806-1812, with headquarters at Leech Lake.

Alexandre (Jerome) dir Giroux McGillis, Metis, b-1806 Red River des Metis, son Angus McGillis. b-1774, New York, died January 23, 1842, Red River and Marguerite Notinikaban Vent DeBout, b-1779 Red River des Metis, died October 4, 1851, Red River; married 1830 Marguerite Mendemoya Botteau, Metis, b-1806 Pembina, died September 29, 1893, Batoche, (Saskatchewan) daughter Charles Joseph Bottineau (1776-1824) and Techomegood.

(III)-William McBean (McBain) Cree Metis b-1807 Folle Avoine, Lake Superior, d-1892 Walla Walla, son (II)-John McBean (1778-1854) and country wife Sarah? a Chippewan; joined HBC (1828-1851) assigned Ruperts River (1828-1833) then New Caledonia (1833-1844) then Columbia District (1844-1851), married 1834 New Caledonia and churched 1844 Fort Vancouver, Jane Boucher Metis b-1821, daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher Metis (1789-1849) and Nancy McDougal  
    (IV)-John McBean Metis b-1837 New Caledonia bapt 1842 married 1st Jane; married 2nd Mary Eneas 
    (IV)-Nancy McBean Metis b-1839 New Caledonia bapt 1842 married Theophile Mesplie, 
    (IV)-Mary McBean Metis  b-1844 bapt 1844 married 1867 Walla Walla Edwaed Lefecvre
    (IV)-Sophie McBean Metis bapt 1845 
    (IV)-Charles Donald McBean Metis (1846-1916), born Walla Walla bapt 1847 married Amelia McBean
    (IV)-Josephine McBean Metis b-1853
    (IV)-Pierre McBean Metis b-1855
    (IV)-William McBean Metis
    (IV)-Henry McBean Metis 

Mrs. Charlotte McMurray, Ojibwa Metis, b-1806 Mackinac wife William McMurray, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Admitted by request chief at Ste Marie and of the chiefs in General Council.  This suggests her mother may not be a Michigan Ojibwa. 

(I)- Edward Mowat (Mowatt) of Orphir, Orkney (1786-1857) joined HBC (1806-1833) Churchill, Nelson River, Norway house married, 1822, New Churchill, churched December 13, 1838, Red River, Margaret a Native, b-1800 North West Territories.  .  Nine children were born in the field,                 
    (II)-John Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Thomas Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Robert Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Edward Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-David Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Jean Mowat Metia, 
    (II)-Margaret Mowat Metis, 
    (II)-Charlotte Mowat Metis, and 
    (II)-Rebecca Mowat Metis all baptized September 19, 1834 Red River.  
They had one adopted daughter Catherine Atlikson baptized May 19, 1846 Red River.  

Michel Beatinau (Patenaude), Metis b-1806 Red River, a hunter married Josette Bourassa, Metis b-1808 Red River.  1850 census.  (Michel b-1808 & Josette b-1810)  Genealogy First Metis Nation. 

Zebulon Pike (1779-1813) observed Pike's Peak from 15 miles away and his name was used for it's discovery but the Spanish had previously discovered and named it Sangre de Cristo Mountains. 

Sault Ste. Marie, birth, (IV)-Charles Piquette, Ojibwa Metis,  married 1824 Marie Ojibwa Metis b-1807, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Antoine Plouffe, Metis b-1806 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Archange Marcellais, Metis b-1815 Pembina.

James Reed arrived Michilimackinac on his way to St. Louis and the Missouri River Region.

Mary Shaw, Ojibwa Metis b-1806, arrived 1821 Sault Ste Marie, related to one of the sub-chiefs and wife of Thomas Shaw b-1803 Sault Ste Marie a near relative of the chief Ste. Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Oxford House, birth (II)-James William Sinclair, Metis (1806-1856) son (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; James W. Sinclair joined HBC 1826 trip to Columbia District returned to Red River as a freeman, HBC 1841 trip to Columbia District & (1854-1855) Columbia District and he had three successive wives and eleven children. 
In December, 1829 at Red River, he married Elizabeth Bird (1811-1845) and together they had 
     (III)-Elizabeth Sinclair Metis d-1834), 
     (III)-Alexander Sinclair Metis (1833-1834), 
     (III)-Harriet Sinclair Metis b-1832 
     (III)-Emma Sinclair Metis d-1843), 
     (III)-Louise Sinclair Metis (1841-1843)
     (III)-unnamed Sinclair Metis child b-1845
After Elizabethís death in 1845, he had a daughter, named 
     (III)-Mary Sinclair Metis bap.1848, by Jane Whitford.
 He then married Mary Campbell Metis b-1826 (daughter of Colin Campbell and a Cree woman) and together they had
     (III)-Mary/Maria Sinclair Metis d-1855 or 1856), 
     (III)-Jane Sinclair Metis b-1851
     (III)-Agnes Sinclair Metis  
     (III)-unnamed Sinclair Metis boyb-1856
After the death of James, Mary Campbell Sinclair married an Indian Agent, Nathen Olney. They lived together one week and divorced one year later.

(I)-John Hodges Spenser (1790-1881) Joined HBC (1806-1857) Chief trader Columbia District (1826-1827); married 1823 (II)-Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1818) and Margaret Nahoway; Recorded children are:  In 1845 at Fort George he had 11 children.
    (II)-Edward Spenser Metis b-1821 York Factory
    (II)-William Spenser Metis b-1822 York Factory married (III)-Caroline Small b-1827 daughter (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) 
    (II)-John Robert Spenser Metis (1831-1893) married Ann Jane
    (II)-Rupert Spenser Metis (1836-1915) born Eastman, Ruperts River, married 1863/64 Mary Ann Ross 
    (II)-Mary Spenser Metis b-1837 married (II)-John Garton Metis Jr. (1828-1911) son (I)-John Garton Sr. (1784-1831)
    (II)-Miles Spenser Metis (1839-1919) born Nichiquon, Ruperts River, married Edith McLaren 
    (II)-Charles A. Spenser Metis (1845-1872) married Sarah Truthwaite

Red Lake House, birth (II)-Emma Thompson Metis died February 22, 1814 Montreal daughter (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and (II)-Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

Meskanee Point Turner, Metis, married, 1806, Fox Lake, York Factory, Akeenaason Cree.  One son is recorded David Turner, aka Bear, Metis, married Maria Tate, b-1830 Red River.  

(III)-Jean Baptiste Versailles, Metis, b-1806, son (II)-Luois Bourquin dit Versailles, b-1743 and Magdelaine Montagnaise Sauvage; married February 18, 1833, Red River, Genevieve Short, Metis, b-1808 daughter James Short, b-1767 and Betsey Sauteuse (Chippewa), b-1783, died April 2, 1863 Red River. 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition shot a Montana Peigan man in the back, claiming he attempted to steal a gun.  As a result no white-man was allowed in the Peigan Territory.  Lewis and Clark pronounced the Great Plains as a desert and as being barren.  Zebulon Pike announced that Pikes Peak, which he discovered, would probably never be climbed, and that most of the plains were too desert like to be able to support a white population.  The one benefit he saw was that it would limit the people of the United States who are prone to rambling and extending themselves on the frontiers. 

Upper Mississippi River, country marriage Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis son Joseph Renville (1754-1795) a trader of the Mississippi and Miniyuhe sister Mdewakanton Chief Little Crow - Big Thunder a Dakota of the village Petit Corbeaux; Akipa married about 1806 Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).   Akipa departed Prairie du Chien 1805 with the Pike expedition up the Mississippi River to its source.

Spring: At Chesterfield House, the North West Company is under siege by the Blackfoot, and the men escaped through trickery.  This area would be abandoned for the next 16 years.

(I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, arrived Moose Factory (Ontario) in HBC employ (1806-1809).  (I)- John Scarth (1763/70-1833), who came over with her, kept the girls identity quiet and was intimate with her.  She became pregnant and delivered a boy (II)-James Scarth on December 29, 1807.  She and her son were returned to Orkney in September, 1809.  HBC records say (I)-John Scarth (1763/70-1833) was at Albany River HBC (1789-1812) and York Factory (1813-1818) then retiring Red River.  He married 1822 Red River Nelly a Cree woman b-1790 widow James Sauderson Metis b-1785
    Mary Saunderson Metis bapt 1821
    Betsy Saunderson Metis bapt 1821

Rupert's House:  John Robertson deserted the Hudson Bay Company and his Indian wife for the North West Company.  The father-in-law tracked down Robertson and executed him for callous abandonment.  An unknown Cree summarized the actions of the British Hudson Bay Company men as follows:  They take women not for wives, but use them as sluts, to satisfy their animal lust, and when they are satisfied, they cast them off and another one takes her for the same purpose.  (I)-James Isham, a bigamist, with a wife in Britain and Canada, reported that the offspring of Hudson Bay Men and Indian women are pretty numerous.  It is noteworthy that Hudson Bay records made no distinction between Indian and Metis peoples.

Stuart's Lake Post (later Fort St James) was built this year.

The anger of the Cree was becoming so intense, because of the Scottish bestiality towards their women, that the North West Company resolved that no man whatsoever, either partner, clerk or engage, shall take, under any pretense, any woman from any tribe to live with him in the fashion of the North West.

Dr. John McLoughlin wintered Vermilion Lake, close to Rainy Lake Fort.

Rousseau, the free trader, dispatched Monsieur Delorme to trade north of Lake Superior, and had to abandon their trade goods as a result of North West Company harassment.  They settled out of court for losses of goods but not labor, and that would be a recurring event.  

NWC issued a directive that employees should only marry Metis women as the company is already supporting them.  The marrying of native women that increases trade is still encouraged.

In York (Toronto), English advertisements are still offering slaves for sale.  The price of a woman is one hundred and fifty dollars.  It is noteworthy that Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) is a strong believer in the racial inferiority of Africans, and I am sure this also implies to American Indians.  George Washington had many slaves at his estate.  This racial philosophy of slavery based on inferiority can be traced back to the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).  These perverted men are likely unaware of the origins of their beliefs. 

(V)-Archange Cadotte, (b-1798) moved to Sault Ste Marie and claimed, in 1836, to have lived there for the next 30 years.

Marie Anne Gaboury, Metis? born August 15, 1780, Quebec, died December 14, 1875 daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown, illuminate wife of Jean Baptist Lagimodiere Metis?, born December 26, 1778, died, September 7, 1855 (also married to Josephte Indian), arrived in August at the Red River Metis Colony, being the first known European woman in the settlement.  In fact she is French Canadian not European.  Its possible Marie Anne Gaboury (1780-1875) is a Metis.  On January 6 of the following year, while at Pembina, she had a baby girl called Reine Lagimodiere Metis? b-1807, only the second known non Metis/Indian? child born in the prairies. 

Michel Grosselin, b-1733, Quebec, married, 1806 Marguerite Assiniboine.

 Naroisse Grant, born 1806, Pembina, is reported living in this region until 1854, then listed on La Pointe Script as having moved to Alexander, Minnesota: so it was reported in 1870.

Portage La Prairie harvested potatoes, carrots, corn, onions, parsnips, beets, and turnips.  Pembina also reported harvesting cabbages and melons.  Simon Charette of Michilimackinic, formally of the Cadotte party in 1799, is killed on September 15 by a war party of 50 Dakota Sioux at Folle Avoine River, working out of Portage la Prairie.

(I)-John Johnson  (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman of de La Pointe, is trading the country around Lake Superior and Huron.  The formation of the Michilimackinac Company, which acquired the American portion of the North West Company including Fort La Pointe, is to avoid any American tariffs.  Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) remains in charge.

The Metis, according to Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) , are unable to read, yet are far from ignorant, having a better knowledge of the world and human nature than do other lower class people in most other countries.  They are unusual in that they prefer to put their knowledge at the service of others rather than use it for themselves.  Pierre Genou, alias Gagnon, and Ginan, voyager for the North West Company, left Rocky Mountain House on October 26.

The Hudson Bay Company at Big Falls is attacked by the Indians.

January 30:  Birth Pitchlynn, a.k.a. Peter Perkins Pitchlynn, a Choctaw Metis, died January 17, 1881.  He considered the treaty with General Jackson as being fraudulent to his people, and refused to shake hands with Jackson.  In 1865 he became an Indian Agent at Washington.

February:   Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike journeyed to the sources of the Mississippi.  He noted that three Ojibwa Chiefs ruled this area.  Babesigaundibay (Curly Head) ruled the Mississippi;  Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth), son of Biauswah, ruled the Sandy Lake region; and Eshkebugecoshe (Flat Mouth), the Pillagers of Leech Lake Area. 

March 28, 1806, birth Louise Piche, Metis, son Francois Joseph Piche, b-1775 and Suzanne Dakota Sioux; married May14, 1832 St. Boniface, Red River, Charlotte Genthon dit Dauphinais, b-1825, died October 3, 1844 St. Francois Xavier, Red River, daughter Michel Genthon dit Dauphinais, b-1772-81, died before 1861 and Victorie Duellette (1790-1877) .

July:  Red River des Metis:   Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, Metis? ( 1778-1855) who married 1806 Maskinonge Marie Anne Gaboury, Metis? (1780-1875), departed Quebec May, 1806 and arrived Red River des Metis July 1806.  They soon pressed on to Pembina where they lived in a tent.

April 21:  Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, Meris? a bigamist, (1778-1855) married to Marie Anne Gaboury Metis? (1780-1875) A French Canadian who is considered by some to be the first European woman in Red River.  These are the grand parents of Louis Riel.

May 20:  Simon Fraiser (1776-1862) and John Stuart (1779-1847) named New Caledonia, and sent the first recorded furs from the region to Dunvegan, Alberta.

June 24:  Agreement between (I)-Robert Dickson, a..ka. Mascotapah (1768-1823), and Company,  (I)-James Aird (d-1819) and also for his late brother George Aird, Jacob Franks and Wilmot, and the James and Andrew McGill and Company (James McGill for his late brother Andrew McGill, Thomas Blackwood and Francois DesRivieres of Montreal; the former was indebt to the latter.

July 19:   New Fort is renamed For William in honor of William McGilvray.  Doctor McLaughlin is posed at Sturgeon Lake, which is North West of Fort William.  Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) and James Leith wintered at Pic and Michipcotton.

September 3, (I)-James Aird (d-1819) was in charge of the Missouri trade when he met Lewis and Clark on their return from the Pacific, between the mouth of the Vermilion River and the mouth of the Big Sioux River (Missouri)

September 9:  (I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, departed Albany in HBC employ (1806-1809) with (I)- John Scarth (1763/70-1833), who came with her, but kept the girls identity quiet and was intimate with her.  

October 11:  Red River des Metis, birth, William Saunders, Metis, son David Saunders and Marie Native; married Mary Alder, b-1810, daughter, Charles Alder and Mary.

November 29:  Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, birth (II)-Andrew Fidler, Metis, son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Swampy Cree, Indian (1771-1826); married 1832, Nancy Ann Hallet, Metis born May 31, 1809 Red River des Metis daughter Henry Hallett and Catherine Cree.

December 21:  York Factory, death (I)-James Sutherland (1768/72-1806) employed HBC (1787-1806) he may be the first husband of Nancy Cook, Indian or Metis, who married William Garrioch? Children recorded are (II)-James Sutherland, Metis and (II)-William Sutherland, Metis.

December 29, Moose Factory, birth (II)-baby boy  Scarth son (I)-John Scarth and (I)-Isabel Gunn (1780-1861) both of Orkney.

 

1807  

Nine births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

Andre Carriere, Metis born July 28, 1807, Red River des Metis son Andre Carrier, b-1782, Canada (son Joseph Carriere and Marguerite St. Sauvem (Sauveur)) and Angelique Dion, Metis b-1787/91 (daughter Thomas Dion and Cree Woman): married February 22, 1830 St. Boniface, Red River, Marie Anne Rivard, b-1809, Red River des Metis daughter Jean Baptiste Rivard, b-1772 and Therese Bellanger, b-1778

(II)-Horatio Nelson Calder Metis (1807-1885) son (I)-John Calder of York Factory and Indian Woman, joined HBC 1820-1823) Berens River and Cumberland, then retired to Red River, married 1830 Nancy Rein
    (III)-Sarah Calder Metis bapt 1831
    (III)-Letitia Calder Metis bapt 1833 died 1836
    (III)-John (James) Calder Metis b-1825, bapt 1836, married 1846, Maria Gibson
    (III)-Sophia Calder Metis bapt 1838
    (III)-Nelson Calder Metis bapt1840    

Benjamin Cloutier, Ojibwa Metis, b-1807, arrived 1828 Mackinac son Charles Cloutier, Ojibwa Metis, b-1778, arrived 1828 Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

John Colter arrived at Powerful, Wyoming to trap and trade furs.

Francois Desmarais, Metis, b-1807, NWT, son Francois Desmaris Sr. b-1784 to 1788 married 1803 NWT, Eliget (Elizet) Desmarais native. 

Walter Faries Metis (1807-1881) born Indian country joined HBC (1827-1881) Kinogumissee in Ruperts Land, married 1845 (II)-Hannah Hardisty Metis (1820-1894) born Moose Factory, daughter (I)-Richard Hardisty Sr. and (II)-Margaret Sutherland Metis (1802-1876) 

Eastman, birth (II)-Charles Gladman, Metis b-1807 son (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858)

Antoine Gosselin, Metis, b-1807 son Michel Grosselin, b-1733, Quebec and Marguerite Assiniboine; married Marie Roy, Metis, b-1806 daughter Jean Baptiste Roy, b-1783 and Marguerite a Native, b-1788.

(I)-Isabel Gunn aka (I)- John Fubbister (1780-1861) traveled to Martin Falls with (I)-John Scarth b-1807 from Henley House, then departed for Red River and Pembina.  

Alexander Henry the Younger,  (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791 is at Fort William (Ontario) for the annual rendezvous.

R. Dickson Co. sent Jean Baptiste LeBlanc to Lac Superior.

(I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810), a Spaniard of St. Louis, Missouri, is at the Mandan Village on the Missouri River with Manuel Lisa, and are having problems with the Blackfoot.

Green Bay, marriage Joseph Campinne (Camanne) to Charlotte Roy Metis b-1785 daughter  Francois Roy Metis son Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew; 

Simon Fraser (1776-1862) joined NWC 1792 Montreal and became a partner in 1801.  He descended the Fraser River thinking he was on the Columbia River.

(I)-John Garton Sr. (1784-1831) Whale River, Albany River, Moose Factory where he died
    (II)-John Garton Jr. Metis (1828-1911) joined HBC (1847-1888) Fort Coulonge, Moose, Red River, married (II)-Mary Spencer b-1837 daughter (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861)

Joseph Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) wintered St. Peters River (Minnesota River) for the Francois Freniere & Co.

(III)-Edward Kipling, Metis b-1807 Red River des Metis, died after 1870, son (II)-John Kipling, Metis, (1781-1825 or 1849) and Nancy Saulteuse (1778-1840/43); married June 3, 1835, Nancy b-1811 died after 1870. 

Red River des Metis, birth, LeReine Lagemoniere, Metis, born January 6, 1807 (mother is Josephte) daughter Jean Baptiste Lagemoniere, a bigamist, born December 26, 1778, died September 7, 1855, married 1st Josephte Indian and  married 1806 Maskinouge, Marie Anne Gaboury, born August 15, 1780, Quebec, died Decenber, 1875 daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown.  Possible (IV)-Joseph Gaboury b-1735 and his second wife Genevieve Toupin, veuve de Nicolas QAmiot-Villneuve.   Marie Anne Gaboury claimed to have the first European child born in Red River and Fort Edmonton but it is likely she was a Metis.  LeReine married 1823 Red River, Joseph Lamere Sr.

(I)-John Lee Lewes (Lewis) (1792-1872) joined HBC (1807-1852), assigned (1807-1815) Churchill, Nelson House, Deer's Lake, Cumberland House and Ile-a-la-Crosse; (1815-1821) Slave Lake and lesser Slave Lake; (1821-1823) Spokane House; (1823-1828) Moose; (1840-1844) Mackenzie River; (1845-1847) New Caledonia  
Married (II)-Francoise (Jean-Jane) Ballenden Metis (1790/1800-1889)  daughter (I)-John Ballenden b-1757 and Cree Indian.
    (II)-Francoise (Frances) Ballenden Lewes Metis b-1812 Cumberland House, widowed 1870 
    (II)-Adolphus Lewes Metis (1821-1856) educated England (1826-1839) joined HBC (1839-1853)
    (II)-Albert Lewes Metis bapt 1833 Oxford House
    (II)-Federic (Frederick) Lewes Metis bapt 1833 Oxford House
    (II)-Emma Lewes Metis bapt 1835 Oxford House
    (II)-John George Lewes Metis bapt 1835 Oxford House
    (II)-Elizabeth Lee Lewes Metis bapt (1837-1897) married 1872  (I)-William Douglas Lane (1819-1882)
    (II)-Nancy (Anne) Lee Lewes Metis bapt ( 1842-1930)


Dakota, birth Joseph Renville Metis (about 1807-1856) son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); 1st married Marie and 2nd marriage (IV)-Tenosia Armatender/Ermatinger Metis?.  

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), marriage Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  son Nicolas Basile Hudson Beaulieu and Marie Josette Miville;  married Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790 daughter Waviishgaugauge or White Raven, grand daughter Keesh-ke-mun.  

Nemaha Territory, Missouri, birth Comanaka/Comanna Dorion, Metis born about 1807, child  Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow).  It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist also married to a Iowa woman.  See 1780

Jean Marie Cardinal Jr. (about 1771-1823) son Jean Marie Cardinal Sr. (about 1729-1780) and Omaha slave (Panis MaHa); married Elisabeth (Isabel) Antaya Peltier and had the following Metis children, Eustache b-1808, Helie b-1810, Pierre b-1812, Julien b-1821 and Paul.

James Inkster born 1807 Red River des Metis Settlement son James Inkster, living St. Johns, Red River 1870.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) came up the Missouri River with two keelboats and a brigade of more than 50 men, ascending the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers to the mouth of the Bighorn River, Montana where he established a trading post.

Gabriel Louisignan, Ottawa Metis, b-1807, arrived January 1936, Detroit, son Francis Louisignon, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as lives in Detroit.

Benjamin McKenzie Metis (1807-1837) son Rodrick McKenzie and Angelique (1784-1859) worked (1825-1826) Lake Superior, joined HBC (1831-1837) New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.  He claimed to originate with the Nipigeon Indian Band.  He also lived Montreal.  He married February 28, 1837 Fort Vancouver Catherine Campbell Metis b-1815 daughter Colin Campbell b-1790 and Elizabeth Mc Gillivray Metis b-1801. They had two children:
    Colin Campbell McKenzie Metis bap-1837
    Benjamin McKenzie Metis bap-1837
Widow Catherine Campbell married William Clouston b-1823 at Red River.

Louis Montret (Montrel & Montre) Metis born Red River area likely son Joseph Montre and a Dakota woman, joined HBC (1839-1850) assigned Fort Simpson and in 1842 assigned Fort Stikine Columbia District.

Joseph Nedeau (Nadeau), Metis b-1807, Red River des Metis, voyager, son Denis Nadeau, b-1754 and Madeleine a Native;  married Susanna Boutdon, Metis b-1808/13 Pembina, Red River.

Catherine Normand, Metis, born 1807, Canada daughter Ambroise Normand, living Red River 1870.

(II)-Omand Norquay, Metis b-1785 son (I)-Oman Norquay (1773-1820) and (II)-Jane Morwick, Metis, married 1807, (II)-Jane Morwick, Metis b-1794 daughter of a man named Morwick and a Native Woman.

Mary Anne Perault, Ottawa Metis, b-1807 Mackinac, wife Of Jean Baptiste Perault, Ottawa Metis and Ottawa Metis Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Sister of Michael Jeaudrau Jr. b-1803 Mackinac.  

George Racette, b-1807, Fort Pelly (Saskatchewan), N.W.T. son Charles Racette b-1766 North West Territories married about 1802, Josephte (Francoise) Sauteuse a Chippewa Native b-1780, North West Territories; married July 6, 1829, St. Boniface, Red River, Marie Francoise Guilbeau, b-1808, died July 19, 1862.

(II)-William Richards, Metis d-1811 married (II)-Eleanor Thomas, Metis born November 22, 1780 daughter (I)-John Thomas Sr.(1751-1822)  

Oxford House, birth (II)-John Sinclair, Metis b-1807 son (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married Elizabeth

(II)-George Spence Metis b-1792 son (I)-James Spence (1754-1795) and Nesticho (Nostisho) (1768-1829); Joined HBC (1807-1810) York & (1810-1819) Saskatchewan District Fort Edmonton, retired Red River 1824, married 1821Nancy (Anne) Ward daughter (I)-John Ward HBC (1788-1796) ran away, freeman Saskatchewan River
    (III)-Ann Spence Metis bapt 1821
    (III)-Joseph Spence Metis bapt 1822
    (III)-James Spence Metis bapt 1824
    (III)-George Spence Metis bapt 1827
    (III)-Margaret Spence Metis bapt 1830
    (III)-Betsy Spence Metis bapt 1832
    (III)-Archibald Spence Metis bapt 1834
    (III)-Andrew Spence Metis bapt 1837
    (III)-John Spence Metis b-1840

(I)-George? (John) Spence, b-1773 an Orkney man and Catherine? Tche-tchit, a Swampy Cree Indian woman, they were churched 1828 in St. John's Anglican church;  (I)-George arrive before 1806 but  likely after 1790 and was working Cumberland House when he most likely country married.  We may have wrong father or some children are brothers or sisters??
    (I)-Peter Spence Metis (1777-1855) HBC (1800-1849) 
    (II?)-Jacob Spence Metis
    (II)-Jean Baptiste Spence aka We-tcha-mash, (Weetchamash) Metis born 1807 Waskahikanihk (Cumberland House), N.W.T. died about 1889,
    (II?)-Elizabeth Spence Metis
    (II?)-Catherine Spence Metis married (I)-Charles Begg (1814/15-1902)
    

(II)-Jean Baptiste Spence aka We-tcha-mash, (Weetchamash) Metis born 1807 Waskahikanihk (Cumberland House), N.W.T. died about 1889,  son  (I)-George? (John) Spence, b-1773 an Orkney man and Catherine? Tche-tchit, a Swampy Cree Indian woman, they were churched 1828 in St. John's Anglican church; (II)-Jean married 1834 at Baie St. Paul, (Manitoba) Marie Roulette Matwewenin Roulette, b-1816 Red River, died October 22, 1903 Ste Rose du Lac. daughter Joseph Mettwaywenin Roulette and Marie Tepe-nawa-banook.   Source Ida A. Spence  I find this hard to believe that an Orkney man would give his son a French name.  'Jean Baptiste' is very special to the French but is meaningless to the English.  This suggest he might have been abandoned or orphaned.  He lived in Cumberland House, moved to the Pas and Red River by 1828 

            SEVEN CHILDREN ARE RECORDED

    (III)-Jean Baptiste Spence Jr. Metis, b-1835 near Sandy Bay (Manitoba) died December 16, 1897 Ste Rose du Lac. married 1st September 1, 1858 Josephte Saulteaux; 2nd marriage August 24, 1864 Marie Kijipayashik a Saulteaux; 3rd marriage June 17, 1867 Lalouise Fisher, Metis, b-1850, died January 11, 1932
    (III)-Marie Spense Metis, b-1850/52, Gladstone, married 1871 to Louison Lacouette
    (III)-Louison Spence, Metis b-1853/54, Totogan (Westbourne), married Lisette Lacouette
    (III)-John Spence, Metis, b-1856, Totogan (Westbourne), married Marguerite Lacouette
    (III)-Ellen Spence, Metis, b-1858, Totogan (Westbourne), married William Richard
    (III)-Elise Spence, Metis, b-1860, Totogan (Westbourne), married Alex Campbell Jr.
    (III)-Paul Spence, Metis, baptised 1859 St. Francois Xavier, died before 1870
    (III)-Unknown Spence, Metis born and died before 1870 
            

Fort Kaministiqua is renamed Fort William..

The North West Company abandoned trading with the Mandan and Missouri Indians.

The Mackinac Notary Book, 1806-1818, recorded that in 1807, thirty five independent traders are listed, and by next year they began to form into partnerships, especially under the Mackinac Fur Company name.  This would only last about three years (1808-1810).  

John Askin Jr,. a Metis, is stationed at Fort St. Joseph.  He noted that the coin of the country is called whiskey.

The Hudson Bay Company opened its first school at York Factory in response to requests by parents of Indian and Half-breed  (Metis) children.  The first teacher is the surgeon of the Post.  The Company requested Clergymen for teachers, but none could be found who would leave Britain on any terms.

Pointe a la Gourgaine (Gourgane) is the name given to the north entrance to the Nipigon Strait.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) built Fort George (Prince George) this year at the confluence of the Nechako and Frazier Rivers..

Horses were noted at Leech Lake.

John Colter (1774-1813) of the Louis and Clark expedition, who became a trapper, discovered the geothermal activity in the Yellowstone area.  He is attributed to have visited the sources of the Missouri, Snake and Green Rivers. .

The Beaver Club of Montreal debated changing their name to the Voyager Club of Montreal.

The New Fort at Thunder Bay, Ontario is renamed Fort William and this fort would last until 1880.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, built Fort George built Fort George (Prince George).

The Journal entry of 1807 says Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere, b-1778, Louis Paquim, Charles Bellegarade are all married to Cree Women departed Grand Camp near Fort Pembina for the Saskatchewan River, to Fort Prairie (Edmonton).   Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere, b-1778, Joseph Paquim, Michel Genthon Dauphinas and Charles Bellegarade formed a company in 1806 to trade in the West .

January 6:  Pembina, Red River, birth Reine Lagimodiere Metis? daughter  Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere,(1778-1855) and 2nd wife Marie Anne Gaboury, Metis (1780-1875) a French Canadian daughter Joseph Gaboury and Unklnown.  It is believed by some that she is the first European baby born in the North West Territories.  Jean Baptiste is also currently married Josephite an Indian of Red River with three daughters.    The French/Canadians who were settled in Pembina all were married, country style, to Indian women.   

February 12: birth (II)-George Holmes, baptized October 4, 1820, Sandy Bar & Jack Head, Winnipeg District son (I)-John Pocock Holmes (1783-1858) employed HBC (1805-1821) married 1806, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), epouse 1798 Fort York (I)-Thomas Stayer (1770-1827):

March 11: Churchill, death (I)-George Charles leaving Indian or Metis wife and one child (II)-Joseph Charles, Metis.

May 21: (I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, departed Albany for Red River/Pembina in employ with HBC with husband (I)- John Scarth (1763/70-1833), who came over with her, kept the girls identity quiet and was intimate with her. 

June 10:   Tou-Paint Gareau is employed by (IV)-Augustin Grignon at 600 livers, to winter south of Michilimackinac.

June 10:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Francois Freniere engaged (IV)-Benjamin Cadott Metis b-1785, Dominac Le Roux and Pierre Pierojai to winter the Mississippi.

June 10:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Augustin Grignion engaged Fraissen Gareau, Geoffroi Bourdeau and Geoffroi Waweh to winter in the south.

June 12:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Giasson and Berthelot engaged Noel Gernie, Pierre Banje and Joseph LeBlanc to winter the Mississippi.

(I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, employed HBC 1806-1809 arrived Martins Falls, and on to Red River and Pembina in the fall,

June 23:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent (IV)-Benjamin Cadotte Metis b-1785 to River St. Peter.

June 30:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Pierre Gladeau to Prairie du Chien.

June 30:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823)  employs Pierre Giroux, Poette Bourgare, Touissant Robidoux, John Lessard and Alexis Buissett at 550 liver to winter at Nipey.

July 5:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent John B. Cadotte north.

July 7:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Messrs. Dickson, Crawford and Company engaged Pierre Charrett, Joseph Gagnon b-1766 and Benjamin Payans to winter Fond Du Lac, Minnesota.

July 7:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rocheblave and Pollier engaged Pierre Giroux to winter Lac Du Flambeau that is Southeast of La Pointe.

July 9:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Nolin sent Jean Baptiste Decauteau, Theodore Pillion & Jean T. Nolin to Lake Superior. 

July 9:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Metis (1776-1853) sent Francois St. George, Hycinthe Tebeau and Jean Baptiste Crevillion to Lake Superior. 

July 11:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Jean Baptiste Monbuin and Thomas Conner to Lake Superior. 

July 12:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Jacques Nasseur to Lake Superior. 

July 18:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Paul Bourke to the Missouri, River.

July 19:  Sault St. Marie, birth Catherine Martineau daughter Ambroise Martineau and Charlote.

July 21:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Louis Dugal to the Missouri, River.

July 21:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rockblave & Pollier sent Louis Dugal, Louis Fournier, Jean Baptiste Lanschagrin, Jean Baptiste Boicour, and Etiene Precour to the Missouri, River.

July 24:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rockblave & Pollier sent Jean Baptiste Tission to Missouri River.

July 25:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Joseph Masay to the Missouri River.

July 25:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Tousaint Pothier sent Chrisostome Ponca to the Missouri River.

July 25:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Brutor sent Gabrial Ayott and Jean Baptiste Roie to the Missouri River.

July 25:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that George Lagotherie sent Toumie Matlet to the Missouri River.

July 25:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Julien Perat, Dominique, Joseph Calle, Etienne Bariteau and Joseph Bellaire to the Mississippi/Missouri Rivers.

July 26:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Alexis Bruneau to the Mississippi/Missouri Rivers. 

July 28:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent John B. Bele to the Missouri River.

July 29:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Bruyeur sent Francois Manseau & Michel Briyen to the Missouri River.

July 29:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Pierre Gereau to St. Joseph.  

July 31:   Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Jean Baptiste Gireux & Joseph Perrault to the Missouri River.

August 12:  Moose Lake, birth (II)-Mary Kennedy, Metis daughter (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: married August 12, 1821, (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836)

October 10:  Nemiscau, Eastman District, birth (II)-Mary Hawthorn, Metis daughter (I)-Hamlett Henry Hawthorn d-1782, employee HBC (1803-1812) and (II)-Elizabeth Bolland, Metis (1757-1810), during childbirth

December:   (I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) became U.S. Indian Sub-Agent at Prairie du Chein.

December 4:   Birth George Harmon, Metis son Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) and Snare Indian slave girl, age 14 years, his wife.  The Snare Indians live along the Rocky Mountains.  This is noteworthy because earlier he said country wives are no better than concubinage.

December 25: Cumberland House, birth, (II)-Andrew Dunnet, Metis , baptized June 5, 1823 Red River son (I)-William Dunnet aka Dunnett, Dennet (1780-1864) employed HBC (1796-1821) and (II)-Sophia Ballendine, Metis, b-1791: married 1st, (IV)-Ellen Moore (1818-1838); married 2nd September 26, 1838, Mary Martinois.

December 28, Doctor McLaughlin, with two Canadians and one Native, visit Holdane at Red Lake.

December 29: (I)-John Fubbister, alias (I)-Isabel Gunn (1780-1861), a H.B.C. servant, arrived at the post of Alexander Henry the Younger,  (1764-1814) at Pembina and begged for help.  He/she is a pregnant Orkney girl who is presently in childbirth.  The Orkney ((I)-John Scarth (1763/1770-1833) who had intimate with her but kept it a secret is wintering at Grandes Fourches (an outpost of Red River).  She delivered a healthy boy (II)-James Scarth within the hour, and is conveyed home May 1808.  (II)-John Kipling Metis (1781-1825) of the H.B.C. noted that one of our men turned out to be a woman and is delivered of a fine boy in Mr. Henry's NWC house.   (I)-John Scarth returned to Orkney in 1812.  Isabel stayed at Albany until 1809.

December 29:  NWC house, Pembina, birth (II)-James Scarth son (I)-John Scarth, Orknay (1763/1770-1833) and (I)-Isabel Gunn alias John Fubbister, who came out dressed as a man. This is the first recorded European birth in the Red River/Pembina area.  (II)- James second marriage June 18, 1822 likely Red River to Nelly Cree Indian, b-1790 widow of James Saunderson, James Saunderson and Nelly had two Metis daughters Mary & Betsy baptized 1821.

 

1808 

Angelique Beauchamp, Ottawa Metis, b-1808 Grand River, wife of Charles Beauchamp, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Pierre Bercier Sr. d-1830 of the N.W.C. is in Columbia Territory (Oregon Territory) and married Emelie Finlay.

Jean Baptiste Bercier, Metis, b-1808, N.W.T., d-1881, son Alexis Bercier, b-1772 and Josephte a Native (1783-1853); married, Marie St. Pierre, Metis, b-1815, N.W.T., daughter, Francois St. Pierre and Marguerite Houle, Metis. 

York Facrory, birth (III)-William Birston, Metis son (II)-Alexander Birston, Metis (1774-1829) and Indian woman died before 1821: married December 31, 1833, Mary Kirkness b-1818 daughter William Kirkness; daughter 
    (IV)-Margaret Birston, Metis born June 11, 1838, married James Flett..

Jean Baptiste Morin married Francoise Bonneau, Metis, b-1805 N.W. daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died 1842 Red River and Louise Native, b-1760

Elisabeth Caldar born 1808, Red River, daughter, J. Calder, living St. Andrew, Red River 1870.

(I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808), who became U.S. Indian Sub-Agent at Prairie du Chein, is killed in a duel with trader Redford Crawford; Campbell's former trading associate.  (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) was acting as Redford's second.  John left seven Metis children to fend for themselves as his Dakota wife died in 1801.

(III)-Ronald Cameron brother (III)-John Dugald Cameron (1770-1857) became a partner of N.W.C. and served at Lac des Isles (Island Lake, N.E., Manitoba) until 1815. 

Prairie du Chien, birth Bernard W. Brisbois, Metis died 1885 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1830 Therese Lachapelle.

Antoine Chonette?, Metis, b-1808 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1`836 treaty.  Rejected as Hilliday says they are from Font du Lac origin.

(I)-James Clouston b-1788 joined HBC (1808-1827) Eastman, Moose, Rupert's River.  

John B. Corbin is recorded as commandant at the Lac Coutereille post.

Wenona Crawford born 1808 Minnesota.

Charles Desmarais, Metis, b-1808, Red River des Metis son Francois Desmaris Sr. b-1784 to 1788 married 1803 NWT, Eliget (Elizet) Desmarais native. 

Paul Dorion Metis born 1808/09 likely in Beaverhead, Montana died 1889 on the Iowa/Sac/Fox reservation in Doniphan County, Kansas son Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin; Paul married 1st Fasvhimpiimi (My Horse Comes out Horse), 2nd marriage Mary Atoktisau.  See 1780.

Birth, Old North West Region (II)-Helen (Ellen) Dickson Metis (1808-1884) daughter (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin;  She married 1st. Joseph R. Brown and 2nd marriage Moses Arconge.

Michilimackinac, birth or baptism? (IV)-James Rough Ermatinger Metis (1808-1866) son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.  James married 1829 (V)-Charlotte Cadotte Metis (1805-1887) daughter (IV)-Michel Cadotte and Madeleine Equaysaguay.

Red River Settlement, birth (IV)-Madeleine (Striped Cloud) Ermatinger Metis daughter (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.  She married William Anderson. Aitken

Red River Settlement or Sault Ste Marie, birth/bapt (IV)-William Ermatinger Metis son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

Red River Settlement or Sault Ste Marie, birth/bapt (IV)-Jane Ermatinger Metis daughter (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.  She married 1840 Edward S. Lovell.

(I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, is employed by HBC (1806-1809) but is assigned a Job as washerwoman although she made 6 inland trips as far as Red River..  She and her son (II)-James Scarth Metis were returned to Orkney in September, 1809 and it was written "We cannot think of keeping this Woman any longer, as she is of bad Character, and has not answered the intensions for which she was detained".  She ended up as a stocking knitter and mitten maker not as the first HBC voyager   

(III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe), who died in 1880, were firmly established at Sault Ste Marie by 1816, but were connected to the Hudson Bay Company and Lord Selkirk.  They retired to Montreal in 1828. 

Red River Settlement, birth/bapt (IV)-Jemima Ermatinger Metis (1800-1817?) daughter (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Ojibwa Metis (1776-1833) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.   Jemima married Captain Cameron.  (I)-Duncan Cameron a Scot (1764-1848) often presented himself as Captain, Voyager Corps, Commanding Officer, of Red River. In 1820 Duncan the Scott abandoned his wife and Metis family to marry Margaret McLeod

Eastman, birth (II)-Charles Henry Gladman, Metis (1808-1816) son  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858)

(I)-Isabel Gunn alias (I)- John Fubbister (1780-1861) traveled to Albany with her new son (II)-James Scarth from Pembina and was employed HBC (1808-1809) as a washerwoman.  She was discharged September 20, 1809 and returned to Orkney.

(I)-James Harper (1783-1820) joined HBC (1808-1820) Albany River, died at Moose, married Mary an Indian or Metis
    (II)-James Harper Metis (1813-1887)
    (II)-Sophia Harper Metis
    (II)-William Harper Metis d-young

Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791 is at Red River des Metis and writes: "Buffalo in great abundance.  Filled the ice house with ice and fresh meat.  Transplanted a few cabbages that escaped the grasshoppers.  My hens began to lay, all her chicks are now well grown."  Just as he is settling down he is relocated to the Saskatchewan District.

John Haldane d-1857 a former XY Company man, now a NWC man and his aggressive tactics precipitated the fracas with the H.B.C. at Eagle Lake with resulted in the death of Aeneas Macdonell a N.W.C. clerk. 

Antoine Hoole Metis b-1808 joined HBC (1824-1828) east of Rockies, HBC (1828-1834) Columbia District.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Margaret Hudon (1808-1896 Metis daughter  Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838)  and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Martin Bisson.  

(I)-William Harper (1783-1820) joined HBC (1808-1820) Albany but died at Moose, married Mary Indian
    (II)-James Harper Metis (1813-1887) born Albany married (III)-Charlotte Turner (1827-1841) and 2nd wife unnamed Martin Falls
    (II)-Sophia Harper Metis  born Albany
    (II)-William Harper Metis died young in care of Cox

John T. Jones, Ojibwa Metis, b-1808, arrived 1834 Grand River son Jones and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(III)-Edward Kipling, Metis, b-1807 son (II)-John (James) Kipling, Metis, b-1781, Red River des Metis, (Hudson Bay) died September 25, 1825, Red River, and Nancy a Native, b-1840/1843. 

James Kipp (1788-1880) is at Red River in the employ of the N.W.C.

Angelique P. La Sieur, Ojibwa Metis, b-1808, arrived 1828 Mackinac, wife of Edward La Sieur and sister Catherine St. Onge, Ojibwa Metis b-1810, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere, a bigamist, born December 26, 1778, died September 7, 1855 from Maskinonge, Quebec had a child, who was born in Pembina, Red River, this year, with his Canadian bride, claiming it to be the first legitimate white child born on the Red River. This assumes that a country marriage between man, woman and God is not legitimate. It is also claimed to be the second white child born on the Red River.

1808 Jean Baptiste Lamoureux a Creole Metis d-1814, from Louisiana joined NWC (1808-1814) at Maskinoonge, Quebec. 
In 1808/1809 he traveled with David Thompson (1770-1857) and Alexander Henry (1764-1814) from Boggy Hall/White Earth house to the Rocky Mountains.  Boggy Hall Post is on the North Saskatchewan just above Blue Rapids at the mouth of the Brazeau River.
September 28, 1811 he went down the Columbia from Canoe River to meet Finan McDonald (1782-1851).
August 5, 1814 he departed Fort George, Columbia District with Ross Cox party for the Dalles where they were attacked by the Indians and Lamoureux was killed.

Francois Lavoy married White Feather aka Marie Gouin, a Potawatomi Indian and settled near Fort Detroit, they later moved south to Monroe County.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) built a fort at the mouth of the Bighorn River and named it Fort Raymond aka Fort Manuel.  Edward Rose aka Cut Nose and Five Scalps, a Metis being the son of a white trader and a Cherokee/Nigro woman helped build Fort Raymond. 

Mary McGulpin, Ottawa Metis, b-1808 Mackinac wife David McGulpin and Ottawa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Dr. John McLoughlin is on Sturgeon Lake in the Nipigon Department.

(III)-Thomas McNab born 1808 North West son (II)-Thomas McNab (b-1782) also North West, census 1838 Red River.  Son (II)-John McNab (b-1806) also listed.

Elizabeth Martell, Metis b-1808 Red River des Metis married about 1830 had children until 1844 all Red River.

Joseph Montreuille, Metis b-1808, Pembina, a hunter, son Pierre Montreuille, b-1771, died August 12, 1829, Red River and unknow; married Isabelle Bottineau Migizi, (b1805/09) or b-1817, Red River des Metis, daughter Pewinaakwan and Margaret Ahdik Songab aka Marthe Clear Sky. 

John Morwick, Metis, b-1787 son man named Morwick and a Native Woman; married Isabella Norquay, b-1808 daughter (I)-Omand Norquay, b-1785 and Jane Morwick, b-1794.

Paradise, Montana, birth, Francois Rivet, Metis, son Francois Rivet b-1754, Quebec d-1852 and Theresa Tete Platte a Flathead Indian.

Lisette Piquette, Metis, b-1808, arrived 1828 Sault Ste Marie, wife (IV)-Joseph Piquette 2nd, Ojibwa Metis  b-1801, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as Holliday says they are of Font du Lac origin.

Albany, Birth, (II)-Jane Prince, Metis daughter (I)-Mark Prince b-1761 and Indian woman; married January 8, 1828, Red River (II)-George Tayler Jr. surveyor.

(I)-John James Smith (1791-1850) joined HBC (1808-1824) Albany, Martin's Fall retired Red River.  
Married 1st. 1825 Mary Indian d-1832
    (II)-Richard Smith Metis b-1818
    (II)-John Smith Metis b-1821
    (II)-William Smith Metis b-1823
    (II)-Harriet Smith Metis b-1825
    (II)-Charlotte Smith Metis d-1828
    (II)-Catherine Smith Metis b-1830
    (II)-Mary Smith Metis b-1831
Married 2nd. 1838 Nancy Favel Metis
    (II)-Henry Smith Metis b-1839
    (II)-James Smith Metis b-1841
    (II)-Thomas Smith Metis b-1843
    (II)-Ann Elizabeth Smith Metis b-1846
    (II)-Samual Smith Metis b-1848

(I)-Peter Spence Sr. (1777-1855) married about 1808 Moose River, churched November 8, 1819 Vaudreuil, (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis (1788-1843) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) 

Antoine Trotier, Ottawa Metis, b-1808, arrived 1835 Green Bay, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Removed to Green Bay in July 1835.

The formation of the American Fur Company (1808-1842) this year is an effort to avoid American taxes.  (I)-John Jacob Astor (1763-1848), a German, is instrumental in its creation, and he controlled the company until 1834. Jacob said he would rather have one Canadian canoe-man than three American canoe-men.

The Hudson Bay Company, despite using the Hudson Bay for over a century never, surveyed the area nor made charts to guide the ships.

The Free-traders at The Pas have a thriving business, selling salt to the passing traders solely for flavoring.  

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) is offered a job as interpreter in the Indian Department, replacing John Askin, Jr. at St. Joseph's.  Cadotte is reported living with his Metis wife, Sauge-mauqua (Marie Janette Piquette), in a small house on the river, east of where the fish hatchery now stands in Sault Ste Marie.  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) is a well known fiddler; playing for many dances.

In Fort Vermillion, Alexander Henry the Younger, Metis (1764-1814) is transferred and takes Her Ladyship (chief Liard's daughter) of Red River with him.  He had three children with her but fails to mention her in his later journals, and their fate is unknown. This is likely speculation as he considers women an encumbrance and he had a number of wives, at least four.  One he disposed January 3, 1800, married Liatd's daughter January 1, 1801, in 1802 Bean Pere the Buffalo's daughter. and Madeleine Saulteaux, Chippewa.

Congress prohibited African slave trading, but at least a quarter of a million more slaves were illicitly imported into the United States.  It is noteworthy that inter-American slave trade was not banned and continued.

The Hudson Bay Company Fort at Reindeer Lake is attacked by Indians.

February 7:  Moose Lake, birth (II)-Alexander Kennedy, Metis baptised in Orkney May 26, 1822, son  (I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) and, Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) aka Mary Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis: 

April 3: Mackinac birth Alexis Clermont son of a Frenchman killed in the war of 1812-1815 and wife Elizabeth Therese.

May:  (I)-Isabel (Isobel or Isabella) aka Mary Gunn, (1780-1861) disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, departed Martin Falls with her son and Hugh Heney for Albany.

June:  Birth Alexis McKay, son Alexis McKay (1785-1939) and Marguerite Saulteaux (Chippewa); married Josephte Bercier, Metis, born January 6, 1818 Red River des Metis.

June 16:  On Mackinac Island was formed the Mackinac Fur Company (1808-1810) and, later, the Michilimackinac Fur Company (1809-1810), both under Canadian control.  Prior to this especially in 1807 many independent fur traders worked for whom ever they pleased.  M. Cameron & Company, Francis Frenier & Company, Robert Dickson & Company, Jean B. Caron & Company, Dickson/Crawford & Company, and many partnerships. 
The Mackinac Fur Company, which was Canadian controlled in the 1808 season (June 16, 1808 to September 3, 1808), fielded about 148 traders to the following area, Mississippi river, Missouri River, Illenois River, Rivier St. Peter, Lake Superior, Prairie du Chein (Wisconsin), Le Bay and other areas.   Louis Bisson, Jean B. Nolin, Charles Ematinger, Louis Risson, Jean Baptiste Labord, and Dennis Julien remained independent.  In 1809 Mackinac fielded 87 employees and by 1810 it had fallen to 32.   In 1809 Michilimackinac Fur Company fielded 32 traders.

June 23:  Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged (IV)-Benjamin Cadotte Metis b-1785 to winter River St. Peter.

June 30:   Cadotte and Co. sent Alexis LaValle to La Pointe, Lake Superior.  See conflict July 10, possible error by Samuel Abbott.

July 5 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged (IV)-John Baptiste Cadotte Metis (1761-1818) to winter in the North.

July 8 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Louis Bisson engaged Pierre Grignon to winter Ouisconsin.

July 9 Charles Ermateau sent Francis St. George, Hycinthe Tebeau and Jean Baptiste Crevillion to Lake Superior.

July 9 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean B. Nolan engaged Jean Baptiste DeCanteau, Jean Francois Nolin and Theodose Pillon to Lake Superior.

July 11 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Jean Baptiste Monbruin, Thomas Conner, and Jacques Vasseur to Lake Superior.

July 12: Albany (II)-Edward McKay, Metis b-1795 Albany is admitted to school, he is son of (I)-John McKay (1753-1810) and (II)-Mary Favell, Metis.  He joined HBC 1815 but deserted to NWC (1815-1821) but returned to HBC (1822-1833) working the Lake Huron District.

July 17:  The Michilimackinac Fur Company started this date and only lasted until about June 29, 1810 some folded into the Mickinac Fur Company but most went independent..

July 20 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Joseph Pierre Gueau.

August 6:  At Grand Rapid; at the North West end of Lake Winnipeg, Monsieur Perigne, a former North West Company man, is now free-trading and has set up shop.  Many Metis and free-traders live at Park River and in the Pembina Hills.  They own many horses and carts and are busy selling provisions to the Fort at Pembina, Red River.

August 8:  Red River des Metis, Alexander Henry the Younger, Metis (1764-1814) of NWC since 1791set out for Fort Vermilion (near Elk Point, Alberta).

August :  Pembina, Red River:   Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, Metis? (1778-1855), married 1806 Maskinonge to Marie Anne Gaboury, Metis?, (1780-1875) daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown, likely Crow Indian, departed Pembina for Fort Meadows (later called Fort Strong Edmonton and Fort Edmonton).  They traveled with the families of Chalifoux, Belgrade and Joseph Paquin and Marguerite Cree and two children Marguerite and Joseph Paquin-Pocha.  The reason for their move was that Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere Metis? (1778-1855) was also married to Josephte Indian since 1800 or earlier and had three baby girls (Marie Rose b-1801, Elisabeth b-1803 and LeReine b-1807) and Josephte had threatened to poison Marry Anne for stealing her husband.

August 15:  Battle River, birth 2nd child Mary Anne Gaboury, Metis and  Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere, b-1778. 

December 4:  Moose Factory birth (III)-William Richards, Metis son (II)-William Richards, Metis d-1811 and (II)-Eleanor Thomas, Metis born November 22, 1780 daughter (I)-John Thomas Sr.(1751-1822)  

December 29:  A Scottish girl at the mouth of the Pembina River on the Red River of the North is alleged to have given birth to a son.  She had joined the HBC disguised as a man to find her lover who had abandoned her in a pregnant state.  She journeyed onto the praries but failed to find him.  She then went to Pembina gave birth then home to Scotland. 

 

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